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  • 1.
    Fredin-Knutzén, Johan
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Education, Language, and Teaching. VTI (The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, Sweden.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    VTI (The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, Sweden.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lidestam, Björn
    VTI (The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, Sweden.
    Train drivers' work-related stress and job satisfaction2023In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 65, no 9, p. 775-782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives 

    This study investigated which work-related stressors are rated highest by train drivers, and which are strongest correlated with consideration to change profession.

    Methods 

    In a questionnaire, a total of N = 251 Swedish train drivers rated 17 work-related stressors, to which extent they had considered quitting their profession, and if they had experienced a PUT (person under train) accident.

    Results 

    PUTs (when experienced) and irregular work-hours are the main stressors, but the strongest predictors of consideration to change profession are those that are encountered often, and last over time (e.g., irregular work-hours, r = .61; and major organizational changes, r = .51).

    Conclusions 

    For effective reduction of stress and improved job satisfaction, focus should be on aspects that affect everyday life for drivers, such as better working shifts, less delays, and improved social climate.

  • 2.
    Kabashkin, Igor
    et al.
    Transport and Telecommunication Institute, Lomonosova 1, Riga, Latvia.
    Grakovskis, Aleksandrs
    Transport and Telecommunication Institute, Lomonosova 1, Riga, Latvia.
    Segercrantz, Wladimir
    TTK University of Applied Sciences, 62 Pärnu Road, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Lend, Enno
    TTK University of Applied Sciences, 62 Pärnu Road, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Kallas, Oliver
    TTK University of Applied Sciences, 62 Pärnu Road, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Karasmaa, Nina
    HAMK Häme University of Applied Sciences, Visamäentie 35A, Hämeenlinna, Finland.
    Turunen, Ville
    HAMK Häme University of Applied Sciences, Visamäentie 35A, Hämeenlinna, Finland.
    Sotanvalta, Teppo
    HAMK Häme University of Applied Sciences, Visamäentie 35A, Hämeenlinna, Finland.
    Tuukkanen, Tarjaleena
    HAMK Häme University of Applied Sciences, Visamäentie 35A, Hämeenlinna, Finland.
    Kullaslahti, Jaana
    HAMK Häme University of Applied Sciences, Visamäentie 35A, Hämeenlinna, Finland.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    VTI Statens Väg och Transportforskning Institute, Olaus Magnus väg 35, Linköping, Sweden.
    Olson, Niklas
    VTI Statens Väg och Transportforskning Institute, Olaus Magnus väg 35, Linköping, Sweden.
    DIGILOG Project: Digitally Supported and Virtual Study Practices for Modern Logistic Systems2021In: Reliability and Statistics in Transportation and Communication: Selected Papers from the 20th International Conference on Reliability and Statistics in Transportation and Communication, RelStat2020, 14-17 October 2020, Riga, Latvia / [ed] Igor Kabashkin; Irina Yatskiv; Olegas Prentkovskis, Springer Nature, 2021, p. 771-781Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization of Transport and Logistics (T&L) is one of the key pillars of the European Digital Single Market strategy. Creation of the Single European Transport Area, from one hand, and development of Common European Education Area, from another hand, are the basis for DIGILOG (Digitally supported and virtual study practices for modern logistic systems) project supported by Erasmus+ programme. The DIGILOG project aims to foster interchange and cooperation between education and training systems within the frame of digitalisation of T&L under new strategy of European Union - Single European Transport Area. The partners of project are TTK University of Applied Sciences (Estonia), Häme University of Applied Sciences (Finland), Transport and Telecommunication Institute (Latvia), The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (Sweden).

    The main intellectual outputs of the project are described in the paper: (1) Virtual and open cross-study curricula for digital environment of transport and logistics systems based on Carpe Diem learning design process; (2) E-learning game-based technology for training and education of transport and logistics specialists; (3) Video exercises for study of train traffic and safety management issues using simulation tools.

    Main tasks, main area of activities and the main priorities of the planned study module are described in the paper.

  • 3.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system.. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Prytz, Erik
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bernheim, Lisa
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Olsson, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Moertl, Peter
    Virtual Vehicle Research GmbH, Graz, Austria.
    Train driver attention is influenced by the type of railway signalling system2022In: DDI 2022 Gothenburg: Abstract book, Göteborg: Safer , 2022, p. 50-52Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) will replace national standards with the aim to promote cross-border traffic and enhance efficiency. The transition involves a shift from lineside signalling to mostly in- cabin information via a Driver Machine Interface (DMI). Previous research indicates that this may lead to a decrease in driver attention to the outside world and to a decrease in workload, leading to boredom. Using a train simulator, 41 participants drove the same track with the ERTMS system and the Swedish national standard (ATC) while wearing eye- tracking equipment. Subjective workload and boredom assessments were made after each drive. An analysis of the first set of reduced data (15 participants) showed that the formal attentional requirements like the monitoring of speed changes and signals were fulfilled in almost all cases, regardless of system. Overall, however, the data indicate that in line with previous research the drivers focus their attention more to the inside of the train when using the ERTMS system. This is corroborated by the finding that horn blowing is slightly delayed with the ERTMS system. Perceived workload was generally low, with the ERTMS system experienced to be more boring. We draw the preliminary conclusion that while formal attentional requirements are fulfilled for both systems, the ERTMS system likely has a tendency to pull the drivers’ overall attention inwards. Given that for the ERTMS system most relevant information is presented inside of the train on the DMI, this is not surprising, but needs to be addressed by the authorities.

  • 4.
    Olsson, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Education, Language, and Teaching. The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    A validation study comparing performance in a low-fidelity train-driving simulator with actual train driving performance2023In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 97, p. 109-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although common in other industries, such as the automotive sector, no train-driving validation study has been found in the existing literature. The present paper intends to fill that gap by comparing the results of train-driving performance in a physically low-fidelity but highly functional simulator with real train-driving performance.

    Method: Thirty-four train driver students in the final part of their basic education were assessed in a 45-minute simulator test using the number of driving errors as the performance indicator. The results were compared with the performance at 11 weeks of internship as measured by supervisors grading according to a standard procedure. One of the classes (17 to-be drivers) was affected by restrictions related to COVID-19, which led to a shortened internship and distance learning during parts of the internship. The study also intended to measure the effect of the restrictions and the types of errors the drivers made by comparing the two classes.

    Results: A significant correlation was found between the number of driving errors and internship grades, r = −0.45, p

    Conclusions: This paper shows that this type of low-fidelity simulator is well suited for measuring real train-driving performance. A measurement method that can predict long-term driving should have implications for both research and practical usability. Researchers can use this for studying the effects of, for example, different training methods, while train operation companies can use the method to test their drivers' skills and intervene before an actual accident occurs.

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  • 5.
    Olsson, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    ERTMS-utbildning i simulatormiljö: Framgångsfaktorer för en effektiv utbildning2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of the new train protection system ERTMS (European Rail Traffic Management System) aims, among other things, to simplify traffic management and to facilitate cross-border train traffic in Europe. To achieve these objectives, train drivers and signallers (am. Dispatcher) must have sufficient knowledge and competence to utilize the system’s advantages without risking safety. Future tracks to be equipped with ERTMS are Malmbanan 2023, Västerdalsbanan 2025 and ScanMed ost 2026 where the latter in particular entails a logistical problem regarding the possibility to practice practically when ERTMS-equipped tracks and vehicles are not available in geographical proximity. A low-fidelity train simulator has, in the latest years, been widely used in train driver training. This study aimed to find out how train driver- and signaler-training in such a simulator can be designed to create conditions for an efficient and safe future rollout of ERTMS. The driver study was carried out via an experiment where 16 drivers were divided into two groups, of whom eight carried out their practical training in a simulator and the other half using standard methodology. After the practical training, the train drivers conducted a simulator test individually where the performance was assessed through both measuring the number of errors made and via a subjective instructor assessment. 

    The results show that simulator training is more effective than practical training in reality, mostly because of the possibility of repeated training of different special cases. The signallers got to see, discuss and, via a survey, evaluate three films showing drivers handling different special cases in a simulator. The results indicate that the training method can be useful, especially for signallers without previous experience with ERTMS.

  • 6.
    Olsson, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Simulatorutbildning för en robustare järnväg: Studie av tågförares praktiska hantering av kontaktledningsanläggningen2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Damaged catenary lines lead to large costs for Sweden's taxpayers train passengers and freight companies. About half of the damaged catenary lines where the train operators are involved (about 600 hours of delay) can be prevented with better trained train staff. This project aimed to, in a simulator environment, study how train drivers handle the catenary in situations of varying complexity, what effect experience and practice have on practical knowledge as well as how a theoretical education material can contribute to increased knowledge about the catenary. A total of 49 driver students at the end of their basic education and 8 experienced drivers participated in a simulator study where they would handle outside signals connected to the catenary system in situations of varying difficulty.

    The results show that novices as well as experienced drivers handle outside signals without distraction with a low error rate, but where especially the novices often forget the outside environment when distracted via an alarming train protection system. A repeated measurement indicates that the drivers handle similar situations better after repetition, but no improvement was measured regarding the handling of similar situations.

    The result illustrates the benefit of the project where driver training in a simulator environment together with the supplementary training material probably can contribute to a more robust Swedish railway with fewer delays and reduced costs as a result.

  • 7.
    Olsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle, Sweden.
    Hjort, Jan
    Trafikverket, Sweden.
    Larsson, Peter
    Trafikverket, Sweden.
    Kontaktledningsanläggningen: Hantering av fordon för att minska risken för kontaktledningsnedrivningar2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skadad kontaktledning bidrar till i genomsnitt 7000 mer förseningstimmar per år och därigenom omfattande samhällskostnader. I en stor del av kontaktledningshaverierna har föraren, via sitt agerande, stor möjlighet att påverka anläggningens robusthet. Det här utbildningsmaterialet riktar sig framförallt till förare och växlare hos järnvägsoperatörer. Materialet syftar till en ökad förståelse för och en förbättrad hantering av kontaktledningsanläggningar. Målet är att minska förseningar till följd av skador på kontaktledningen.

  • 8.
    Olsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Education, Language, and Teaching. The Swedish National Road and Transport Research (VTI), Sweden.
    Lidestam, Björn
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research (VTI), Sweden.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research (VTI), Sweden.
    Effect of Train-Driving Simulator Practice in the European Rail Traffic Management System: An Experimental Study2023In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, Vol. 2677, no 5, p. 694-706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many European train drivers face major changes in their work with the introduction of the new train-protection system, the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS), as information retrieval shifts from outside to in-cab, and a new rulebook is introduced. Therefore, many train drivers have to be educated in a short time, to make the transition safe and efficient. The purpose was to find out how a successful ERTMS practice can be designed in a physically low-fidelity but highly functional train-driving simulator. An experimental design was used, with 16 drivers divided into two groups: one group practiced in a simulator, and the other in reality. Standard training methodology was used, and the learning outcome was assessed by both measuring driving errors and via instructor evaluation of a simulator test. The drivers also filled in a questionnaire to capture how different factors, such as repeated practice, experience, and self-estimated confidence, correlate with performance. Results show that the simulator group committed significantly fewer driving errors and received significantly higher scores from the instructor. In addition, the simulator group's better performance is mostly caused by the possibility of repeated training of different special cases. The findings also imply that several of the more common special cases on the ERTMS can hardly be provoked in real train driving. Furthermore, this work strengthens the theory that novices can hardly estimate their own ability. Therefore, we argue that this type of low-fidelity simulator is well suited for research purposes, for practicing special cases, and for train operation companies to assess drivers’ skills.

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  • 9.
    Olsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    The practical part of train driver education: experience, expectations, and possibilities2021In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 13, article id 52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectivesThe internship period of the Swedish train driver education was examined in terms of which types of situations can be sufficiently encountered in order to develop expertise to handle them safely and efficiently, and to quantify and specify the gap in expertise between expert and novice drivers in terms of risk of error and time efficiency. Focus was on special cases (i.e., situations that occur rarely but may cause severe accidents if not handled correctly and efficiently).

    MethodologyData on which situations and special cases a driver's student can be expected to experience during the internship period were collected via a web-based questionnaire. Also, ratings of expectations on novice and expert drivers were obtained from train driver educators, employers, and instructors with the purpose of comparing the expectations with the novices practical experience.

    Results and conclusionsThe main results suggest that many special cases are generally insufficiently practiced during the internship and therefore should be practiced in simulators; that both experienced and novice drivers prioritize safety over efficiency; and that expectations on novice drivers are realistic considering their limited professional expertise.

  • 10.
    Olsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle, Sweden.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle, Sweden.
    Simulatorbaserad medåkningsövning för trafikledarutbildningen: ett kostnadseffektivt och flexibelt utbildningsverktyg2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trafikverket har startat aktiviteter för att göra om trafikledarutbildningen. Det handlar om översyn av grundutbildningen för fjärrtågklarerare. Både innehåll och struktur ska ses över och detta ska bedrivas i två projekt. 1. Vad ska en tågklarerare kunna efter utbildningen? (Trafikledningens del). 2. Hur ska man lära sig detta? (Trafikverksskolans del). De två projekten är kopplade till varandra. Tidplanen är 2 år och arbetet började med små steg i januari 2018. Ett problem som finns inom utbildningen för trafikledning är att det är svårt att få till lokåkning med lokförare för de blivande tågklarerarna. Det är svårt att få plats att åka med och det blir inte alltid så bra sett ur ett inlärningsperspektiv. Det här projektets idé är därför att ta fram en medåkningsövning med hjälp av tågsimulator. Målet med övningen är att: • • Öka förståelsen för förarens vy • • Visa specifika sällanhändelser Projektet syftar till att inventera FoI-frågor inom området tågsimulering och medåkning för tågklarerarutbildningen. Trafikverket ser Foi-behov inom området. Det här projektets idé är att ta fram en medåkningsövning med hjälp av tågsimulator för att undersöka effekten och flexibiliteten med ett nytt verktyg. En viktig nytta för Trafikverket med projektet är att ge tågklarerarna en ökad förståelse för förarens vy som ger förutsättningar för förbättrad kommunikation vilket kan leda till förbättringar både i trafikflöden och vid hantering av störningar. Studien syftar därför till att ta reda på hur medåkningsverktyget kan bidra till trafikverkets förväntade nytta med projektet att ge en ökad förståelse för förarens verklighet. För att kunna besvara det syftet är det viktigt att känna till varför en förståelse för lokförarens verklighet är viktig. Slutligen syftar studien till att utvärdera medåkningsövningen som utbildningsverktyg. 1. Varför är det viktigt för en tågklarerare att ha förståelse för lokförarens verklighet? 2. Hur bidrar medåkningsverktyget till en ökad förståelse för lokförarens verklighet? 3. Hur uppfattade informanterna nyttan av medåkningsövningen?

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