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  • 1. Atkinson, K. R.
    et al.
    Zarnecki, J. C.
    Towner, M. C.
    Ringrose, T. J.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Ball, A. J.
    Leese, M. R.
    Kargl, G.
    Paton, M. D.
    Lorenz, R. D.
    Green, S. F.
    Penetrometry of granular and moist planetary surface materials: Application to the Huygens landing site on Titan2010In: Icarus, Vol. 210, no 2, p. 843-851Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Attree, N.
    et al.
    Earth and Planetary Observation Centre, Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, UK.
    Patel, N.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Hagermann, A.
    Earth and Planetary Observation Centre, Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, UK; School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Grott, M.
    DLR Institute for Planetary Research, Berlin, Germany.
    Spohn, T.
    DLR Institute for Planetary Research, Berlin, Germany.
    Siegler, M.
    Deadman College of Humanities and Sciences, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, USA.
    Potential effects of atmospheric collapse on Martian heat flow and application to the InSight measurements2020In: Planetary and Space Science, ISSN 0032-0633, E-ISSN 1873-5088, Vol. 180, article id 104778Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Attree, Nicholas
    et al.
    Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, UK.
    Kaufmann, Erika
    Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, UK. Institute for Space Research Graz, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, UK.
    Gas flow in Martian spider formation2021In: Icarus, ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 359, article id 114355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Martian araneiform terrain, located in the Southern polar regions, consists of features with central pits and radial troughs which are thought to be associated with the solid state greenhouse effect under a CO2 ice sheet. Sublimation at the base of this ice leads to gas buildup, fracturing of the ice and the flow of gas and entrained regolith out of vents and onto the surface. There are two possible pathways for the gas: through the gap between the ice slab and the underlying regolith, as proposed by Kieffer (2007), or through the pores of a permeable regolith layer, which would imply that regolith properties can control the spacing between adjacent spiders, as suggested by Hao et al. (2019). We test this hypothesis quantitatively in order to place constraints on the regolith properties. Based on previously estimated flow rates and thermophysical arguments, we suggest that there is insufficient depth of porous regolith to support the full gas flow through the regolith. By contrast, free gas flow through a regolith–ice gap is capable of supplying the likely flow rates for gap sizes on the order of a centimetre. This size of gap can be opened in the centre of a spider feature by gas pressure bending the overlying ice slab upwards, or by levitating it entirely as suggested in the original Kieffer (2007) model. Our calculations therefore support at least some of the gas flowing through a gap opened between the regolith and ice. Regolith properties most likely still play a role in the evolution of spider morphology, by regolith cohesion controlling the erosion of the central pit and troughs, for example.

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  • 4. Balme, M.
    et al.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Particle lifting at the soil-air interface by atmospheric pressure excursions in dust devils2006In: Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, no 19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Barrett, A. M.
    et al.
    Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire MK76AA, UK.
    Balme, M. R.
    Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire MK76AA, UK.
    Patel, M. R.
    Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire MK76AA, UK; Space Science and Technology Department, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX, UK.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire MK76AA, UK.
    Clastic patterned ground in Lomonosov crater, Mars: examining fracture controlled formation mechanisms2017In: Icarus, ISSN 0019-1035, Vol. 295, p. 125-139Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Barrett, A. M.
    et al.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Buckinghamshire Milton KeynesMK76AA, UK.
    Balme, M. R.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Buckinghamshire Milton KeynesMK76AA, UK.
    Patel, M. R.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Buckinghamshire Milton KeynesMK76AA, UK; Space Science and Technology Department, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Campus, Oxfordshire, Didcot OX11 0QX, UK.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK.
    The distribution of putative periglacial landforms on the martian northern plains2018In: Icarus, ISSN 0019-1035, Vol. 314, p. 133-148Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Bridges, J.
    et al.
    Hagermann, Axel
    UK Mars research and priorities in the Aurora programme2011In: Astronomy and Geophysics, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 2-34Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Brooker, L. M.
    et al.
    Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK.
    Balme, M. R.
    Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK.
    Conway, S. J.
    CNRS Laboratoire de Planétologie et Géodynamique de Nantes, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniére, 44322 Nantes, France.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK.
    Barrett, A. M.
    Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK.
    Collins, G. S.
    Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College, Kensington, London SW7 2BP, UK.
    Soare, R. J.
    Department of Geography, Dawson College, Montreal H3Z 1A4, Canada.
    Clastic polygonal networks around Lyot crater, Mars: Possible formation mechanisms from morphometric analysis2018In: Icarus, ISSN 0019-1035, Vol. 302, p. 386-406Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Butcher, F. E. G.
    et al.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK; Department of Geography, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK.
    Balme, M. R.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK.
    Conway, S. J.
    CNRS, UMR 6112 Laboratoire de Planétologie et Géodynamique, Université de Nantes, France.
    Gallagher, C.
    UCD School of Geography, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland; UCD Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    Arnold, N. S.
    Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1ER, UK.
    Storrar, R. D.
    Department of the Natural and Built Environment, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, S1 1WB, UK.
    Lewis, S. R.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK.
    Morphometry of a glacier-linked esker in NW Tempe Terra, Mars, and implications for sediment-discharge dynamics of subglacial drainage2020In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, Vol. 542Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Butcher, F. E. G.
    et al.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK.
    Balme, M. R.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK.
    Conway, S. J.
    CNRS, UMR 6112 Laboratoire de Planétologie et Géodynamique, Université de Nantes, France.
    Gallagher, C.
    UCD School of Geography, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland; UCD Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    Arnold, N. S.
    Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1ER, UK.
    Storrar, R. D.
    Department of the Natural and Built Environment, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, S1 1WB, UK.
    Lewis, S. R.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK.
    Davis, J. M.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Natural History Museum, London, UK.
    Sinuous ridges in Chukhung crater, Tempe Terra, Mars: Implications for fluvial, glacial, and glaciofluvial activity2021In: Icarus, ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 357, article id 114131Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Butcher, F. E. G.
    et al.
    School of Physical Sciences, Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Balme, M. R.
    School of Physical Sciences, Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Gallagher, C.
    UCD School of Geography, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland; UCD Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    Arnold, N. S.
    Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Conway, S. J.
    CNRS, UMR 6112 Laboratoire de Planétologie et Géodynamique, Université de Nantes, France.
    Hagermann, A.
    School of Physical Sciences, Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Lewis, S. R.
    School of Physical Sciences, Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Recent Basal Melting of a Mid-Latitude Glacier on Mars2017In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 122, no 12, p. 2445-2468Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Butcher, Frances E.G.
    et al.
    Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Arnold, Neil S.
    Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Balme, Matthew R.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Conway, Susan J.
    CNRS UMR 6112, Laboratoire de Planétologie et Géosciences, Nantes Université, Nantes, France.
    Clark, Christopher D.
    Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Gallagher, Colman
    UCD School of Geography, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; UCD Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Lewis, Stephen R.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Rutledge, Alicia M.
    Department of Astronomy and Planetary Science, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, USA.
    Storrar, Robert D.
    Department of the Natural and Built Environment, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.
    Woodley, Savana Z.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Eskers associated with buried glaciers in Mars' mid latitudes: recent advances and future directions2022In: Annals of Glaciology, ISSN 0260-3055, E-ISSN 1727-5644, Vol. 63, no 87-89, p. 33-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Until recently, the influence of basal liquid water on the evolution of buried glaciers in Mars' mid latitudes was assumed to be negligible because the latter stages of Mars' Amazonian period (3 Ga to present) have long been thought to have been similarly cold and dry to today. Recent identifications of several landforms interpreted as eskers associated with these young (100s Ma) glaciers calls this assumption into doubt. They indicate basal melting (at least locally and transiently) of their parent glaciers. Although rare, they demonstrate a more complex mid-to-late Amazonian environment than was previously understood. Here, we discuss several open questions posed by the existence of glacier-linked eskers on Mars, including on their global-scale abundance and distribution, the drivers and dynamics of melting and drainage, and the fate of meltwater upon reaching the ice margin. Such questions provide rich opportunities for collaboration between the Mars and Earth cryosphere research communities.

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  • 13.
    Chinnery, H. E.
    et al.
    Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Kaufmann, Erika
    Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Lewis, S. R.
    Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    The Penetration of Solar Radiation Into Carbon Dioxide Ice2018In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 123, no 4, p. 864-871Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Chinnery, H. E.
    et al.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.
    Kaufmann, Erika
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.
    Lewis, Stephen R.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom.
    The Penetration of Solar Radiation Into Granular Carbon Dioxide and Water Ices of Varying Grain Sizes on Mars2020In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 125, no 4, article id e2019JE006097Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Chinnery, H. E.
    et al.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.
    Kaufmann, Erika
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.
    Lewis, Stephen R.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom.
    The Penetration of Solar Radiation Into Water and Carbon Dioxide Snow, With Reference to Mars2019In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 124, no 2, p. 337-348Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Cornwall, M.
    et al.
    Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, United Kingdom.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, United Kingdom.
    Planetary heat flow from shallow subsurface measurements: Mars2016In: Planetary and Space Science, ISSN 0032-0633, Vol. 131, p. 46-59Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Gowen, R. A.
    et al.
    Smith, A.
    Fortes, A. D.
    Barber, S.
    Brown, P.
    Church, P.
    Collinson, G.
    Coates, A. J.
    Collins, G.
    Crawford, I. A.
    Dehant, V.
    Chela-Flores, J.
    Griffiths, A. D.
    Grindrod, P. M.
    Gurvits, L. I.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Hussmann, H.
    Jaumann, R.
    Jones, A. P.
    Joy, K. H.
    Karatekin, O.
    Miljkovic, K.
    Palomba, E.
    Pike, W. T.
    Prieto-Ballesteros, O.
    Raulin, F.
    Sephton, M. A.
    Sheridan, S.
    Sims, M.
    Storrie-Lombardi, M. C.
    Ambrosi, R.
    Fielding, J.
    Fraser, G.
    Gao, Y.
    Jones, G. H.
    Kargl, G.
    Karl, W. J.
    MacAgnano, A.
    Mukherjee, A.
    Muller, J. P.
    Phipps, A.
    Pullan, D.
    Richter, L.
    Sohl, F.
    Snape, J.
    Sykes, J.
    Wells, N.
    Penetrators for in situ subsurface investigations of Europa2011In: Advances in Space Research, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 725-742Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Gowen, R.
    et al.
    Smith, A.
    Winter, B.
    Theobald, C.
    Rees, K.
    Ball, A. J.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Sheridan, S.
    Brown, P.
    Oddy, T.
    Dougherty, M.
    Church, P.
    Gao, Y.
    Jones, A.
    Joy, K. H.
    Crawford, I.
    Pike, T.
    Kumar, S.
    Hopf, T.
    Wells, N.
    Green, K.
    Ryden, K.
    An update on MoonLITE2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Grott, M.
    et al.
    German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany.
    Knollenberg, J.
    German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany.
    Hamm, M.
    German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany.
    Ogawa, K.
    Department of Planetology, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan.
    Jaumann, R.
    German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany.
    Otto, K. A.
    German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany.
    Delbo, M.
    Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Nice, France.
    Michel, P.
    Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Nice, France.
    Biele, J.
    German Aerospace Center, Cologne, Germany.
    Neumann, W.
    Institut für Planetologie, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
    Knapmeyer, M.
    German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany.
    Kührt, E.
    German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany.
    Senshu, H.
    Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Japan.
    Okada, T.
    Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Japan.
    Helbert, J.
    German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany.
    Maturilli, A.
    German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany.
    Müller, N.
    German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany.
    Hagermann, Axel
    University of Stirling, Stirling, UK.
    Sakatani, N.
    Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Japan.
    Tanaka, S.
    Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Japan.
    Arai, T.
    Division of System and Information Engineering, Ashikaga University, Tochigi, Japan.
    Mottola, S.
    German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany.
    Tachibana, S.
    UTokyo Organization for Planetary and Space Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Pelivan, I.
    Institute of Mathematics, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany; Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute, Berlin, Germany.
    Drube, L.
    German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany.
    Vincent, J. -B
    German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany.
    Yano, H.
    Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Japan.
    Pilorget, C.
    Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, Université Paris Sud, Orsay, France.
    Matz, K. D.
    German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany.
    Schmitz, N.
    German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany.
    Koncz, A.
    German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany.
    Schröder, S. E.
    German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany.
    Trauthan, F.
    German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany.
    Schlotterer, M.
    German Aerospace Center, Bremen, Germany.
    Krause, C.
    German Aerospace Center, Cologne, Germany.
    Ho, T. -M
    German Aerospace Center, Bremen, Germany.
    Moussi-Soffys, A.
    Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Paris, France.
    Low thermal conductivity boulder with high porosity identified on C-type asteroid (162173) Ryugu2019In: Nature Astronomy, E-ISSN 2397-3366, Vol. 3, no 11, p. 971-976Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20. Hagermann, Axel
    Endpiece: Towards a holistic framework for driving performance in externally-funded academic research2009In: Higher Education Quarterly, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 196-206Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Hagermann, Axel
    Planetary heat flow measurements2005In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 363, no 1837, p. 2777-2791Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Hagermann, Axel
    et al.
    Ball, A. J.
    Hathi, B.
    Leese, M. R.
    Lorenz, R. D.
    Rosenberg, P. D.
    Towner, M. C.
    Zarnecki, J. C.
    Inferring the composition of the liquid surface on Titan at the Huygens probe landing site from Surface Science Package measurements2006In: Advances in Space Research, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 794-798Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23. Hagermann, Axel
    et al.
    Rosenberg, P. D.
    Towner, M. C.
    Garry, J. R. C.
    Svedhem, H.
    Leese, M. R.
    Hathi, B.
    Lorenz, R. D.
    Zarnecki, J. C.
    Speed of sound measurements and the methane abundance in Titan’s atmosphere2007In: Icarus, Vol. 189, no 2, p. 538-543Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24. Hagermann, Axel
    et al.
    Schnepp, E.
    The modified Rankine balance: A highly efficient, low-cost method to measure low-temperature magnetic susceptibility in rock samples2002In: Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 73, no 7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Hagermann, Axel
    et al.
    Spohn, T.
    A method to invert MUPUS temperature recordings for the subsurface temperature field of P/Wirtanen1999In: Advances in Space Research, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 1333-1336Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Hagermann, Axel
    et al.
    Tanaka, S.
    Ejecta deposit thickness, heat flow, and a critical ambiguity on the Moon2006In: Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, no 19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Hagermann, Axel
    et al.
    Zarnecki, J. C.
    Speed of sound in nitrogen as a function of temperature and pressure (L)2005In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 118, no 3 I, p. 1272-1273Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Hagermann, Axel
    et al.
    Zarnecki, J. C.
    Virial treatment of the speed of sound in cold, dense atmospheres and application to Titan2006In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 368, no 1, p. 321-324Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Hagermann, Axel
    et al.
    Zarnecki, J. C.
    Towner, M. C.
    Rosenberg, P. D.
    Lorenz, R. D.
    Leese, M. R.
    Hathi, B.
    Ball, A. J.
    Physical properties as indicators of liquid compositions: Derivation of the composition for Titan’s surface liquids from the Huygens SSP measurements2005In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 359, no 2, p. 637-642Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Harrison, S. K.
    et al.
    Balme, M. R.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Murray, J. B.
    Muller, J. -P
    Mapping Medusae Fossae Formation materials in the southern highlands of Mars2010In: Icarus, Vol. 209, no 2, p. 405-415Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Harrison, S. K.
    et al.
    Geography Department, Staffordshire University, Science Centre, Leek Road, Stoke-on-Trent, ST4 2DF, UK.
    Balme, M. R.
    Geography Department, Staffordshire University, Science Centre, Leek Road, Stoke-on-Trent, ST4 2DF, UK; Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Department of Physical Science, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK.
    Murray, J. B.
    Environment, Earth and Ecosystems, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK.
    Muller, J. -P
    University College London, Department of Space & Climate Physics, Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, RH5 6NT, UK.
    Wilson, A.
    Department of Physical Science, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK.
    A branching, positive relief network in the middle member of the Medusae Fossae Formation, equatorial Mars - Evidence for sapping?2013In: Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 85, p. 142-163Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Hathi, B.
    et al.
    Ball, A. J.
    Banaszkiewicz, M.
    Daniell, P. M.
    Garry, J. R. C.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Leese, M. R.
    Lorenz, R. D.
    Rosenberg, P. D.
    Towner, M. C.
    Zarnecki, J. C.
    In situ thermal conductivity measurements of Titan’s lower atmosphere2008In: Icarus, Vol. 197, no 2, p. 579-584Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33. Hathi, B.
    et al.
    Daniell, P. M.
    Banaszkiewicz, M.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Leese, M. R.
    Zarnecki, J. C.
    Thermal conductivity instrument for measuring planetary atmospheric properties and data analysis technique2007In: Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 585-590Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Kaufmann, E.
    et al.
    Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK.
    Hagermann, A.
    Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK.
    Penetration of solar radiation into pure and Mars-dust contaminated snow2015In: Icarus, ISSN 0019-1035, Vol. 252, p. 144-149Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Kaufmann, Erika
    et al.
    Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK.
    Attree, N.
    Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK.
    Bradwell, T.
    Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK.
    Hardness and Yield Strength of CO 2 Ice Under Martian Temperature Conditions2020In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 125, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Kaufmann, Erika
    et al.
    The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, United Kingdom.
    Hagermann, Axel
    The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, United Kingdom.
    Constraining the parameter space of comet simulation experiments2018In: Icarus, ISSN 0019-1035, Vol. 311, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Kaufmann, Erika
    et al.
    Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK.
    Experimental investigation of insolation-driven dust ejection from Mars'€™ CO2 ice caps2017In: Icarus, ISSN 0019-1035, Vol. 282, p. 118-126Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Kossacki, K. J.
    et al.
    University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Inst. of Geophysics, Pasteura 7, 02-093 Warsaw, Poland.
    Spohn, T.
    DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Berlin, Germany.
    Hagermann, Axel
    The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Kaufmann, Erika
    The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Kührt, E.
    DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Berlin, Germany.
    Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko: Hardening of the sub-surface layer2015In: Icarus, ISSN 0019-1035, Vol. 260, p. 464-474Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39. Kömle, N. I.
    et al.
    Hütter, E. S.
    Macher, W.
    Kaufmann, Erika
    Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz, Austria.
    Kargl, G.
    Knollenberg, J.
    Grott, M.
    Spohn, T.
    Wawrzaszek, R.
    Banaszkiewicz, M.
    Seweryn, K.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Centre for Earth, Planetary, Space and Astronomical Research (CEPSAR), Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    In situ methods for measuring thermal properties and heat flux on planetary bodies2011In: Planetary and Space Science, ISSN 0032-0633, E-ISSN 1873-5088, Vol. 59, no 8, p. 639-660Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Lethuillier, A.
    et al.
    Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik (IGeP), TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Feller, C.
    Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland.
    Kaufmann, Erika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Science, Schmiedlstraße 6, A-8042 Graz, Austria.
    Becerra, P.
    Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland.
    Hänni, N.
    Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland.
    Diethelm, R.
    Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik (IGeP), TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Kreuzig, C.
    Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik (IGeP), TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Gundlach, B.
    Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik (IGeP), TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Blum, J.
    Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik (IGeP), TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Pommerol, A.
    Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland.
    Kargl, G.
    Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Science, Schmiedlstraße 6, A-8042 Graz, Austria.
    Laddha, S.
    Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Science, Schmiedlstraße 6, A-8042 Graz, Austria.
    Denisova, K.
    Institut für Physik der Kondensierten Materie (IPKM), TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Kührt, E.
    Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Rutherfordstraße 2, D-12489 Berlin-Adlershof, Germany.
    Capelo, H. L.
    Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland.
    Haack, D.
    Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Rutherfordstraße 2, D-12489 Berlin-Adlershof, Germany.
    Zhang, X.
    Qian Xuesen Laboratory of Space Technology, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100094, China.
    Knollenberg, J.
    Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Rutherfordstraße 2, D-12489 Berlin-Adlershof, Germany.
    Molinski, N. S.
    Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik (IGeP), TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Gilke, T.
    Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik (IGeP), TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Sierks, H.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, ¨ Germany.
    Tiefenbacher, P.
    Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Science, Schmiedlstraße 6, A-8042 Graz, Austria.
    Güttler, C.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, ¨ Germany.
    Otto, K. A.
    Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Rutherfordstraße 2, D-12489 Berlin-Adlershof, Germany.
    Bischoff, D.
    Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik (IGeP), TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Schweighart, M.
    Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Science, Schmiedlstraße 6, A-8042 Graz, Austria.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Jäggi, N.
    Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland.
    Cometary dust analogues for physics experiments2022In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 515, no 3, p. 3420-3438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The CoPhyLab (Cometary Physics Laboratory) project is designed to study the physics of comets through a series of earth-based experiments. For these experiments, a dust analogue was created with physical properties comparable to those of the non-volatile dust found on comets. This ‘CoPhyLab dust’ is planned to be mixed with water and CO2 ice and placed under cometary conditions in vacuum chambers to study the physical processes taking place on the nuclei of comets. In order to develop this dust analogue, we mixed two components representative for the non-volatile materials present in cometary nuclei. We chose silica dust as a representative for the mineral phase and charcoal for the organic phase, which also acts as a darkening agent. In this paper, we provide an overview of known cometary analogues before presenting measurements of eight physical properties of different mixtures of the two materials and a comparison of these measurements with known cometary values. The physical properties of interest are particle size, density, gas permeability, spectrophotometry, and mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. We found that the analogue dust that matches the highest number of physical properties of cometary materials consists of a mixture of either 60 per cent/40 per cent or 70 per cent/30 per cent of silica dust/charcoal by mass. These best-fit dust analogue will be used in future CoPhyLab experiments.

  • 41.
    Lorenz, R. D.
    et al.
    Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723, USA.
    Leese, M. R.
    The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Hathi, B.
    The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Zarnecki, J. C.
    The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Hagermann, Axel
    The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Rosenberg, P.
    University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Towner, M. C.
    Department of Applied Geology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Garry, J.
    Red Core Consulting, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.
    Svedhem, H.
    European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
    Silence on Shangri-La: Attenuation of Huygens acoustic signals suggests surface volatiles2014In: Planetary and Space Science, ISSN 0032-0633, Vol. 90, p. 72-80Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42. Lorenz, R. D.
    et al.
    Zarnecki, J. C.
    Towner, M. C.
    Leese, M. R.
    Ball, A. J.
    Hathi, B.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Ghafoor, N. A. L.
    Descent motions of the Huygens probe as measured by the Surface Science Package (SSP): Turbulent evidence for a cloud layer2007In: Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 55, no 13, p. 1936-1948Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43. Marczewski, W.
    et al.
    Schröer, K.
    Seiferlin, K.
    Usowicz, B.
    Banaszkiewicz, M.
    Hlond, M.
    Grygorczuk, J.
    Gadomski, S.
    Krasowski, J.
    Gregorczyk, W.
    Kargl, G.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Ball, A. J.
    KÃŒhrt, E.
    Knollenberg, J.
    Spohn, T.
    Prelaunch performance evaluation of the cometary experiment MUPUS-TP2004In: Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, Vol. 109, no 7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Michikami, T.
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, Kinki University, Hiroshima Campus, 1 Takaya Umenobe, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-2116, Japan.
    Hagermann, A.
    Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, United Kingdom.
    Miyamoto, H.
    The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyoku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.
    Miura, S.
    Tokuyama College of Technology, Shunan, Yamaguchi 745-8585, Japan.
    Haruyama, J.
    Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-8510, Japan.
    Lykawka, P. S.
    Astronomy Group, Faculty of Social and Natural Sciences, Kinki University, Higashi-osaka, Osaka 577-0813, Japan.
    Impact cratering experiments in brittle targets with variable thickness: Implications for deep pit craters on Mars2014In: Planetary and Space Science, ISSN 0032-0633, Vol. 96, p. 71-80Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Michikami, T.
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, Kindai University, Hiroshima Campus, 1 Takaya Umenobe, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima, 739-2116, Japan.
    Hagermann, A.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, FK9 4LA, United Kingdom.
    Tsuchiyama, A.
    Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga, 525-8577, Japan; Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Wushan, Tianhe District, Guangzhou, 510640, China.
    Yamaguchi, H.
    Division of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8052, Japan.
    Irie, T.
    Faculty of Engineering, Kindai University, Hiroshima Campus, 1 Takaya Umenobe, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima, 739-2116, Japan.
    Nomura, K.
    Faculty of Engineering, Kindai University, Hiroshima Campus, 1 Takaya Umenobe, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima, 739-2116, Japan.
    Sasaki, O.
    Division of GeoEnvironmental Science, Department of Earth Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8578, Japan.
    Nakamura, M.
    Department of Earth Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8578, Japan.
    Okumura, S.
    Department of Earth Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8578, Japan.
    Hasegawa, S.
    Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-8510, Japan.
    Three-dimensional imaging of crack growth in L chondrites after high-velocity impact experiments2019In: Planetary and Space Science, ISSN 0032-0633, E-ISSN 1873-5088, Vol. 177, article id 104690Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Michikami, T.
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, Kinki University, Hiroshima Campus, 1 Takaya Umenobe, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-2116, Japan.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, United Kingdom.
    Kadokawa, T.
    Division of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kiashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8052, Japan.
    Yoshida, A.
    Faculty of Engineering, Kinki University, Hiroshima Campus, 1 Takaya Umenobe, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-2116, Japan.
    Shimada, A.
    Division of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kiashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8052, Japan.
    Hasegawa, S.
    Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-8510, Japan.
    Tsuchiyama, A.
    Division of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kiashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8052, Japan.
    Fragment shapes in impact experiments ranging from cratering to catastrophic disruption2016In: Icarus, ISSN 0019-1035, Vol. 264, p. 316-330Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Michikami, T.
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, Kindai University, Hiroshima Campus, 1 Takaya Umenobe, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-2116, Japan.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, United Kingdom.
    Morota, T.
    Graduate School of Environmental Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602, Japan.
    Haruyama, J.
    Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-8510, Japan.
    Hasegawa, S.
    Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-8510, Japan.
    Oblique impact cratering experiments in brittle targets: Implications for elliptical craters on the Moon2017In: Planetary and Space Science, ISSN 0032-0633, Vol. 135, p. 27-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48. Michikami, T.
    et al.
    Honda, C.
    Miyamoto, H.
    Hirabayashi, M.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Irie, T.
    Nomura, K.
    Ernst, C. M.
    Kawamura, M.
    Sugimoto, K.
    Tatsumi, E.
    Morota, T.
    Hirata, N.
    Noguchi, T.
    Cho, Y.
    Kameda, S.
    Kouyama, T.
    Yokota, Y.
    Noguchi, R.
    Hayakawa, M.
    Honda, R.
    Matsuoka, M.
    Sakatani, N.
    Suzuki, H.
    Yamada, M.
    Yoshioka, K.
    Sawada, H.
    Hemmi, R.
    Kikuchi, H.
    Ogawa, K.
    Watanabe, S. -I
    Tanaka, S.
    Yoshikawa, M.
    Tsuda, Y.
    Sugita, S.
    Boulder size and shape distributions on asteroid Ryugu2019In: Icarus, ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 331, p. 179-191Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Michikami, T.
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, Kindai University, Hiroshima Campus, 1 Takaya Umenobe, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-2116, Japan.
    Kadokawa, T.
    Division of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kiashirakawao Iwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8052, Japan.
    Tsuchiyama, A.
    Division of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kiashirakawao Iwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8052, Japan.
    Hagermann, Axel
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, United Kingdom.
    Nakano, T.
    Geological Survey of Japan, National Institute of Advanced, Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, 305-8568, Japan.
    Uesugi, K.
    Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute (JASRI)/SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo, 679-5198, Japan.
    Hasegawa, S.
    Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-8510, Japan.
    Influence of petrographic textures on the shapes of impact experiment fine fragments measuring several tens of microns: Comparison with Itokawa regolith particles2018In: Icarus, ISSN 0019-1035, Vol. 302, p. 109-125Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Michikami, Tatsuhiro
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, Kindai University, Hiroshima Campus, 1 Takaya Umenobe, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-2116, Japan.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Boulder sizes and shapes on asteroids: A comparative study of Eros, Itokawa and Ryugu2021In: Icarus, ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 357, article id 114282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to understand the geological evolution of asteroids Eros, Itokawa and Ryugu and their collisional history, previous studies investigated boulder size distributions on their surfaces. However, quantitative comparison of these size distributions is hampered by numerous differences between these studies regarding the definition of a boulder's size, measuring technique and the fitting method to determine the power-index of the boulder size distributions. We provide a consistent and coherent model of boulder size distributions by remeasuring the boulders on the entire surfaces of Eros and Itokawa using the Small Body Mapping Tool (SBMT) and combining our observations with the Ryugu data of Michikami et al. (2019). We derived power-indices of the boulder size distributions of −3.25 ± 0.14 for Eros, −3.05 ± 0.14 for Itokawa and −2.65 ± 0.05 for Ryugu. The asteroid with the highest number density of boulders ≥ 5 m turns out to be Ryugu, not Itokawa, as suggested by an earlier study. We show that the appearance of the boulders tends towards more elongated shapes as the size of an asteroid decreases, which can be explained by differences in asteroid gravity and boulder friction angles. Our quantitative observational results indicate that boulder migration preferentially affects smaller boulders, and tends to occur on larger asteroids.

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