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  • 1.
    Fedina, Tatiana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Laser beam-material interaction in Powder Bed Fusion2021Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The acceptance of additive manufacturing (AM) depends on the quality of final parts and the process repeatability. Recently, many studies have been dedicated to the establishment of the relationship between the process behavior and material performance. Phenomena such as laser-material interaction, melt pool dynamics, ejecta formation and particle movement behavior on a powder bed are of a particular interest for the AM community as these events directly influence the outcome of the process. Another aspect, which hinders the adoption of AM, is the need for cost-efficient powder materials and their sustainable processing and subsequent recycling. 

    The research work presented in this thesis, to a certain degree, covers the above mentioned scientific aspects and focuses on the behavior of gas and water atomized steel powders in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). 

    Paper I demonstrates a comparative study of dissimilarly-shaped gas and water atomized low alloy steel powders regarding their processability, packing capacities, particle movement behavior and powder performance in LPBF. The impact of chemical composition and morphology of the powders on the process behavior was revealed. Powder spattering and melt pool instabilities were discussed in detail. 

    Paper II explains the role of ejecta in the recycled powder and the changing behavior of the material due to ejecta pick-up. The impact of multiple powder recycling on the degradation of low alloy steel powder in laser powder bed fusion was studied. Oxygen content, particle size and ejecta occurrence gradually increased after each recycling step and were identified as the main contributors to the property alterations observed in the powder during recycling. In addition, a direct correlation between the increase in oxygen with repeated recycling and a more frequent spatter ejection after each recycle was established. 

    Paper III is a successor of Paper I and contains a research on the particle movement and denudation behavior on a powder bed when using near-spherical and non-spherical steel powders. The influence of particle morphology on the dynamics of arbitrary-shaped powder particles was studied by applying an analytical correlation formula to calculate the drag force exerted on powder particles of various shape. Particle entrainment of gas and water atomized powders in front of the laser beam was measured, revealing a significant difference in the powder transfer towards the melt pool.

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  • 2.
    Fedina, Tatiana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Towards sustainability in additive manufacturing: material and process aspects2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The acceptance of additive manufacturing (AM) depends on the quality of final parts and process repeatability. Recently, many studies have been dedicated to the establishment of the relationship between the process behavior and material performance. Phenomena such as laser-material interaction, melt pool dynamics, ejecta formation and particle movement behavior on a powder bed are of a particular interest for the AM community as these events directly influence the outcome of the process. Another aspect, which hinders the adoption of AM, is the need for cost-efficient powder materials, their sustainable processing and recycling. 

    The research work presented in this thesis explores scientific aspects related to the above-mentioned topics, with a particular focus on the material and process behavior phenomena in powder bed fusion-laser melting (PBF-LM) and directed energy deposition (DED) processes. 

    Paper A shows a comparative study of dissimilarly shaped gas and water atomized low alloy steel powders regarding their processability, packing capacities, particle movement behavior and powder performance in PBF-LM. The impact of chemical composition and morphology of the powders on the process behavior was revealed. Powder spattering and melt pool instabilities were discussed in detail. 

    Paper B contains research on the particle movement and denudation behavior on a powder bed when using near-spherical and non-spherical steel powders. The influence of particle morphology on the dynamics of arbitrary-shaped powder particles was studied by applying an analytical correlation formula to calculate the drag force exerted on powder particles of various shape. Particle entrainment of gas and water atomized powders in front of the laser beam was measured, revealing a significant difference in the powder transfer towards the melt pool.

    Paper C explains the role of ejecta in the recycled powder and the changing behavior of the material due to ejecta pick-up. The impact of multiple powder recycling steps on the degradation of low alloy steel powder in laser powder bed fusion was studied. Oxygen content, particle size and ejecta occurrence gradually increased after each recycling step and were identified as the main contributors to the property alterations observed in the powder during recycling. In addition, a direct correlation between the increase in oxygen and more frequent spatter ejection with repeated recycling was established. 

    Paper D focuses on the impact of powder aging on the degradation of AlSi10Mg powder during processing in PBF-LM. The analysis of the powder properties, affected by laser exposure and the aging procedure, showed a change of chemical and morphological characteristics of the powders in virgin and aged conditions. The oxygen content in the powders appeared to have a significant effect on the powders' surface appearance and light absorbance, gradually deteriorating the processability of the powders with the increase of oxygen level. Porosity occurrence and its influence on the mechanical properties of the powders was also studied, demonstrating a rapid decrease of ultimate tensile strength and elongation from virgin condition to aged.

    Papers E and F investigate the possibilities of iron ore waste reduction using Al powder as a reducing agent and a laser beam as a heat source. Paper E focuses on the Fe2O3-Al interaction behavior and extent of the iron ore reduction, whereas Paper F reports on the high-speed imaging investigation possibilities of laser beam-material surface interaction when processing Fe2O3-Al powders and an Fe2O3 powder-AlSI5 wire combination in DED. In-situ observation of various melt pool phenomena and exothermic reaction behavior of the material combinations using high-speed imaging was carried out. In addition to that, the influence of feed materials and laser power on the thermite reaction time was discussed in detail, showing their dissimilar behavior.

    All six papers include research on laser additive manufacturing using powder feedstocks. The papers discuss various phenomena regarding powder processability, recycling and laser beam-material interaction behavior in both PBF-LM and DED. High-speed imaging was used as the main tool to observe and study the above listed topics.  

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  • 3.
    Fedina, Tatiana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Belelli, Filippo
    Politecnico di Milano, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via G. La Masa 1, 20156, Milano, Italy.
    Lupi, Giorgia
    Politecnico di Milano, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via G. La Masa 1, 20156, Milano, Italy.
    Brandau, Benedikt
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development. Jenoptik Optical Systems GmbH, Göschwitzersrasse 25, 07745 Jena, Germany.
    Casati, Riccardo
    Politecnico di Milano, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via G. La Masa 1, 20156, Milano, Italy.
    Berneth, Raphael
    Fraunhofer IWS, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277, Dresden, Germany.
    Brueckner, Frank
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development. Fraunhofer IWS, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277, Dresden, Germany.
    Kaplan, Alexander F.H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Influence of AlSi10Mg powder aging on the material degradation and its processing in laser powder bed fusion2022In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 412, article id 118024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the impact of powder aging on the degradation of AlSi10Mg powder during processing in laser powder bed fusion. Powder aging as result of handling, continuous storage and recycling is a fundamental concern for aluminum alloys as it introduces oxygen to the feedstock material. In this work, the analysis of the powder properties, affected by laser exposure and the aging procedure, showed a change of chemical and morphological characteristics of the powders in virgin and aged conditions. The oxygen content in the powders appeared to have a significant effect on the powders' surface appearance and light absorbance, gradually deteriorating the processability of the powders with the increase of oxygen level. Optical microscopy and X-ray computed tomography were used to analyze the porosity distribution in the printed part samples, identifying the origin, size and location of the pores. A direct relationship between the pore occurrence in final parts and the oxygen content in the powders was observed, revealing a higher degree of porosity in the aged powder sample (6.5%) in comparison with the virgin state (3.16%). The evolution of mechanical properties in the part samples after laser processing and powder aging was also studied, demonstrating a rapid decrease of ultimate tensile strength and elongation from virgin condition to aged.

  • 4.
    Fedina, Tatiana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Brueckner, Frank
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development. Fraunhofer IWS, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden, Germany.
    Kaplan, Alexander F. H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Wilsnack, Christoph
    Fraunhofer IWS, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden, Germany.
    Laser-assisted reduction of iron ore using aluminum powder2023In: Journal of laser applications, ISSN 1042-346X, E-ISSN 1938-1387, Vol. 35, no 2, article id 022007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on the laser-assisted reduction of iron ore waste using Al powder as areducing agent. Due to climate change and the global warming situation, it has become ofparamount importance to search for and/or develop green and sustainable processes for ironand steel production. In this regard, a new method for iron ore utilization is proposed in thiswork, investigating the possibility of iron ore waste reduction via metallothermic reaction withAl powder. Laser processing of iron ore fines was performed, focusing on the Fe2O3-Alinteraction behavior and extent of the iron ore reduction. The reaction between the materialsproceeded in a rather intense uncontrolled manner which led to a formation of Fe-rich domainsand alumina as two separate phases. In addition, a combination of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 melts aswell as transitional areas such as intermetallics were observed, suggesting the occurrence ofincomplete reduction reaction in isolated regions. The reduced iron droplets were prone toacquire a sphere-like shape and concentrated mainly near the surface of the Al2O3 melt or at theinterface with the iron oxide. Both SEM, EDS and WDS analyses were employed to analyzechemical composition, microstructure and morphological appearances of the reaction products.High-speed imaging was used to study the process phenomena and observe differences in themovement behavior of the particles. Furthermore, the measurements acquired from X-raycomputed microtomography revealed that approximately 2.4 % of iron was reduced during thelaser processing of Fe2O3-Al powder bed, most likely due to insufficient reaction time orinappropriate equivalence ratio of the two components.

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  • 5.
    Fedina, Tatiana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Sundqvist, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Kaplan, Alexander F. H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    The use of non-spherical powder particles in Laser Powder Bed Fusion2021In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2021, Vol. 1135, article id 012018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) generally involves the use of near-spherical powders due to their smooth morphology and enhanced flowability that allow for easier powder layering and laser processing. Non-spherical powders, on the other hand, are more cost-efficient to manufacture, however, the underlying mechanisms of their movement and interparticle interaction on the powder bed are still unclear. Thus, this study reports on the use of irregular iron-based powder material in LPBF, with a specific focus on particle motion and interaction behavior on the powder bed. The powder morphology, sphericity and particle size were analysed using X-ray computed microtomography and scanning electron microscopy. Based on the acquired data and by using a simplified analytical calculation, the influence of the particle shape/size on the particle movement in LPBF was established. High-speed imaging was employed to investigate the particle flow dynamics in the process zone, as well as the powder entrainment phenomenon. Particle entrainment and entrainment distances along the scanning direction were measured for near-spherical and non-spherical powders. The obtained results were compared between the powders, revealing a dissimilar particle transfer behavior. Non-spherical powder had a shorter entrainment distance partly attributed to the weaker drag force acting on these particles.

  • 6.
    Fedina, Tatiana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Sundqvist, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Kaplan, Alexander F.H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Spattering and oxidation phenomena during recycling of low alloy steel powder in Laser Powder Bed Fusion2021In: Materials Today Communications, ISSN 2352-4928, Vol. 27, article id 102241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on the impact of repeated powder recycling on the degradation of low alloy steel powder in Laser Powder Bed Fusion. The average powder particle size increased slightly upon recycling due to powder agglomeration and the presence of spatters and other ejecta from the process zone. The oxygen content showed a continuous growth after each recycle, while the other chemical elements of the recycled powder remained largely unchanged. A map of ejecta classification is presented, featuring various ejecta types formed during laser processing. Ejecta of increased diameter and different shapes were observed in the recycled powder, using high-speed imaging and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The ejecta were collected after each powder recycle to enable the calculation of the ejecta mass generated during the process. The result showed a direct correlation between oxygen content in the powder and spatter/ejecta formation with the number of recycling events. It is likely that the increase in oxygen contributes to powder spattering.

  • 7.
    Fedina, Tatiana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Sundqvist, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Kaplan, Alexander F.H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    The role of powder morphology in particle movement behavior in laser powder bed fusion with an emphasis on fluid drag2022In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 395, p. 720-731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the movement behavior of particles of dissimilar morphology in the powder bed in Laser Powder Bed Fusion. Gas atomized (GA) and water atomized (WA) low alloy steel powders were employed to study their motion around the laser scan path. Particle velocities, entrainment distances and denudation zones were measured for both powders using high-speed imaging. The entrainment of GA powder particles in front of the laser beam towards the process area was initiated 1.6 mm from the edge of the melt pool, whereas the distance was 0.6–0.8 mm for the WA powder. The differences in observed behavior were related to the variations in particle shape of the two types of powder. The processing of WA powder resulted in a 16% narrower denudation zone (for a low volumetric energy density) compared to GA powder. However, the denudation width difference decreased with increasing volumetric energy density, most likely due to a steeper pressure gradient in the process area which diminishes the impact of powder shape. X-ray computed microtomography was utilized to estimate the drag force acting on the powder particles of various morphologies. The results showed that the radial drag force exerted on GA powder was 64% greater than when using WA powder. Moreover, if the WA powder particles were of elongated shape the drag force decreased by almost an order of magnitude, demonstrating the importance of the particle's morphology in the process dynamics.

  • 8.
    Fedina, Tatiana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Sundqvist, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Powell, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Kaplan, Alexander F.H
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    A comparative study of water and gas atomized low alloy steel powders for additive manufacturing2020In: Additive Manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, E-ISSN 2214-7810, Vol. 36, article id 101675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reports a study of the differences between laser processing of water and gas atomized low alloy steel powders with a focus on powder behavior and performance in additive manufacturing. Material packing densities were measured to establish a relationship between powder packing and track formation. The results showed that the track height when using water atomized powder was 15% lower than the value achieved for the gas atomized powder. High-speed imaging was utilized to observe the material behavior and analyze the powder particle movement under laser irradiation. It was found that water atomized powder has less particle entrainment due to its tendency towards mechanical interlocking. The occurrence of powder spattering and melt pool instabilities was also studied. More frequent spatter ejection is believed to be due to the higher amount of oxygen in the water atomized powder.

  • 9.
    Frostevarg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Volpp, Jöerg
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Thompson, Cassidy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Prasad, Himani Siva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Fedina, Tatiana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Brückner, Frank
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development. Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology, Dresden, Germany.
    Influence of the vapour channel on processing in laser powder bed fusion2019In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 36, p. 80-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive Manufacturing provides many opportunities to design and manufacture parts that are difficult or not possible to produce with conventional methods. In Selective Laser Melting (SLM) in powder bed fusion (PBF), melt pool dynamics and stability is dependent on a large number of factors, e.g. laser power output, power density, travel speed, reflectivity of powder bed, rapid heating and vaporization. Since travel speeds are often very fast and the laser interaction zone is small, the physical events become difficult to predict but also to observe. This work aims to describe the formation and geometrical characteristics of the vaporization zone during processing. Using a combination of theoretical descriptions, resulting material structures and a comprehensive analysis of high-speed images of the processing zone for different heat inputs and travel speeds, explanations for the dynamic melt pool behaviour are derived. The melting and pressures from processing involved moves powder particles next to it, changing the conditions for neighbouring tracks due to lack of material. These findings can provide a basis for creating more efficient and stable SLM processing, with fewer imperfections.

  • 10.
    Kaplan, Alexander F. H.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Fedina, Tatiana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development. SWERIM AB, Box 7047, 164 07 Kista, Sweden.
    Brückner, Frank
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development. Fraunhofer IWS, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden, Germany.
    Powell, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development. Laser Expertise Ltd., Nottingham, UK.
    Laser induced reduction of iron ore by silicon2023In: Journal of Alloys and Metallurgical Systems, ISSN 2949-9178, Vol. 4, article id 100039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron ore powder accompanied by Si-powder as a reducing agent, was melted using a high-power laser beam. During laser melting of the two different powder beds placed next to each other, silicon merged and diffused into the iron ore, forming a ternary melt phase Fe-O-Si of around 30–60–10 at%. High speed imaging of the laser melting process as well as subsequent SEM-analysis of the generated nuggets showed the formation of droplets that merge with the surrounding Si- or ore-powder and form distinct domains. Under certain circumstances, the solidifying nuggets, of the order of 0.5–5 mm in size, generated numerous small domains, up to 25 µm, of high purity iron, 90 + at%, surrounded by a matrix of the above mentioned slag. Many of these Fe-domains were created in the vicinity of regions of high Si-content.

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  • 11.
    Kaplan, Alexander F.H.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Fedina, Tatiana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Brückner, Frank
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development. Fraunhofer IWS, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277, Dresden, Germany.
    Study of Si-domains enabling local reduction of laser-melted iron ore for iron-making during 3D-printing2022In: 12th CIRP Conference on Photonic Technologies [LANE 2022] / [ed] M. Schmidt, F. Vollertsen, B.M. Colosimo, Elsevier, 2022, Vol. 111, p. 377-380Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One main issue for global warming are CO2-emissions from iron ore reduction during steelmaking. This study presents a new approach, to merge iron ore powder with a suitable reducing agent, here silicon powder. By laser melting of the powders, some of the generated grains are composed of homogeneous slag, O-Fe-Si about 60-30-10 at.-%. However, other grains indeed contain small domains with high iron content, 90-100 at.-%. Manifold appearances of the iron particles were identified, surrounded preferably by slag but also by accompanying domains of high Si-content. These appearances indicate how ore reduction took place, like spherical growth or irregular drop conglomeration. If the iron particles can be extracted as drops, direct 3D-printing from ore can be enabled, including tailored alloying of iron to steel. Such short value chain would not only be efficient but also aims to cause solely environment-friendly by-products, for example SiO2 instead of CO2.

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