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  • 1.
    Andersson, Hanna
    et al.
    Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Bökman, Fredrik
    Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    What Influences People’s Tradeoff Decisions Between CO2 Emissions and Travel Time? An Experiment With Anchors and Normative Messages2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 702398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the today’s greatest challenges is to adjust our behavior so that we can avoid a major climate disaster. To do so, we must make sacrifices for the sake of the environment. The study reported here investigates how anchors (extrinsic motivational-free information) and normative messages (extrinsic motivational information) influence people’s tradeoffs between travel time and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the context of car travel and whether any interactions with environmental concern (an intrinsic motivational factor) can be observed. In this study, people received either a CO2, health or no normative message together with either a high anchor, a low anchor, or no anchor. People that received both a high anchor and a CO2 emission normative message were willing to travel for a longer time than those that only received a high anchor. If a low anchor was presented, no differences in willingness to travel for a longer time were found between the three different conditions of normative message groups, i.e., CO2 normative message, health normative message, or no normative message. People with higher concern for the environment were found to be willing to travel for a longer time than those with lower concern for the environment. Further, this effect was strongest when a high anchor was presented. These results suggest that anchors and normative messages are among the many factors that can influence people’s tradeoffs between CO2 emission and travel time, and that various factors may have to be combined to increase their influence over pro-environmental behavior and decisions.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Hanna
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden .
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Threadgold, Emma
    University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Beaman, Philip
    University of Reading, Reading, UK.
    Ball, Linden
    University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden; School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    The Negative Footprint Illusion is Exacerbated by the Numerosity of Environment-Friendly Additions: Unveiling the Underpinning Mechanisms2023In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Beaman, C. P.
    et al.
    School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, United Kingdom.
    Campbell, T.
    Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Sciences, Tampere University, Finland; Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, United Kingdom.
    How Much Do We Orient?: A Systematic Approach to Auditory Distraction2021In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 1054-1066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data on orienting and habituation to irrelevant sound can distinguish between task-specific and general accounts of auditory distraction: Distractors either disrupt specific cognitive processes (e.g., Jones, 1993;Salamé & Baddeley, 1982), or remove more general-purpose attentional resources from any attentiondemanding task (e.g., Cowan, 1995). Tested here is the prediction that there is no further auditory distraction effect on immediate serial recall with increments in the number of distractors beyond the“changing-state point” of two discrete distractors. A Bayes factor analysis refutes this nil hypothesis: This prediction, a key element of the strong changing-state hypothesis, is shown to be less likely than two competing alternatives. Quantitative predictions for distraction as a function of the number of distracters are derived for an orienting-response (OR) and a stimulus-mismatch (SMM) hypothesis, representing general and task-specific accounts respectively. The data are shown to be more likely under the SMM hypothesis. Prospects for a parametric account of auditory distraction are considered. © 2021 American Psychological Association

  • 4.
    Elbe, Pia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Marsh, John E.
    Department of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire.
    Sörman, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University.
    Vega Mendoza, Mariana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Differential Impacts of Addition and Omission Deviants on the Working Memory Performance of Adults with and without Self-reported ADHDManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve work productivity and concentration when undertaking daily tasks, such as studying or engaging in mentally difficult activities, some individuals prefer to work in the presence of background auditory noise such as music, nature sounds, or even white noise. We investigated the impact of background white noise on short-term serial recall performance in adults with (n = 66) and without (n = 66) ADHD whereby variation in other traits that could potentially influence performance (anxiety and depression) was controlled. The potential decline of the impact of task-irrelevant sound across trials (e.g., habituation) and serial position effects were also explored. Participants completed the verbal working memory task in the presence of continuous white noise sequences that were occasionally interrupted by a period of quiet (omission deviant), and continuous quiet sequences that were occasionally interrupted by a period of white noise (addition deviant). Addition deviants were more disruptive for non-ADHD individuals than ADHD individuals, while omission deviants were more disruptive for ADHD individuals than non-ADHD individuals. A direct implication of this interaction is, in order to limit distractions, adults with ADHD should refrain from listening to continuous background white noise if there is a likelihood of a break in sound stimulation, whereas adults without ADHD should avoid quiet auditory backgrounds in which a rare or unexpected sound may occur. Further, exploratory findings show the absence of a serial position primacy effect for adults self-reporting ADHD compared to adults without ADHD.

  • 5.
    Elliott, Emily M.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
    Bell, Raoul
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Gorin, Simon
    Faculté de Psychologie et des Sciences de l’Éducation, Developmental Cognitive Psychology, Université de Genève, Genève, Switzerland; Faculty of Psychology, UniDistance Suisse, Brig, Switzerland.
    Robinson, Nick
    Nick Robinson Computing Limited, Wilpshire, Blackburn, Lancashire, UK.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Lancashire, UK.
    Auditory distraction can be studied online! A direct comparison between in-Person and online experimentation2022In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 307-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Referring to the well-replicated finding that the presence of to-be-ignored sound disrupts short-term memory for serially-presented visual items, the irrelevant sound effect (ISE) is an important benchmark finding within cognitive psychology. The ISE has proven useful in evaluating the structure, function and development of short-term memory. This preregistered report focused on a methodological examination of the paradigm typically used to study the ISE and sought to determine whether the ISE can be reliably studied using the increasingly popular method of online testing. Comparing Psychology students tested online, in-person and participants from an online panel, results demonstrated successful reproduction of the key signature effects of auditory distraction (the changing-state effect and the steady-state effect), albeit smaller effects with the online panel. Our results confirmed the viability of online data collection for auditory distraction research and provided important insights for the accumulation and maintenance of high data quality in internet-based experimentation.

  • 6.
    Fodarella, Cristina
    et al.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Chu, Simon
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Athwal-Kooner, Palwinder
    Department of Psychology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK.
    Jones, Helen S.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Skelton, Faye C.
    School of Applied Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK.
    Wood, Ellena
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Jackson, Elizabeth
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Frowd, Charlie D.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    The importance of detailed context reinstatement for the production of identifiable composite faces from memory2021In: Visual cognition (Print), ISSN 1350-6285, E-ISSN 1464-0716, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 180-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Memory is facilitated by reflecting upon, or revisiting, the environment in which information was encoded. We investigated these “context reinstatement” (CR) techniques to improve the effectiveness of facial composites – visual likenesses of a perpetrator’s face constructed by eyewitnesses. Participant-constructors viewed a face and, after a one-day-delay, revisited (Physical CR) or recalled the environmental context (Mental/Detailed CR) before recalling the face and constructing an EvoFIT or a PRO-fit composite. Detailed CR increased correct naming of ensuing composites, but only when participant-constructors suitably encoded the environment. Detailed CR was also effective when combined with another interviewing technique (Holistic-Cognitive Interview), with focus on a target’s character; it was no more effective prompting constructors to engage in greater environmental recall. Analyses indicate that the Detailed CR advantage was mediated by an increase in face recall. Results are applicable by forensic practitioners to aid eyewitness memory, thereby potentially increasing suspect identification and subsequent arrest rates.

  • 7.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    et al.
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems, and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems, and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden. Department of Industrial Development, IT, and Land Management, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Ball, Linden J.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Can the negative footprint illusion be eliminated by summative priming?2021In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 337-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People’s belief that one or more environmentally friendly items that are added to a set of conventional items can reduce the total environmental impact of these items (the negative footprint illusion) could lead to unwanted environmental consequences. An averaging bias seems to underpin this illusion: people make their estimates based on the average of the environmental impact produced by the items rather than the accumulated sum. We report four studies that used various priming manipulations to explore whether people’s preoccupation to think in terms of an average can be eliminated by fostering a summative mindset. The results demonstrate that participants avoid succumbing to the negative footprint illusion when the critical judgment task is preceded by tasks that engender a summation judgment. Our evidence indicates that the negative footprint illusion can be tempered when a primed concept (summation) is used adaptively on subsequent judgments, thereby correcting for bias in environmental judgments.

  • 8.
    Kattner, Florian
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Health and Medical University, Potsdam, Germany.
    Richardson, Beth H.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    The Benefit of Foreknowledge in Auditory Distraction Depends on the Intelligibility of pre-exposed Speech2022In: Auditory Perception & Cognition, ISSN 2574-2442, Vol. 5, no 3-4, p. 151-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing participants with an opportunity to listen to a forthcoming distracter sentence has been shown to attenuate its disruptive effect on short-term memory. On the stimulus-specific attentional diversion account, foreknowledge selectively reduces any potential diversion produced by interest in the post-categorical (e.g., semantic or syntactical) properties of a discrete sentence. This account assumes that the beneficial effect of foreknowledge depends crucially on the intelligibility of pre-exposed sentential speech. During a visual-verbal serial recall paradigm, participants undertook two counterbalanced blocks of trials wherein they were either pre-exposed to impending auditory distracter sentences (foreknowledge) or not (no foreknowledge). Pre-exposed sentences were intelligible, partially intelligible or unintelligible while sentences accompanying serial recall were all intelligible. Participants were instructed to attend to the sentences during pre-exposure and ignore them when they accompanied the serial recall task. Foreknowledge of an impending distracter sentence attenuated its later distractive power in serial recall, but only when the foreknowledge was at least partially intelligible. Consistent with the stimulus-specific attentional diversion account, the intelligibility of speech presented during a foreknowledge period is a key requirement for attenuation of auditory distraction by sentential speech. This suggests that intelligible foreknowledge increases familiarity of the material thereby reducing attentional diversion due to interest. These results reinforce the view that foreknowledge reduces disruption produced by the semantic/syntactical properties of discrete sentences but has little effect on that produced by its acoustic properties.

  • 9.
    Knott, Lauren
    et al.
    City Univ London, Dept Psychol, London, England.
    Litchfield, Damien
    Edge Hill Univ, Dept Psychol, Ormskirk, England.
    Donovan, Tim
    Univ Cumbria, Inst Hlth, Lancaster, England.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. Univ Cent Lancashire, Sch Psychol & Humanities, Preston, England.
    False memory-guided eye movements: insights from a DRM-Saccade paradigm2024In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Deese-Roediger and McDermott (DRM) paradigm and visually guided saccade tasks are both prominent research tools in their own right. This study introduces a novel DRM-Saccade paradigm, merging both methodologies. We used rule-based saccadic eye movements whereby participants were presented with items at test and were asked to make a saccade to the left or right of the item to denote a recognition or non-recognition decision. We measured old/new recognition decisions and saccadic latencies. Experiment 1 used a pro/anti saccade task to a single target. We found slower saccadic latencies for correct rejection of critical lures, but no latency difference between correct recognition of studied items and false recognition of critical lures. Experiment 2 used a two-target saccade task and also measured corrective saccades. Findings corroborated those from Experiment 1. Participants adjusted their initial decisions to increase accurate recognition of studied items and rejection of unrelated lures but there were no such corrections for critical lures. We argue that rapid saccades indicate cognitive processing driven by familiarity thresholds. These occur before slower source-monitoring is able to process any conflict. The DRM-Saccade task could effectively track real-time cognitive resource use during recognition decisions.

  • 10.
    Labonté, Katherine
    et al.
    School of Psychology, Université Laval, Quebec City, Canada;School of Human Nutrition, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Vachon, François
    School of Psychology, Université Laval, Quebec City, Canada.
    Distraction by Auditory Categorical Deviations Is Unrelated to Working Memory Capacity: Further Evidence of a Distinction between Acoustic and Categorical Deviation Effects2021In: Auditory Perception & Cognition, ISSN 2574-2442, Vol. 4, no 3-4, p. 139-164Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Linklater, Rona D.
    et al.
    School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Judge, Jennie
    School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Auditory distraction of vocal-motor behaviour by different components of song: testing an interference-by-process account2023In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process-oriented account of auditory distraction suggests that task-disruption is a consequence of the joint action of task- and sound-related processes. Here, four experiments put this view to the test by examining the extent to which to-be-ignored melodies (with or without lyrics) influence vocal-motor processing. Using song retrieval tasks (i.e., reproduction of melodies or lyrics from long-term memory), the results revealed a pattern of disruption that was consistent with an interference-by-process view: disruption depended jointly on the nature of the vocal-motor retrieval (e.g., melody retrieval via humming vs. spoken lyrics) and the characteristics of the sound (whether it contained lyrics and was familiar to the participants). Furthermore, the sound properties, influential in disrupting song reproduction, were not influential for disrupting visual-verbal short-term memory—a task that is arguably underpinned by non-semantic vocal-motor planning processes. Generally, these results cohere better with the process-oriented view, in comparison with competing accounts (e.g., interference-by-content).

  • 12.
    Littlefair, Zoe
    et al.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Vachon, François
    School of Psychology, Université Laval, Quebec City, Canada.
    Ball, Linden J.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Robinson, Nick
    Nick Robinson Computing Limited, UK.
    Marsh, John E.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK;Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and Technology Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Acoustic, and Categorical, Deviation Effects are Produced by Different Mechanisms: Evidence from Additivity and Habituation2022In: Auditory Perception & Cognition, E-ISSN 2574-2450, Vol. 5, no 1-2, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sounds that deviate, acoustically or semantically, from prevailing auditory backgrounds disrupt ongoing mental activity. An acoustic deviant is held to capture attention, but doubt has been cast on the attentional nature of the semantic, categorical deviation effect. Unlike the acoustical deviation effect, which is typically amenable to top-down cognitive control, the categorical deviation effect is impervious to top-down influences.To shed further light on the mechanisms underpinning acoustic and categorical deviance, we compared the disruptive impact produced by acoustic deviants (change of voice), categorical deviants (change of category) and combined deviants (change of voice and category) randomly inserted into a to-be-ignored sequence while participants performed a visual-verbal serial recall task.In Experiment 1, all deviants disrupted recall, however combined deviants produced greater disruption than acoustic deviants alone. In Experiment 2 only the disruption produced by an acoustic deviant diminished over the course of the experiment. The acoustic and categorical deviation effects combined additively to disrupt performance (Experiment 1) and habituation was only observed for the acoustic deviation effect (Experiment 2).These results gel with the idea that attentional responses to deviants, and habituation thereof (Experiment 2), is a key component of acoustic but not categorical deviation effects. Taken together, these findings support recent assertions that independent mechanisms drive acoustic and categorical deviation effects.

  • 13.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Threadgold, Emma
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Barker, Melissa E.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK. Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, UK.
    Litchfield, Damien
    Department of Psychology, Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, UK.
    Degno, Federica
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Ball, Linden J.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    The susceptibility of compound remote associate problems to disruption by irrelevant sound: a Window onto the component processes underpinning creative cognition?2021In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 33, no 6-7, p. 793-822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controversy exists regarding the processes involved in creative thinking with the Remote Associates Test (RAT) and the Compound Remote Associates Test (CRAT). We report three experiments that aimed to shed light on the component processes underpinning CRAT performance by using the mere presence of task-irrelevant sound as a key theoretical tool. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that CRAT performance was impaired relative to a quiet condition by the presence of sequences of changing letters and tones, respectively. In both experiments a non-changing sound (a repeated letter or a repeated tone) produced no disruption relative to quiet. Experiment 3 established that additional disruption was engendered by having to ignore meaningful speech as compared to meaningless speech. These experiments demonstrate that both semantic activation and subvocalisation are important determinants of successful creative thinking with CRAT problems. We suggest that semantic activation underpins solution-generation processes whereas subvocalisation underpins solution-evaluation processes.

  • 14.
    Marsh, John Everett
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Kattner, Florian
    Institute for Psychology, Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany;Health and Medical University, Potsdam, Germany.
    Ruhnau, Philipp
    Center for Behavioral Brain Sciences, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany.
    Research Collection: On Theoretical Advancement in Auditory Distraction Research2021In: Auditory Perception & Cognition, ISSN 2574-2442, Vol. 4, no 3-4, p. 133-138Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Marsh, John Everett
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Human Factors Laboratory, School of Psychology and Computer Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Vachon, François
    École de Psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Marsja, Erik
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Röer, Jan P.
    Department of Psychology and Psychotherapy, Witten/Herdecke University, Witten, Germany.
    Richardson, Beth H.
    Human Factors Laboratory, School of Psychology and Computer Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Engineering Psychology, Humans and Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Irrelevant changing-state vibrotactile stimuli disrupt verbal serial recall: implications for theories of interference in short-term memory2023In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What causes interference in short-term memory? We report the novel finding that immediate memory for visually-presented verbal items is sensitive to disruption from task-irrelevant vibrotactile stimuli. Specifically, short-term memory for a visual sequence is disrupted by a concurrently presented sequence of vibrations, but only when the vibrotactile sequence entails change (when the sequence “jumps” between the two hands). The impact on visual-verbal serial recall was similar in magnitude to that for auditory stimuli (Experiment 1). Performance of the missing item task, requiring recall of item-identity rather than item-order, was unaffected by changing-state vibrotactile stimuli (Experiment 2), as with changing-state auditory stimuli. Moreover, the predictability of the changing-state sequence did not modulate the magnitude of the effect, arguing against an attention-capture conceptualisation (Experiment 3). Results support the view that interference in short-term memory is produced by conflict between incompatible, amodal serial-ordering processes (interference-by-process) rather than interference between similar representational codes (interference-by-content).

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  • 16.
    Perham, Nick
    et al.
    Department of Applied Psychology, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK.
    Begum, Fahena
    Department of Applied Psychology, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    The Categorical Deviation Effect May Be Underpinned by Attentional Capture: Preliminary Evidence from the Incidental Recognition of Distracters2023In: Auditory Perception & Cognition, ISSN 2574-2442, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 20-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a visual focal task is appreciably disrupted by an unexpected change (or deviation) in the properties of a task irrelevant auditory background. A vast amount of evidence suggests that a change in the acoustic properties of sound disrupts performance via attentional capture. However, an emerging body of evidence suggests that the disruption of task performance by a change in semantic category within a stream of sounds does not behave the same and is therefore not produced by attentional capture. This preliminary study aimed to further investigate whether the disruption produced by a categorical deviant was underpinned by attentional capture. In a single experiment, participants were presented with an irrelevant sound stream while they memorized a categorized list for free recall. We examined whether free recall performance was disrupted by an unexpected change in category within the sound and later investigated, via a surprise recognition test, whether participants had superior memory for deviant items as compared to items from the same positions in control sequences. Results revealed that the categorical deviation effect manifested in poorer free recall performance. Additionally, post-study, participants demonstrated better recognition memory for deviant items compared to control items. On the assumption that explicit recognition requires attentional encoding of deviant items, our results yield evidence that the categorical deviation effect may indeed be produced via attentional capture.

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  • 17.
    Rettie, Laura
    et al.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Potter, Robert F.
    The Media School, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.
    Brewer, Gayle
    School of Psychology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
    Degno, Federica
    Department of Psychology, Bournemouth University, Poole, UK.
    Vachon, François
    School of Psychology, Université Laval, Quebec City, Canada.
    Hughes, Robert W.
    Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, UK.
    Marsh, John E.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Warning—taboo words ahead! Avoiding attentional capture by spoken taboo distractors2023In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine whether the disruption of serial short-term memory (STM) by spoken taboo distractors is due to attentional diversion and unrelated to the underlying disruptive effect of sound on serial STM more generally, which we have argued is due to order cues arising from the automatic pre-categorical processing of acoustic changes in the sound conflicting with serial–order processing within the memory task (interference-by-process). We test whether the taboo-distractor effect is, unlike effects attributable to interference-by-process, amenable to top-down control. Experiment 1 replicated the taboo-distractor effect and showed that it is not merely a valence effect. However, promoting cognitive control by increasing focal task-load did not attenuate the effect. However, foreknowledge of the distractors did eliminate the taboo-distractor effect while having no effect on disruption by neutral words (Experiment 2). We conclude that the taboo-distractor effect results from a controllable attentional-diversion mechanism distinct from the effect of any acoustically-changing sound.

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  • 18.
    Richardson, Beth H.
    et al.
    School of Psychology, University of Central, UK.
    Brown, Charity
    School of Psychology, University of Leeds, UK.
    Heard, Priscilla
    School of Psychology, University of the West of England, UK.
    Pitchford, Melanie
    Department of Psychology, University of Bedfordshire, UK.
    Portch, Emma
    Department of Psychology, Bournemouth University, UK.
    Lander, Karen
    School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, UK.
    Marsh, John E.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. School of Psychology, University of Central, UK.
    Bell, Raoul
    Institut für Experimentelle Psychologie, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Fodarella, Cristina
    School of Psychology, University of Central, UK.
    Taylor, Sarah Ashley
    School of Humanities, Language and Global Studies, University of Central, UK.
    Worthington, Mikaela
    School of Psychology, University of Central, UK.
    Ellison, Lauren
    School of Psychology, University of Central, UK.
    Charters, Philippa
    School of Psychology, University of Central, UK.
    Green, Dannii
    Department of Psychology, University of Winchester, UK.
    Minahil, Simra
    School of Psychology, University of Central, UK.
    Frowd, Charlie D.
    School of Psychology, University of Central, UK.
    The Advantage of Low and Medium Attractiveness for Facial Composite Production from Modern Forensic Systems2020In: Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, ISSN 2211-3681, E-ISSN 2211-369X, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 381-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recognition following long delays is superior for highly attractive and highly unattractive faces (cf. medium-attractive faces). In the current work, we investigated participants’ ability to recreate from memory faces of low, medium, and high physical attractiveness. In Experiment 1, participants constructed composites of familiar (celebrity) faces using the holistic EvoFIT system. When controlling for other variables that may influence face recognition (memorability, familiarity, likeability, and age), correct naming and ratings of likeness were superior for composites of low attractiveness targets. Experiment 2 replicated this design using the feature-based PRO-fit system, revealing superiority (by composite naming and ratings of likeness) for medium attractiveness. In Experiment 3, participants constructed composites of unfamiliar faces after a forensically relevant delay of 1 day. Using ratings of likeness as a measure of composite effectiveness, these same effects were observed for EvoFIT and PRO-fit. The work demonstrates the importance of attractiveness for method of composite face construction.

  • 19.
    Richardson, Beth
    et al.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston UK.
    McCulloch, Kathleen C.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston UK.
    Ball, Linden J.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston UK.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston UK.
    The Fate of the Unattended Revisited: Can Irrelevant Speech Prime the Non-dominant Interpretation of Homophones?2023In: Auditory Perception & Cognition, ISSN 2574-2442, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 72-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether the post-categorical, semantic properties of task-irrelevant speech are processed has been a source of debate between two central accounts. The first, a structural account, proposes that the semantic content of irrelevant speech is filtered out early on, and thus remains unprocessed. The second account proposes that the semantic content of speech is, in fact, processed and can influence later behavior. The present research offers a resolution between these two prominent accounts by examining whether semantic processing of task-irrelevant speech occurs despite explicit instructions to ignore it. During a visual-verbal serial recall paradigm, participants were auditorily presented with non-dominant homophones plus their close associates, or close associates without the homophone itself and asked to ignore this irrelevant speech containing these semantic primes. In a subsequent “unrelated” phase, we assessed whether the spelling of homophones was influenced by the irrelevant speech that had occurred earlier in the serial recall phase. We found evidence of semantic priming in conditions wherein the homophone was present, as well as conditions wherein only associates of the homophone were present. Regardless of whether they were presented, homophones were more likely to be spelt in accordance with their non-dominant meaning, and most participants did not report awareness of this fact. We suggest that semantic processing of irrelevant speech occurs even when there is an explicit direction to ignore it and does not result in any material disruptive effect on serial recall performance.

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  • 20.
    Röer, Jan Philipp
    et al.
    Department of Psychology and Psychotherapy, Witten/Herdecke University, Germany.
    Bell, Raoul
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Buchner, Axel
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Saint-Aubin, Jean
    École de Psychologie, Université de Moncton, Canada.
    Sonier, René-Pierre
    École de Psychologie, Université de Moncton, Canada.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, United Kingdom.
    Moore, Stuart B.
    School of Psychology, Keele University, United Kingdom.
    Kershaw, Matthew B. A.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, United Kingdom.
    Ljung, Robert
    Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Arnström, Sebastian
    Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    A Multilingual Preregistered Replication of the Semantic Mismatch Effect on Serial Recall2022In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 966-974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual-verbal serial recall is disrupted when task-irrelevant background speech has to be ignored. Contrary to previous suggestion, it has recently been shown that the magnitude of disruption may be accentuated by the semantic properties of the irrelevant speech. Sentences ending with unexpected words that did not match the preceding semantic context were more disruptive than sentences ending with expected words. This particular instantiation of a deviation effect has been termed the semantic mismatch effect. To establish a new phenomenon, it is necessary to show that the effect can be inde-pendently replicated and does not depend on specific boundary conditions such as the language of the stimulus material. Here we report a preregistered replication of the semantic mismatch effect in which we examined the effect of unexpected words in 4 different languages (English, French, German, and Swedish) across 4 different laboratories. Participants performed a serial recall task while ignoring sen-tences with expected or unexpected words that were recorded using text-to-speech software. Independent of language, sentences ending with unexpected words were more disruptive than sentences ending with expected words. In line with previous results, there was no evidence of habituation of the semantic mismatch effect in the form of a decrease in disruption with repeated exposure to the occur-rence of unexpected words. The successful replication and extension of the effect to different languages indicates the expression of a general and robust mechanism that reacts to violations of expectancies based on the semantic content of the irrelevant speech.

  • 21.
    Sebalo, Ivan
    et al.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK; School of Psychology, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK.
    Ball, Linden J.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Marsh, John E.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Morley, Andy M.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Richardson, Beth H.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Taylor, Paul J.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Threadgold, Emma
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Conspiracy theories: why they are believed and how they can be challenged2023In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 383-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study aimed: (i) to identify personal characteristics associated with endorsing conspiracy theories; and (ii) to investigate methods for dispelling conspiracy beliefs. Participants were shown a single conspiracy theory and they also completed questionnaires about their reasoning skills, types of information processing (System 1 vs. System 2), endorsement of paranormal beliefs, locus of control and pattern perception. To challenge the endorsement of the conspiracy, participants read either: (i) neutral information; (ii) a critical analysis of the vignette; (iii) a critical analysis of the vignette with discussion of realistic consequences; or (iv) a critical analysis of the vignette with “feeling of control” priming. Only addressing the consequences of the conspiracy theory decreased its endorsement. Furthermore, only type of information processing and belief in paranormal phenomena, were associated with endorsement of the conspiracy. These findings are discussed in relation to previous studies and theories of conspiratorial ideation.

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  • 22.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Sweden. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Box 50005, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marsh, John E.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology.
    Psychological obstacles to the efficacy of environmental footprint tools2020In: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 15, no 9, article id 091001Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Volna, Iveta
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Zhao, Jiaying
    Department of Psychology and Institute for Resources Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Irregular stimulus distribution increases the negative footprint illusion2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 63, no 5, p. 530-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a climate change mitigation strategy, environmentally certified ‘green’ buildings with low carbon footprints are becoming more prevalent in the world. An interesting psychological question is how people perceive the carbon footprint of these buildings given their spatial distributions in a given community. Here we examine whether regular distribution (i.e., buildings organized in a block) or irregular distribution (i.e., buildings randomly distributed) influences people's perception of the carbon footprint of the communities. We first replicated the negative footprint illusion, the tendency to estimate a lower carbon footprint of a combined group of environmentally certified green buildings and ordinary conventional buildings, than the carbon footprint of the conventional buildings alone. Importantly, we found that irregular distribution of the buildings increased the magnitude of the negative footprint illusion. Potential applied implications for urban planning of green buildings are discussed.

  • 24.
    Threadgold, Emma
    et al.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems, and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems, and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden; Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Nelson, Megan
    Department of Psychology, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
    Ball, Linden John
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Biased Estimates of Environmental Impact in the Negative Footprint Illusion: The Nature of Individual Variation2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 648328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People consistently act in ways that harm the environment, even when believing their actions are environmentally friendly. A case in point is a biased judgment termed the negative footprint illusion, which arises when people believe that the addition of “eco-friendly” items (e.g., environmentally certified houses) to conventional items (e.g., standard houses), reduces the total carbon footprint of the whole item-set, whereas the carbon footprint is, in fact, increased because eco-friendly items still contribute to the overall carbon footprint. Previous research suggests this illusion is the manifestation of an “averaging-bias.” We present two studies that explore whether people’s susceptibility to the negative footprint illusion is associated with individual differences in: (i) environment-specific reasoning dispositions measured in terms of compensatory green beliefs and environmental concerns; or (ii) general analytic reasoning dispositions measured in terms of actively open-minded thinking, avoidance of impulsivity and reflective reasoning (indexed using the Cognitive Reflection Test; CRT). A negative footprint illusion was demonstrated when participants rated the carbon footprint of conventional buildings combined with eco-friendly buildings (Study 1 and 2) and conventional cars combined with eco-friendly cars (Study 2). However, the illusion was not identified in participants’ ratings of the carbon footprint of apples (Study 1 and 2). In Studies 1 and 2, environment-specific dispositions were found to be unrelated to the negative footprint illusion. Regarding reflective thinking dispositions, reduced susceptibility to the negative footprint illusion was only associated with actively open-minded thinking measured on a 7-item scale (Study 1) and 17-item scale (Study 2). Our findings provide partial support for the existence of a negative footprint illusion and reveal a role of individual variation in reflective reasoning dispositions in accounting for a limited element of differential susceptibility to this illusion.

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