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  • 1.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Lin, Chia-feng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Hansson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Schleicher, Frank
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Mantanis, George I.
    Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Department of Forestry, Wood Sciences and Design, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Use of X-ray computed tomography for real-time studies of the fire progress in wood2023In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 2150-2152Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Balasubramanian, Karthik Babu Nilagiri
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assam Energy Institute, Centre of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, 785697, Sivasagar, Assam, India.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rantuch, Peter
    Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Jana Bottu 2781/25, 917 24 Trnava, Slovakia.
    Martinka, Jozef
    Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Jana Bottu 2781/25, 917 24 Trnava, Slovakia.
    Jiang, Lin
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 210094, Nanjing, China.
    Xu, Qiang
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 210094, Nanjing, China.
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Mohanty, Amar
    School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, 80 South Ring Road East, ON N1G 2W1, Guelph, Canada.
    Misra, Manjusri
    School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, 80 South Ring Road East, ON N1G 2W1, Guelph, Canada.
    Functionalised biochar in biocomposites: The effect of fire retardants, bioplastics and processing methods2023In: Composites Part C: Open Access, E-ISSN 2666-6820, Vol. 11, article id 100368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire retardants, although can impart fire-safety in polymeric composites, are detrimental to the mechanical properties. Biochar can be used, in conjunction with fire retardants, to create a balance between fire-safety and mechanical performance. It is possible to thermally dope fire retardants into the pores of biochar to make it functionalised. Thus, the current work is intended in identifying a composite having the combination of the most desirable fire retardant, bioplastic, and a suitable processing method. A comparison was made between two fire retardants (lanosol and ammonium polyphosphate), bioplastics (wheat gluten and polyamide 11), and composite processing methods (compression and injection moulding). It was found that wheat gluten containing ammonium polyphosphate-doped biochar made by compression moulding had the best fire-safety properties with the lowest peak heat release rate (186 kW/m2), the highest fire performance index (0.6 m2s/kW), and the lowest fire growth index (1.6 kW/ms) with acceptable mechanical properties compared to the corresponding neat bioplastic. Thus, for gluten-based polymers, the use of ammonium polyphosphate thermally doped into biochar processed by compression moulding is recommended to both simultaneously improve fire-safety and conserve the mechanical strength of the resulting biocomposites.

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  • 3.
    Dvořák, Ondřej
    et al.
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 1176, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Kvietková, Monika Sarvašová
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 1176, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Šimůnková, Kristýna
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 1176, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Machanec, Ondřej
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 1176, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Pánek, Miloš
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 1176, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Pastierovič, Filip
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 1176, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 1176, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic.
    The Influence of the Initial Treatment of Oak Wood on Increasing the Durability of Exterior Transparent Coating Systems2023In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 15, no 15, article id 3251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study determined the impact of undertaking an initial treatment of oak wood by sealing its surface pores with epoxy resin, focusing on the durability of transparent coating systems when exposed outdoors. Throughout the exposure period, various parameters including color, gloss, surface wettability, and both macroscopic and microscopic surface evaluation were continuously monitored. The study involved two sets of samples: one set underwent the pretreatment, while the other did not. Subsequently, four coating systems were applied to the samples, comprising two solvent-based and two water-based coatings. The experiment was conducted over a period of two years, utilizing natural weathering methods within the premises of the Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague. The pretreatment with epoxy resin exhibited enhanced durability for all paint systems. The analysis showed a significant difference in gloss and color after 12 months of weathering exposure without any significant effect on surface wettability and sealing. However, after 24 months of the weathering exposure, no significant differences between the sealed and unsealed surface were observed. The most significant change in properties was noted for the water-based coatings used in coating systems number 3 and 4, and these coatings were rated as the best.

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  • 4.
    Jones, Dennis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Kim, Injeong
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Garskaite, Edita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Recent studies into improved fire retardancy of wood undertaken at Luleå University of Technology.2023In: Proceedings IRG54 Scientific Conference on Wood Protection., The International Research Group on Wood Protection , 2023, article id IRG/WP 23-30784Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Jones, Dennis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, 16500 Prague, Suchdol, Czech Republic.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Kim, Injeong
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, 16500 Prague, Suchdol, Czech Republic.
    Recent studies into improving the fire retardancy of particleboards at Luleå University of Technology2023In: Proceedings of International Panel Production Symposium 2023 / [ed] Spear, M., Curling, S., Dimitriou, A, Elias, R. & Loxton, C., The BioComposite Centre, Bangor University, UK , 2023, p. 85-93Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Karlsson, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    The analysis of long-time-exposed tars from wood shingles from church roofs and facades in mid-Sweden2024In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor condition of roofs in terms of decay of shingles and loss of tar-based surface treatments has been revealed in a number of churches at various geographical locations in mid-Sweden. The condition of tars obtained from shingles of selected churches in mid-Sweden were analysed and obtained data were compared with geographical locations of the churches. According to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy result, dehydroabietic acid was the dominant compound found in the exposed tars from the churches except in church of Malung where similar amounts of retene was found. Oxidised resin acids were found in exposed tars from the churches but not in commercially available pit burned tar. Tar from church shingles had higher char residues than the pit burned tar which was totally consumed when heated under nitrogen gas up to 750°C using thermogravimetric analysis. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer analysis revealed higher amounts of silicates in some exposed tars; however, these compounds constituted only a minor portion of the organic matter in these specimens. Based on the data obtained in the study other factors rather than simply geographical location of churches seemed to be of importance to explain differences of the investigated properties of the church tars.

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  • 7.
    Karlsson, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Phosphorylation of Kraft lignin to be used as a water-stable fire retardant in wood2022In: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Wood Modification / [ed] Candelier, K., Collet, K., Dumarçay, S. et al., Nancy: University of Lorraine, Faculty of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Study and Research on the Wood Material (LERMaB) , 2022, p. 374-377Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conditions for phosphorylation of softwood kraft lignin was studied. Heating lignin at 150°C with ammonium dihydrogen phosphate water solution in the presence of urea gave a phosphor content in the worked-up product of ca. 2%. The intumescent behaviour during heating could also add to the fire stability of a potential product. In order to use lignin that has been treated with phosphoric acid as fire retardant in wood, acid removal or neutralisation is needed to obtain a final sustainable product. Water washing of phosphoric acid treated lignin led, however, to significant mass losses and a material that under suitable phosphorylation conditions (low temperature and shorter periods) could be efficiently solubilised in alkaline water.

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  • 8.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Innovative Water-Resistant Fire-Retardant Wood incorporating Ammonium Phosphate-based salts for Exterior Use Conditions2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood is a naturally based material and plays an important role as a renewable resource when aiming for a sustainable society. Nevertheless, its inherently combustible property needs to be enhanced to comply with modern construction methods and regulations. Ammonium phosphate-based additives are often used to effectively increase the fire-retardancy (FR) of wooden products when needed. However, their water-solubility make them unsuitable for exterior use unless such properties are overcome. This PhD thesis focuses on the development of methodologies to alleviate consequences from water-leaching of wood treated with ammonium phosphate-based additives, enabling further development of new types of fire protected wood construction material for exterior uses. As such, two methodologies were explored in this thesis: 1) a composite-type fixation, involving the introduction of a hydrophobic polymer matrix for entrapping the FR additives, 2) a reactive-type fixation, which is to fix the FR additives by creating covalent bonding with the wood polymeric constituents.

    In order to determine the influence of composite-type fixation systems, melamine-formaldehyde (MF) prepolymer, furfuryl alcohol (FA), and kraft lignin, respectively, were studied for immobilising ammonium phosphate-based FR-additives in wood by pressure impregnating Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood with a solution of the prepolymer and fire-retardant additives (FRs), followed by drying and heating steps. Through the analysis of the treated wood materials, involving scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), the formation of a stable polymeric network structure entrapping the additives inside the wood with alleviating FRs’ water-leachability was proposed. In particular, MF-resin was able to encapsulate guanyl-urea phosphate (GUP) in the lumen of the wood. Further details on the distribution and structural features of FR additives and matrices within the wood structure are described in the thesis. 

    Furthermore, the ability of FRs comprising ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) and urea to be fixed within the wood structure without the addition of polymeric materials was also investigated. This approach was accomplished by impregnating an aqueous solution containing the aforementioned additives, followed by drying and further heat treatment at 150°C. By analysis of the treated wood material by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and FTIR, the formation of a reactive-type fixation of FR to the wood structure was realised. By this way, phosphate and carbamylate groups from treated ADP/urea were found to have reacted with hydroxyl groups of the wood polymers. 

    The fire performance of FR-treated wood materials was studied with a series of modern techniques, namely, limited oxygen index (LOI), microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), and cone calorimeter tests. LOI and MCC were used as a simple test of fire stability of FR-treated and subsequently water exposed wood. By applying the cone calorimeter test, the predicted reaction-to-fire classification of FR-MF, FR-FA, and phosphorylated/carbamylated wood was established and, actually, reached the highest possible classification, class B. This classification was held even after the accelerated ageing test according to the European standard EN 84. In summary, this further suggested that these methodologies, which enhanced the water-leaching resistance of ammonium phosphate-based salts, have the potential to give a fire-retardant wood suitable for exterior uses.

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  • 9.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Chi, Zhang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Fire-retardant phosphorus-containing silica gel modified particleboard2022In: Nordic Polymer Days (NPD 2022), 1-3 June, Gothenburg, Sweden: Book of the abstracts for posters, Chalmers university of technology , 2022, article id 46Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 10.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Mantanis, George I.
    Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Department of Forestry, Wood Sciences and Design, University of Thessaly, GR-431 00 Karditsa, Greece.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Praha 6-Suchdol, CZ-16521 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Antzutkin, Oleg N.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Praha 6-Suchdol, CZ-16521 Prague, Czech Republic.
    High Leach-Resistant Fire-Retardant Modified Pine Wood (Pinus sylvestris L.) by In Situ Phosphorylation and Carbamylation2023In: ACS Omega, E-ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 8, no 12, p. 11381-11396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The exterior application of fire-retardant (FR) timber necessitates it to have high durability because of the possibility to be exposed to rainfall. In this study, water-leaching resistance of FR wood has been imparted by grafting phosphate and carbamate groups of the water-soluble FR additives ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP)/urea onto the hydroxyl groups of wood polymers via vacuum-pressure impregnation, followed by drying/heating in hot air. A darker and more reddish wood surface was observed after the modification. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, solid-state 13C cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CP-MAS NMR), and direct-excitation 31P MAS NMR suggested the formation of C–O–P covalent bonds and urethane chemical bridges. Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry suggested the diffusion of ADP/urea into the cell wall. The gas evolution analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometry revealed a potential grafting reaction mechanism starting with the thermal decomposition of urea. Thermal behavior showed that the FR-modified wood lowered the main decomposition temperature and promoted the formation of char residues at elevated temperatures. The FR activity was preserved even after an extensive water-leaching test, confirmed by the limiting oxygen index (LOI) and cone calorimetry. The reduction of fire hazards was achieved through the increase of the LOI to above 80%, reduction of 30% of the peak heat release rate (pHRR2), reduction of smoke production, and a longer ignition time. The modulus of elasticity of FR-modified wood increased by 40% without significantly decreasing the modulus of rupture.

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  • 11.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Bio-based adhesive derived from citric acid and sorbitol for wood-composite manufacture2022In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 397-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood composites are manufactured by joining wood fibres, strands, or particles together with an adhesive, but it is necessary for eliminate the use of formaldehyde-based adhesives in the manufacture of wood composites for the sake of indoor air quality and human health. This initial study has demonstrated the use of sorbitol and citric acid as a potential bio-based formaldehyde-free adhesive for wood-composite manufacture. A solution of citric acid and sorbitol in water was sprayed onto wood particles which were then pressed at 160°C, 180°C, or 200°C for 13 min, to produce boards with a target thickness of 8 mm. The FTIR spectra contained an absorption band at 1720cm−1, presumably due to the esters of citric acid and sorbitol. Pressing of a temperature of 200°C gave boards with the highest modulus of elasticity and the highest internal bond strength. The results reveal a new potential bio-adhesive for the manufacture of wood composites.

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  • 12.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Kraft lignin-glyoxal, phase-change material modified wood for enhancing thermal-energy storage capability2024In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise in energy consumption and the increase in the use of bio-based materials in the building sector, has led to the need to investigate the possibilities to use wood as a porous support material for phase change materials (PCMs), and thereby creating a thermal regulative wood-based product. This study investigated the influence of Kraft lignin-glyoxal prepolymer on the thermal-energy storage properties of wood modified with paraffin-type of PCM. The implementation of the modified wood involves preparing PCM emulsions, synthesising lignin-glyoxal prepolymer, and modifying wood with the PCM-Kraft lignin-glyoxal emulsion through vacuum-pressure impregnation. The infrared imaging suggested the ability of PCM-modified wood to delay the temperature changes, even with the introduction of Kraft lignin-glyoxal prepolymer. In conclusion, it is feasible to introduce thermal-energy storage property into wood with the addition of Kraft lignin-glyoxal prepolymer. Further studies will focus on the long-term thermal storage performance properties when this PCM system is subjected to repeated heating/cooling cycles. 

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  • 13.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Kim, Injeong
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Mantanis, George I.
    Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Faculty of Forestry, Wood Sciences and Design, University of Thessaly, GR-431 00 Karditsa, Greece.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Praha 6-Suchdol, CZ-16521 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Praha 6-Suchdol, CZ-16521 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Fire Retardancy and Leaching Resistance of Furfurylated Pine Wood (Pinus sylvestris L.) Treated with Guanyl-Urea Phosphate2022In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 14, no 9, article id 1829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Guanyl-urea phosphate (GUP) was introduced into furfurylated wood in order to improve fire retardancy. Modified wood was produced via vacuum-pressure impregnation of the GUP–furfuryl alcohol (FA) aqueous solution, which was then polymerized at elevated temperature. The water leaching resistance of the treated wood was tested according to European standard EN 84, while the leached water was analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and inductively coupled plasma–sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). This new type of furfurylated wood was further characterized in the laboratory by evaluating its morphology and elemental composition using optical microscopy and electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX). The chemical functionality was detected using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the fire resistance was tested using cone calorimetry. The dimensional stability was evaluated in wet–dry soaking cycle tests, along with the mechanical properties, such as the Brinell hardness and bending strength. The fire retardancy of the modified furfurylated wood indicated that the flammability of wood can be depressed to some extent by introducing GUP. This was reflected in an observed reduction in heat release rate (HRR2) from 454.8 to 264.9 kW/m2, without a reduction in the material properties. In addition, this leaching-resistant furfurylated wood exhibited higher fire retardancy compared to conventional furfurylated wood. A potential method for producing fire-retardant treated furfurylated wood stable to water exposure has been suggested.

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  • 14.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Mantanis, George I.
    Lab of Wood Science and Technology, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Fire Retardancy and Leaching Resistance of Pine Wood Impregnated with Melamine Formaldehyde Resin in-Situ with Guanyl-Urea Phosphate/Boric Acid2020In: Wood & Fire Safety: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Wood & Fire Safety 2020 / [ed] Linda Makovicka Osvaldova, Frank Markert, Samuel L. Zelinka, Springer, 2020, p. 83-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work aimed at finding ways to improve the leaching resistance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood impregnated with water soluble fire retardant (FR). Sapwood specimens of Scots pine (10 × 10 × 50 mm) were impregnated with aqueous solution of guanyl-urea phosphate (GUP)/boric acid (BA). Limiting oxygen index (LOI) revealed that treatment could improve the fire performance. At the same time, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) illustrated increased thermal stability after the treatment. However, since the FR itself was not fixed within the wood cell wall, it was extracted during water leaching (EN 84), and the wood lost its fire retarding property. The resistance to leaching of FR from the treated wood can be primarily improved while maintaining high fire retarding performance and thermal stability of treated wood by mixing melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resin with GUP/BA before impregnation to the wood. To mix GUP/BA to MF solution, due to the acidic nature of GUP/BA, the condensation/polymerisation reaction would be accelerated in an undesired way even if the solution was adjusted to non-acidic by NaOH. The resulting solution would not penetrate deeply into the wood structure, whilst it would be difficult to re-use the FR solution. In order to avoid the reaction proceeding in an undesired way, introducing 0.5 wt% of pentaerythritol to the GUP/BA/MF solution can decrease the reaction rate. Additionally, it improved the weight percentage gain (WPG) and fire retarding performance, without significantly influencing the leaching resistance and thermal stability. Overall, it is suggested that such a treatment could be a suitable methodology for producing exterior-use fire-retardant pine wood.

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  • 15.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Mantanis, George I.
    University of Thessaly, Dept. of Forestry, Wood Sciences and Design, Lab of Wood Science & Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Fire performance and leach resistance of pine wood impregnated with guanyl-urea phosphate (GUP)/boric acid (BA) and melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resin2019In: Proceedings of the 15th Annual Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering - WSE2019 / [ed] Maria Fredriksson, Lund: Lund University Open Access, 2019, p. 147-149Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 16.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Mantanis, George I.
    Department of Forestry, Wood Sciences and Design, Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Fire performance and leach resistance of pine wood impregnated with guanyl-urea phosphate/boric acid and a melamine-formaldehyde resin2020In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 78, no 1, p. 107-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood impregnated with guanyl-urea phosphate/boric acid and a melamine-formaldehyde resin exhibited considerably increased resistance to leaching, while sustaining superior fire retardancy as tested by the limiting oxygen index (LOI) method. It was found that guanyl-urea phosphate has been well trapped in the wood structure by the cured resin network as evidenced by FTIR spectroscopy. Markedly, weight percentage gain (WPG) losses of fire retardant as low as 7.4% were achieved after excessive leaching of treated wood (EN 84). This was attributed to the effect of melamine-formaldehyde resin. Overall, this type of treatment could be a reliable method for producing fire-resistant pine wood for exterior uses.

  • 17.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Mantanis, George
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Morphology influence of fire-retardant additives on melamine formaldehyde resin-modified wood2020In: Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering - WSE2020 / [ed] Marketta Sipi, Juha Rikala, University of Helsinki, 2020, p. 44-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that the leachability of the water-borne fire-retardants (FRs) guanylurea phosphate (GUP)/boric acid (BA) in treated wood could be reduced with the help of melamine formaldehyde (MF) resin. The mechanism on how the MF resin reduced the leachability of the FRs was however unclear. In this study, the morphologies of untreated, MF resin modified, as well as FRs with MF resin modified wood were investigated by an optical microscope intended to determine the mode of action of the resin with the FRs.

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  • 18.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Martinka, Jozef
    Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Vazovova 5, SK-811 07 Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Rantuch, Peter
    Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Vazovova 5, SK-811 07 Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Garskaite, Edita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Mantanis, George I.
    Lab of Wood Science and Technology, University of Thessaly, Griva 11, GR-43100 Karditsa, Greece.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcḱ 1176, Praha 6 - Suchdol CZ-16521, Czech Republic.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcḱ 1176, Praha 6 - Suchdol CZ-16521, Czech Republic.
    Approaching Highly Leaching-Resistant Fire-Retardant Wood by In Situ Polymerization with Melamine Formaldehyde Resin2021In: ACS Omega, E-ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 6, no 19, p. 12733-12745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the work was to improve the leaching resistance of fire-retardant (FR) modified wood by the incorporation of a thermoset resin. Here, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood was impregnated with melamine formaldehyde (MF) resin and hydrophilic FRs guanyl-urea phosphate/boric acid by a vacuum-pressure treatment. Resistance to leaching of FR-modified wood was evaluated, after conducting an accelerated aging test according to European standard EN 84. Inductively coupled plasma analysis showed that the incorporation of MF resin significantly reduced the leachability of FRs. Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry revealed that the mechanism of water resistance was by doping the FRs into MF resin microspheres. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed the chemical functionality changes of FR-modified wood such as the formation of methylene bridges by drying the modified wood specimens. An increase in the thermal stability of FR-modified wood was confirmed by thermal gravimetric analysis. Excellent fire performance of FR-modified wood after leaching was affirmed by the limiting oxygen index and cone calorimeter tests.

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  • 19.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Kim, Injeong
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Composite strategy for improving fire-retardancy of furfurylated wood2022In: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Wood Modification / [ed] Candelier, K., Collet, K., Dumarçay, S. et al., Nancy: University of Lorraine, Faculty of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Study and Research on the Wood Material (LERMaB) , 2022, p. 393-399Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Furfurylated wood has been used widely for exterior purposes due to its superior dimensional stability and biological durability, though its fire resistance is not enhanced. Here, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood was impregnated with a hygroscopic fire-retardant guanyl-urea phosphate (GUP) and furfuryl alcohol (FA) by a vacuum-pressure impregnation followed by curing in elevated temperature. The water-resistance of such treated material was evaluated according to European standard EN 84. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) revealed the penetration of GUP into the cell wall. The hydrophobic FA polymerised in-situ within the wood structure, and this enhanced the water-resistance of GUP. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the chemical functionalities changed such as formation of methylene bridges attributed to the polymerised FA and ketone groups attributed to GUP. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that GUP enhanced thermal stability at elevated temperature by promoting char formation. Fire stability test examined by limiting oxygen index (LOI) showed the improvement of fire-retardancy by the incorporation of GUP. Mechanical properties examined by Brinell hardness and three-point bending test indicated that GUP has a low impact on the properties of surface hardness, modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) of the furfurylated wood. The work suggests that GUP/FA treatment has the prospective to impart substantial fire-retardancy to the furfurylated wood with small reduction in other properties, thus increasing the potential for exterior applications. 

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  • 20.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Kim, Injeong
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Mantanis, George I.
    Lab of Wood Science and Technology, Department of Forestry, Wood Sciences & Design, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Leach-resistant fire-retardant treated furfurylated wood by incorporating guanyl-urea phosphate2021In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 429-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Furfurylated wood has been used widely for exterior purposes due to its superior dimensional stability and biological durability, though its fire resistance is not enhanced. Here, the introduction of the fire-retardant additive guanyl-urea phosphate (GUP) into furfurylated wood is reported. The treatment improved both the thermal and fire stabilities of the modified wood, as supported by the results of thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and limiting oxygen index (LOI) before and after accelerated ageing testing (according to EN 84) to determine the water resistance of the treatment. The results indicated that the hydroscopic GUP remained within the wood structure and provided superior thermal and fire properties. The work suggests the idea of combining GUP and furfuryl alcohol (FA), which has the prospective to impart substantial fire-retardancy to the furfurylated wood, thus increasing the potential for exterior applications. 

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  • 21.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    A new wood-modification process based on grafted urethane groups: Durability of carbamated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood.2023In: 21st ISWFPC Conference Proceedings: Vol. II Poster presentations / [ed] C. Crestini; H. Lange; M. Gigli; M. Sgarzi, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, , 2023, Vol. 2, p. 78-81Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Lin, Chia-feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Water-leaching resistant fire-retardant and biological resistant wood achieved using ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and urea2023In: Proceedings of the 19th Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering (WSE) / [ed] Erik Larnøy, Northern European Network for Wood Science & Engineering (WSE) , 2023, p. 28-30Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Lin, Chia-feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Mantanis, George I.
    Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Faculty of Forestry, Wood Sciences and Design, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    A new wood-modification process based on in situ grafting of urethane groups: biological resistance and dimensional stability of carbamylated Scots pine wood2023In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 1160-1162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical modification of wood typically requires the impregnation of wood with reactive compounds capable of undergoing covalent bonding to functional groups present in the cell wall. Creating such reactive agents in situ, with the use of low-priced chemicals, would prove more attractive for commercial applications. In this study, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood was impregnated with an aqueous solution of urea (30%), dried at 40°C for 24 h, and subsequently heat treated in an oven at 150°C for 24 h to produce the reactive isocyanic acid. By using accelerated fungal tests under laboratory conditions, provisional tests demonstrated a high biological resistance against selected moulds and rots. Migration of urea into the wood structure and grafting to its polymers during subsequent heat treatment, led to a bulked cell wall and enhanced resistance to water swelling, even after cycling water treatments. The bending strength (MOR) of modified pine wood was reduced by the treatment applied, while its modulus of elasticity (MOE) remained unchanged.

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  • 24.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Scharf, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, 16500 Prague, Suchdol, Czech Republic.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, 16500 Prague, Suchdol, Czech Republic.
    Biobased adesive derived from citric acid and sorbitrol for wood-composite manufacture.2023In: Proceedings of the International Panel Production Symposium 2023 / [ed] Morwenna Spear, Simon Curling, Athanasious Dimitriou, Rob Elias, Ceri Loxton, The BioComposite Centre, Bangor University, UK , 2023, p. 183-187Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Scharf, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Czech University of Life Sciences Prague. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, 16500 Prague, Suchdol, Czech Republic.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Czech University of Life Sciences Prague. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, 16500 Prague, Suchdol, Czech Republic.
    Fire-retardant phosphorus-containing silica gel modified particleboard2023In: Proceedings of International Panel Production Symposium 2023 / [ed] Morwenna Spear, Simon Curling, Athanasious Dimitriou, Rob Elias, Ceri Loxton, The BioComposite Centre, Bangor University, UK , 2023, p. 177-182Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Zhang, Chi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Mantanis, George I.
    Lab of Wood Science and Technology, University of Thessaly, Griva 11, GR-43100, Karditsa, Greece .
    Weathering Influence on Fire-retardant Resin Treated Thermally Modified Scots Pine Wood2021In: Proceedings of the 17th annual meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering / [ed] Ginta Laureckienė, Kaunas University of Technology , 2021, p. 22-25Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 27.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Zhang, Chi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Martinka, Jozef
    Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Jana Bottu 2781/25, SK-917 24 Trnava, Slovakia.
    Mantanis, George I.
    Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Faculty of Forestry, Wood Sciences and Design, University of Thessaly, GR-431 00 Karditsa, Greece.
    Rantuch, Peter
    Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Jana Bottu 2781/25, SK-917 24 Trnava, Slovakia.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Praha 6, CZ-16521 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Praha 6, CZ-16521 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Phytic Acid-Silica System for Imparting Fire Retardancy in Wood Composites2023In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 14, no 5, article id 1021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire-retardant (FR) treated wood-based panels, used commonly in furniture and construction, need to meet stringent fire safety regulations. This study presents a novel treatment for imparting fire resistance to wood composites by applying separate solutions of phytic acid and sodium silicate onto wood particles before the hot pressing at 160 °C. A scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analysis revealed that phytic acid and sodium silicate were uniformly distributed throughout the wood particles, and the formation of silica gel resulted in the aggregation of elemental silicon. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) displayed that phytic acid caused the thermal degradation of hemicelluloses, which led to a brownish outer appearance of the FR-treated composites. Fire performance was assessed using both limiting oxygen index (LOI) and a cone calorimeter. These techniques showed a higher LOI value and a significant reduction in heat-release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR), smoke-production rate (SPR), and total smoke production (TSP). In addition, cone calorimeter and thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses consistently showed increased char residue in treated wood composites. Moreover, internal bond strength (IB) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of the wood composite were not significantly changed compared with those of the untreated composite. Surprisingly, in the FR-treated composite, the 24 h-thickness swelling, and the water uptake were slightly decreased. Consequently, this new treatment has the potential to increase the fire retardancy of wood composites, such as particleboard, without deteriorating the key mechanical properties.

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  • 28.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Björngrim, Niclas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Zalar, Polona
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Gunde-Cimerman, Nina
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Fungus from a historical timber bridge in northern Sweden2023In: IUBMB Focused Meeting On Extremophilic Fungi: Abstract Book, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 19-22 September, 2023 / [ed] Polona Zalar; Cene Gostinčar, University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty , 2023, p. 134-, article id P9.8Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 29.
    Sarvašová Kvietková, M.
    et al.
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 1176, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Dvořák, O.
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 1176, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Kalábová, M.
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 1176, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Šimůnková, K.
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 1176, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Štěrbová, I.
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 1176, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Pastierovič, F.
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 1176, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, D.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 1176, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic; Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    The Influence of the Type of Coating on Thermally Modified Wood and the Resulting Durability of the Surface Treatment on a Facade2024In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, article id 109629Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Scharf, Alexander
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Švajger, Črt
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Humar, Miha
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Effect of fire-retardant treatment of wood prior to thermo-mechanical densification2024In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood densification itself does not, in general, improve the fire-retardant properties sufficiently to reach the standard requirements. The object of this study was to enhance the fire-retardant properties of thermo-mechanically densified wood without any loss of moisture stability and hardness. Scots pine sapwood was pretreated before densification by impregnation with a fire retardant (FR) consisting of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and urea and then cured in-situ by hot pressing at 150 °C or 210 °C. Densified specimens without FR were used as a control. Set-recovery, fire retardancy in an open flame test, and Brinell hardness were determined. The set-recovery was slightly reduced as a result of the FR treatment, but the pressing temperature and time had a much greater influence. In the open flame test, specimens without FR-treated ignited within 15-50s of exposure to the flame, whereas all the FR-treated specimens exhibited ignition resistance over the 10 minutes duration of the test. Water-soaking cycles had no impact on the ignition resistance in these groups, indicating a strong resistance to water leaching of FR after pressing at 210 °C for 60 minutes. The hardness increased due to the presence of FR after pressing at 210 °C, but sharply decreased after water immersion.

  • 31.
    Vaziri, Mojgan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    Vattenfall AB, BA Generation, BU Fuel, Engineering & Projects, Solna, Sweden.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Wettability of welded wood-joints investigated by the Wilhelmy method: part 1. Determination of apparent contact angles, swelling, and water sorption.2021In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 65-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a novel application of the Wilhelmy plate method on welded joints of Scots pine sapwood and beech. Welding resulted in an increase in the contact angle (increased hydrophobicity) as well as a decrease in the water uptake and swelling of the welded pine-joint compared to non-welded pine. When the welding time was extended from 4 to 5 s, these properties were further pronounced. Welding of beech, on the other hand, led to an increase in the contact angle and a decrease in the water uptake, but an increase in the swelling.

    Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy showed that welding increased the aliphatic C-H and unsaturated C=C stretching absorption bands in pine and beech. Scanning electron microscopy showed a dense structure at the welded joints of the both species, giving evidence of a lower porosity that leads to a lower permeability as a result of the welding.

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