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  • 1.
    Beryani, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Datasets of a stormwater treatment train facility consisting of a gross pollutant trap and biofilters/sand filter in Sundsvall, Sweden2023Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The data were collected from a stormwater treatment train facility in Sundsvall, Sweden. The facility consists of a gross pollutant trap (GPT) followed by three parallel biofilter cells: a vegetated, chalk-amended biofilter (BFC or F1), a non-vegetated sand filter (SF or F2), and a vegetated biofilter (BF or F3).One of the objectives of our research project was to assess and monitor stormwater quality received from a major road catchment (incl. E4 highway bridge in Sundsvall) and also evaluate the performance of the various sections of the treatment train in removing organic micropollutants from the stormwater.

    The file named "StormwaterRunoffQualityData_SND.csv" contains event mean concentration (EMC) data on stormwater samples collected from 8 rain events (coded by A to H) in one year between September 2020 and September 2021. The samples have been analyzed for organic micropollutants and global water quality parameters (42 parameters in total). EMCs have been mathematically generated by a Monte-Carlo simulation from measured concentrations in sub-samples collected during each event. The data elaborate on the generated distribution for each EMC with Q2.5, Q50, and Q97.5 percentiles and standard deviation from the mean. Besides, the number of detected and non-detected (censored) data of sub-samples are mentioned. The list of all pollutants and their abbreviations are included in the documentation file named "StormwaterRunoffQualityData_SND.docx". Stormwater flow data are also presented in the file "VolumeData_Stormwater_SND.csv".

    The file named "TreatmentTrainQualityData_SND.csv" presents event mean concentration (EMC) data not only for the stormwater runoff quality but also for the treated stormwater in the GPT-biofilter/sand filter treatment train downstream of the catchment. In addition to the untreated stormwater runoff as the system's inflow (SW), EMCs have been presented for 4 more sampling points: GPT outflow (GPT), vegetated, chalk-amended biofilter outflow (BFC), non-vegetated sand filter (SF), and vegetated biofilter outflow (BF). For this part of the research, a total of 11 rain events (coded by A to K) were covered from Sep. 2020 until Sep. 2021. The samples have been analyzed for organic micropollutants and other conventional water quality parameters (42 parameters in total). EMCs have been mathematically generated by a Monte-Carlo simulation from measured concentrations in sub-samples collected during each event. The data present a distribution for each EMC with Q2.5, Q50, and Q97.5 percentiles and standard deviation from the mean. The number of detected and non-detected (censored) data of sub-samples is also mentioned. The list of all pollutants and their abbreviations are included in the documentation file named "TreatmentTrainQualityData_SND.docx". Flow data are also presented in the file "VolumeData_Treatment train_SND.csv".

  • 2.
    Beryani, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Managing environmental risk of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in highway stormwater: Role of gross pollutant trap-biofilter treatment train: [Gestion du risque environnemental des micropolluants organiques (OMP) dans les eaux pluviales des autoroutes: Rôle de la chaîne de traitement piège à polluant brut-biofilter]2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
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  • 3.
    Beryani, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Occurrence and concentrations of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in highway stormwater: a comparative field study in Sweden2023In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 30, no 31, p. 77299-77317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study details the occurrence and concentrations of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in stormwater collected from a highway bridge catchment in Sweden. The prioritized OMPs were bisphenol-A (BPA), eight alkylphenols, sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and four fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), along with other global parameters, namely, total organic carbon (TOC), total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, and conductivity (EC). A Monte Carlo (MC) simulation was applied to estimate the event mean concentrations (EMC) of OMPs based on intra-event subsamples during eight rain events, and analyze the associated uncertainties. Assessing the occurrence of all OMPs in the catchment and comparing the EMC values with corresponding environmental quality standards (EQSs) revealed that BPA, octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP), five carcinogenic and four non-carcinogenic PAHs, and C16-C40 fractions of PHCs can be problematic for freshwater. On the other hand, alkylphenol ethoxylates (OPnEO and NPnEO), six low molecule weight PAHs, and lighter fractions of PHCs (C10-C16) do not occur at levels that are expected to pose an environmental risk. Our data analysis revealed that turbidity has a strong correlation with PAHs, PHCs, and TSS; and TOC and EC highly associated with BPA concentrations. Furthermore, the EMC error analysis showed that high uncertainty in OMP data can influence the final interpretation of EMC values. As such, some of the challenges that were experienced in the presented research yielded suggestions for future monitoring programs to obtain more reliable data acquisition and analysis.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Beryani, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Performance of a gross pollutant trap-biofilter and sand filter treatment train for the removal of organic micropollutants from highway stormwater (Field study)2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 900, article id 165734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This field study assessed the occurrence, event mean concentrations (EMCs), and removal of selected organic micro-pollutants (OMPs), namely, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), nonylphenol (NP), 4-t-octylphenol (OP), and bisphenol A (BPA), in a gross pollutant trap (GPT)-biofilter/sand filter stormwater treatment train in Sundsvall, Sweden. The effects of design features of each treatment unit, including pre-sedimentation (GPT), sand filter medium, vegetation, and chalk amendment, were investigated by comparing the units' removal performances. Overall, the treatment train removed most OMPs from highway runoff effectively. The results showed that although the sand filter provided moderate (<50 % for phenolic substances) to high (50–80 % for PAHs and PHCs) removal of OMPs, adding a vegetated soil layer on top of the sand filter considerably improved the removal performance (by at least 30 %), especially for BPA, OP, and suspended solids. Moreover, GTP did not contribute to the treatment significantly. Uncertainties in the removal efficiencies of PAHs and PHCs by the filter cells increased substantially when the ratio of the influent concentration to the limit of quantification decreased. Thus, accounting for such uncertainties due to the low OMP concentrations should be considered when evaluating the removal performance of biofilters.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Heléne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Contamination of Urban Stormwater Pond Sediments: A Study of 259 Legacy and Contemporary Organic Substances2021In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 3009-3020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater ponds improve water quality by facilitating the sedimentation of particles and particulate contaminants from urban runoff. Over time, this function entails the accumulation of contaminated sediments, which must be removed periodically to maintain a pond’s hydraulic and treatment capacity. In this study, sediments from 17 stormwater sedimentation facilities from four Swedish municipalities were analyzed for 259 organic substances likely to be found in the urban environment. A total of 92 substances were detected in at least one sample, while as many as 52 substances were detected in a single sample. A typical profile of urban contamination was identified, including polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organotins, aliphatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, aldehydes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, perfluorinated substances, and alkylphenols. However, levels of contamination varied greatly between ponds, influenced heavily by the dilution of urban pollutants and wear particles from other sources of particles such as eroded soil, sand, or natural organic matter. For 22 of 32 samples, the observed concentrations of at least one organic substance exceeded the regulatory threshold values derived from toxicity data for both sediment and soil.

  • 6.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    et al.
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Branchu, Philippe
    CEREMA, 12 Rue Léon Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes, France.
    Boudahmane, Lila
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Caupos, Emilie
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Demare, Dominique
    IFSTTAR, Laboratoire Eau et Environnement- route de Bouaye CS4, 44344 Bouguenais CEDEX, France.
    Deshayes, Steven
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Dubois, Philippe
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Kajeiou, Meriem
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Meffray, Laurent
    CEREMA, 12 Rue Léon Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes, France.
    Partibane, Chandirane
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Saad, Mohamed
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Vitart de Abreu Lima, Maria
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Gromaire, Marie-Christine
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Stochastic Method for Evaluating Removal, Fate and Associated Uncertainties of Micropollutants in a Stormwater Biofilter at an Annual Scale2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A stochastic method for evaluating the in situ mass balance of micropollutants in a stormwater biofilter, accounting for inlet and outlet loads and the evolution of pollutant mass in the filter media (&Delta;Msoil) at an annual scale, is proposed. In the field context, this type of calculation presents a number of methodological challenges, associated with estimating water quality for unsampled rain events, reconstituting missing or invalidated flow data and accounting for significant uncertainties associated with these estimations and experimental measurements. The method is applied to a biofiltration swale treating road runoff for two trace metals, Cu and Zn and six organic micropollutants: pyrene (Pyr), phenanthrene (Phen), bisphenol-A (BPA), octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Pollutant loads were reduced by 27&ndash;72%. While organic micropollutants are likely to be lost to degradation or volatilization processes in such systems, dissipation could not be demonstrated for any of the organic micropollutants studied due to emissions from construction materials (case of BPA, OP, NP and DEHP) or high uncertainties in &Delta;Msoil (case of Pyr and Phen). The necessary conditions for establishing an in situ mass balance demonstrating dissipation, which include acquisition of data associated with all terms over a period long enough that uncertainty propagation is limited and the absence of additional sources of pollutants in the field, are discussed.

  • 7.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    et al.
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 Avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455, Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Branchu, Philippe
    CEREMA, 12 Rue Léon Teisserenc de Bort, 78190, Trappes, France.
    Boudahmane, Lila
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 Avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455, Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Caupos, Emilie
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 Avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455, Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Demare, Dominique
    IFSTTAR, Laboratoire Eau et Environnement, Route de Bouaye CS4, 44344, Bouguenais Cedex, France.
    Deshayes, Steven
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 Avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455, Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Dubois, Philippe
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 Avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455, Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Meffray, Laurent
    CEREMA, 12 Rue Léon Teisserenc de Bort, 78190, Trappes, France.
    Partibane, Chandirane
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 Avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455, Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Saad, Mohamed
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 Avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455, Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Gromaire, Marie-Christine
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 Avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455, Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Field performance of two biofiltration systems treating micropollutants from road runoff2018In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 145, p. 562-578, article id S0043-1354(18)30694-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The treatment efficiency of a vegetative filter strip and a biofiltration swale treating heavily loaded road runoff are evaluated. Concentrations measured in water drained from the two systems are compared to those in untreated road runoff collected from a reference catchment for a wide range of contaminants including organic carbon, nutrients (N and P), trace metals, and organic micropollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), alkylphenols, bisphenol-A, phthalates), in both total and dissolved phases. Predominantly particulate pollutants, including Pb, Zn and PAH, were very efficiently removed (around 90%) for most events. However, poor particulate removal was observed during a winter period. Relatively few pollutants were significantly removed in the dissolved phase and observed concentration reductions tended to be lower than those of suspended solids and associated pollutants; as such, lower removals were observed for total concentrations of moderately particulate micropollutants, including bisphenol-A, alkylphenols and phthalates. In addition, some pollutants appear to be emitted from various biofilter components (filter media, drainage and lining materials), as low or negative concentration removals were observed during the first months of operation of the biofiltration swale.

  • 8.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    et al.
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Branchu, Philippe
    Cerema, 12 Rue Léon Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes, France.
    Boudahmane, Lila
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Caupos, Emilie
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Demare, Dominique
    IFSTTAR, Laboratoire Eau et Environnement, route de Bouaye CS4, 44344 Bouguenais Cedex, France.
    Deshayes, Steven
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Dubois, Philippe
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Meffray, Laurent
    Cerema, 12 Rue Léon Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes, France.
    Partibane, Chandirane
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Saad, Mohamed
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Gromaire, Marie-Christine
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Retention and transport processes of particulate and dissolved micropollutants in stormwater biofilters treating road runoff.2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 656, p. 1178-1190, article id S0048-9697(18)34660-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road runoff is contaminated by various micropollutants and may be treated using low impact development techniques, such as stormwater biofilters. Better understanding the processes, such as filtration, sorption and leaching, which affect pollutants in these systems is essential to reliably predicting treatment performance and optimizing system design. Field data from an in situ monitoring campaign, wherein dissolved and particulate concentrations of a wide range of micropollutants (trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bisphenol-A, alkylphenols and phthalates) were characterized in untreated road runoff and biofilter outlets for 19 rain events, are used to explore transport and retention processes. Although retention of the particulate phase of pollutants was generally quite effective, unusually high particle concentrations were observed at biofilter outlets for three winter events. Particle characterization in road runoff and outlet waters revealed that this degraded performance was due to poor filtration rather than particle erosion, which was attributed to the relative abundance of small (<10 μm) particles during this period, along with possible preferential flows. Dissolved pollutants were less effectively removed in general. To better understand this behavior, field results were combined with laboratory sorption and leaching tests. Dissolved concentrations of trace metals were shown to be influenced by organic carbon; leaching from road-originated particles may also influence their transport. Removal of the dissolved phase of organic micropollutants was limited by the contamination of the filter media, either before installation or during the first period of operation, due to emissions from construction materials.

  • 9.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    et al.
    Laboratoire Eau, Environnement et Systèmes Urbains, Université de Paris-Est – Ecole des Ponts Paris-Tech, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, Champs-sur-Marne, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Branchu, Philippe
    Cerema/DTer Ile-de-France, 12 rue Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes, France.
    Ramier, David
    erema/DTer Ile-de-France, 12 rue Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes, France.
    Gromaire, Marie-Christine
    Laboratoire Eau, Environnement et Systèmes Urbains, Université de Paris-Est – Ecole des Ponts Paris-Tech, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, Champs-sur-Marne, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Evaluation of the relative roles of a vegetative filter strip and a biofiltration swale in a treatment train for road runoff.2017In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 75, no 3-4, p. 987-997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to determine the relative importance of a vegetative filter strip and a biofiltration swale in a treatment train for road runoff, US EPA Storm Water Management Model was used to model infiltration and runoff from the filter strip. The model consisted of a series of subcatchments representing the road, the filter strip and the side-slopes of the swale. Simulations were carried out for different rain scenarios representing a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was conducted for the model's different parameters (soil characteristics and initial humidity, roughness, geometry, etc.). This exercise showed that for the system studied, the majority of road runoff is treated by the filter strip rather than the biofiltration swale, an effect observed especially during periods of low-intensity rainfall. Additionally, it was observed that the combination of infiltration of road runoff in the filter strip and direct rainfall on the system leads to a significant and variable dilution of the runoff reaching the swale. This result has important implications for evaluating the treatment efficiency of the system.

  • 10.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Université Paris Est, LEESU (MA102), École des Ponts ParisTech , UPEC, AgroParisTech, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, F 77455 Marne la Vallée cedex 2.
    Cartwright, Mathilde
    Université Paris Est, LEESU (MA102), École des Ponts ParisTech , UPEC, AgroParisTech, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, F 77455 Marne la Vallée cedex 2.
    Shen, Pengfei
    Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton, Victoria, 3810, Australia.
    McCarthy, David
    Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton, Victoria, 3810, Australia.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gromaire, Marie-Christine
    Université Paris Est, LEESU (MA102), École des Ponts ParisTech , UPEC, AgroParisTech, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, F 77455 Marne la Vallée cedex 2.
    Treatment of micropollutants in stormwater biofilters: comparing model results with field and lab data: [Traitement de micropolluants par une noue filtrante : confrontation d’un modèle aux données expérimentales]2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Furén, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. NCC Sverige AB, Department of Research and Innovation.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Winston, Ryan
    Department of Food, Agriculture, and Biological Engineering, Deprtment of Civil, Environmental, and Geodetic Engineering, Core Faculty, Sustainability Institute, Ohio State University.
    Dorsey, Jay
    Department of Food, Agriculture, and Biological Engineering, Deprtment of Civil, Environmental, and Geodetic Engineering, Core Faculty, Sustainability Institute, Ohio State University.
    Tirpak, Andrew
    Department of Food, Agriculture, and Biological Engineering, Deprtment of Civil, Environmental, and Geodetic Engineering, Core Faculty, Sustainability Institute, Ohio State University.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Occurrence and concentrations of organic micropollutants in bioretention filter media2021Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 12.
    Furén, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. NCC Sverige AB, Department of Research & Innovation, 170 80 Solna, Sweden.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Winston, Ryan J.
    Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States; Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geodetic Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.
    Tirpak, R. Andrew
    Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.
    Dorsey, Jay D.
    Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Occurrence, concentration, and distribution of 38 organic micropollutants in the filter material of 12 stormwater bioretention facilities2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 846, article id 157372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of bioretention facilities as a low impact development measure for treating stormwater runoff underscores the need to further understand their long-term function. Eventually, bioretention filter media must be (partly) replaced and disposed of at the end of its functional lifespan. While there are several studies of metal accumulation and distributions in bioretention media, less is known about organic pollutant pathways and accumulation in these filters. The present study considers the occurrence and accumulation of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls, 13 phthalates, and two alkylphenols throughout 12 older bioretention facilities (7–13 years old) used for stormwater treatment in Michigan and Ohio, USA. These pollutant groups appear to behave similarly, with greater instances of detection and higher concentrations in the upper media layers which decrease with increased depth from the surface. The patterns of detection and concentration in the filter material may be explained by characteristics of the pollutants, such as molecular structures and solubility that affect the removal of the organic pollutants by the filter material. There is also a large variation in concentration magnitudes between the bioretention sites, most likely due to differences in pollutant sources, contributing catchment size and/or land uses.

  • 13.
    Gasperi, Johnny
    et al.
    GERS-LEE, UniversitéGustave Eiffel, IFSTTAR, F-44344 Bouguenais, France; Leesu, UniversitéParis Est Creteil, Ecole des Ponts, F-94010 Creteil, France.
    Le Roux, Julien
    Leesu, UniversitéParis Est Creteil, Ecole des Ponts, F-94010 Creteil, France.
    Deshayes, Steven
    Leesu, Ecole des Ponts, Université Paris Est Creteil, F-77455 Marne-la-Vallee, France.
    Ayrault, Sophie
    LSCE-IPSL, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Bordier, Louise
    LSCE-IPSL, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Boudahmane, Lila
    Leesu, UniversitéParis Est Creteil, Ecole des Ponts, F-94010 Creteil, France.
    Budzinski, Hélène
    UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, F-33400 Talence, France.
    Caupos, Emilie
    Leesu, Université Paris Est Creteil, Ecole des Ponts, F-94010 Creteil, France.
    Caubrière, Nadège
    GERS-LEE, Université Gustave Eiffel, IFSTTAR, F-44344 Bouguenais, France.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Leesu, Ecole des Ponts, Université Paris Est Creteil, F-77455 Marne-la-Vallee, France.
    Guillon, Martin
    GERS-LEE, Université Gustave Eiffel, IFSTTAR, F-44344 Bouguenais, France.
    Huynh, Nina
    Leesu, Université Paris Est Creteil, Ecole des Ponts, F-94010 Creteil, France.
    Labadie, Pierre
    UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, F-33400 Talence, France.
    Meffray, Laurent
    CEREMA, Equipe de Recherche Team, 12 rue Teisserenc de Bort, F-78190 Trappes, France; Aquatycia 7/9ter rue Parmentier, F-94140 Alfortville, France.
    Neveu, Pascale
    STEA, Ville de Paris, F-75000 Paris, France.
    Partibane, Chandirane
    Leesu, Ecole des Ponts, Université Paris Est Creteil, F-77455 Marne-la-Vallee, France.
    Paupardin, Julien
    DEA, Conseil Départemental de la Seine St Denis, F-93110 Rosny-sous-Bois, France.
    Saad, Mohamed
    Leesu, Ecole des Ponts, Université Paris Est Creteil, F-77455 Marne-la-Vallee, France.
    Varnede, Lucie
    CEREMA, Equipe de Recherche Team, 12 rue Teisserenc de Bort, F-78190 Trappes, France; Ecovegetal, Les Grandes Pieces, F-28410 Broue, France.
    Gromaire, Marie-Christine
    Leesu, Ecole des Ponts, Université Paris Est Creteil, F-77455 Marne-la-Vallee, France.
    Micropollutants in Urban Runoff from Traffic Areas: Target and Non-Target Screening on Four Contrasted Sites2022In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 14, no 3, article id 394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Projected changes in temperature and precipitation in mid-latitude wet regions are expected to significantly affect forest ecosystems. We studied the physiological and shoot growth responses of Abies holophylla and Abies koreana seedlings to warming (3◦C above ambient temperature) and increased precipitation (irrigation with 40% of rainfall) treatments under open-field conditions. The physiological parameters, quantified by the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and total chlorophyll content, were monitored from July to October 2018. Shoot growth (i.e., root collar diameter and height) was assessed in August and December 2018. Irrespective of the treatments, the physiological parameters of both species decreased from July to August under warming treatment due to heat stress before recovering in September and October. Warming alone (W) and warming along with increased precipitation (W*P) decreased the physiological activities of both species in July, August, and September, with more pronounced effects on A. koreana compared with A. holophylla. Increased precipitation resulted in the increased chlorophyll content of both species in October. Shoot growth was not generally affected by the treatments, except for a subtle reduction in height under W*P for A. koreana. A. holophylla had consistently higher values for the physiological parameters and shoot growth than A. koreana. Our results indicate that the physiological activities of the Abies species could be seriously reduced under climate change, with a more severe impact on A. koreana. Among the two species, A. holophylla appears to be a more robust candidate for future forest planting.

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  • 14.
    Gavric, Snezana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Facilitating maintenance of stormwater ponds: comparison of analytical methods for determination of metal pollution2022In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 29, no 49, p. 74877-74893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater ponds are widely used for controlling runoff quality through the sedimentation of particles and associated pollutants. Their maintenance requires regular removal and disposal of accumulated material. This necessitates an assessment of material hazardousness, including potential hazard due to its contamination by metals. Here we analyze 32 stormwater pond sediment samples from 17 facilities using several chemical analysis methods (total extraction, sequential extraction, diffusive gradients in thin-films DGT, and pore water extraction) in order to consider the complementarity and comparability of the different approaches. No clear relationship was found between analyses that have the potential to measure similar metal fractions (DGT and either fraction 1 of the sequential extraction (adsorbed and exchangeable metals and carbonates) or pore water concentrations). Loss on ignition (LOI) had a significant positive correlation with an indicator of the environmental risk developed in this paper (∑ranks) that incorporates different metals, speciations, and environmental endpoints. Large variations in metal levels were observed between ponds. As clustering was limited between the different analyses, a comprehensive analysis of different parameters is still needed to fully understand metal speciation and bioavailability.

  • 15.
    Gavrić, Snežana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Wei, Haoyu
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Heléne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Lundy, Lian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Accumulation and contamination of gully pot sediments from varied land-use types: metal loads, concentrations and speciation2023In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 30, p. 109825-109840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban stormwater typically enters sewer networks through gully pots, which allow a primary sedimentation of solids upstream of the piped network. The regular removal and disposal of retained sediment are necessary, costly and can involve environmental risks due to the contamination of sediments with substances from the urban environment such as metals. The concentrations and speciation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were analysed in sediments from 26 gully pots located in different land use areas in Stockholm, Sweden. In addition, accumulation rates of both sediment and metal masses were evaluated, providing a basis for optimising maintenance practices and better understanding of impacts of characteristic urban land use types. Metal concentrations varied by at most a factor of eight between samples and were always below Swedish polluted site guidelines for less sensitive land use, with only eight samples exceeding the guideline values for Cu and Zn for sensitive land use. Sequential extraction showed Pb and Zn to be the most mobile metals. Sediment accumulation rates varied from 0.003 to 0.197 kg/m2 impermeable surface/year. Metal accumulation rates were much more variable than metal concentrations, with a factor of up to 172 between the highest and lowest rates and the highest metal accumulation rates corresponding to the lower range of mass loads in road runoff. Differences in metal concentrations, sediment or metal mass accumulations could not be solely attributed to either traffic or catchment land use. In contrast, traction grit used for winter road maintenance, which has low (but detectable) metal concentrations, is identified as a major component of gully pot sediments, with a combined effect of both moderating metal concentrations and contributing to total mass.

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  • 16.
    Mantilla, Ivan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Broekhuizen, Ico
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Muthanna, Tone
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Evaluating the infiltration performance of grassed swales : Comparison between point measurements and a full-scale infiltration method: [Évaluation des performances d'infiltration d'une noue enherbée : Comparaison entre des mesures ponctuelles et une méthode d'infiltration grandeur nature]2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to large spatial and temporal variations of soil properties that govern swale infiltration capacities, traditional methods for estimating saturated hydraulic conductivity (ksat) values could potentially lead to erroneous estimation of the total system infiltration capacity. To increase the knowledge of grassed swale infiltration performance and the relationship between hydraulic properties related to the spatial variation within the swale, two methods were applied to estimate ksat values: 1) point measurements using the Modified Philip Dunne (MPD) Infiltrometer, and 2) a full-scale infiltration test (FSIT). A large variation in calculated ksat values was found, ranging from 22 to 1382 mm/hr, with lower/higher values at the swale bottom, and right swale slope respectively. Infiltration point measurements, with a geometric mean of 81 mm/hr, showed higher infiltration rates than those obtained from FSIT, which yielded 34 and 22 mm/hr (for test 1 and 2 respectively). Moreover, FSIT results showed an agreement with ksat values obtained from MPD infiltrometer at the swale bottom. In addition, infiltration rates are significantly reduced as the groundwater mound gets closer to the bottom of the grassed swale.

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  • 17.
    Mantilla, Ivan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Muthanna, Tone Merete
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491, Trondheim, Norway.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Variability of green infrastructure performance due to climatic regimes across Sweden2023In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 326, article id 116354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of increasing urbanization and global warming, there is a growing interest in the implementation of green infrastructure (GI) across different climates and regions. Identifying an appropriate GI design criteria is essential to ensure that the design is tailored to satisfy local environmental requirements. This article aims to compare the hydrological performance of GI facilities in eleven Swedish cities by isolating the effect of climatic conditions using an identical GI design configuration. Long-term simulations based on 23-years of meteorological time-series were used as inputs for the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) with Low Impact Development (LID) controls representing two types of facilities: a biofilter cell (BC) and a green roof. (GR). Large differences in potential annual and seasonal runoff retention were found between locations, driven mainly by the extent of winter/spring season, and the distribution of precipitation patterns (for BCs) and the sequence of rainy days-dry periods and evapotranspiration rates (for GRs). Winter/spring and summer demonstrated the highest/lowest differences between the seasons, results that suggest that implications for design might be aligned to the spatio-temporal distribution of precipitation patterns, and runoff regimes generated by snowmelt and rain-on-snow events, in locations where snowmelt represent high portion of runoff generation.

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  • 18.
    Mantilla, Ivan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Muthanna, Tone Merete
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Impact of seasonal variability of infiltration rates on the land area required for green infrastructure implementation2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dimensioning green infrastructure (GI) to achieve different stormwater targets (e.g., runoff volume reductions) is essential at city scale under conditions of limited resources and space. Traditional GI sizing criteria are based on the hydrology of moderate climates. However, cold climate conditions represent an additional challenge for GI design. This paper presents an assessment of the bioretention cell (BC) area required to achieve a given runoff volume reduction (RVR), accounting for seasonal variations in infiltration rates in the Swedish cities of Gothenburg, Orebro, and Kiruna. Clear seasonal differences were found in Kiruna for the areas required to achieve 80% of RVR under winter and summer conditions. However, non-significant seasonal differences were found in Orebro and Gothenburg. For an efficient BC adoption, sizing needs to be completed in the context of the precipitation for the entire year, including the effect of snowmelt, rain-on-snow, and frozen soils.

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  • 19.
    Mantilla, Ivan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Muthanna, Tone Merete
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Variability of the hydrologic performance of green infrastructures due to climatic regimes across Sweden2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, increasing scientific evidence has demonstrated the potential of urban green infrastructures (GI) for coping with increased stormwater runoff caused by urbanization, by limiting both runoff flows and volumes (Pennino et al., 2016). However, their hydrologic performance is influenced by climatic conditions (Johannessen et al., 2018), and a better understanding of variations in performance between different geographic situations with differing climatic regimes is needed to ensure that design criteria are adapted to local conditions. A recent cluster analysis of rainfall data across Sweden has identified four distinct regions with respect to short-duration extreme events (Olsson et al., 2017) demonstrating that rainfall is not homogenous throughout the country. However, it is not yet clear how this variability, along with another climatic variability, affects the hydrologic performance of GI. The current guidelines for the design and dimensioning of stormwater control measures (Larm & Blecken, 2019) use unique design criteria for the entire country. The objective of this work is to evaluate variability in the expected hydrological performance of GI facilities under different Swedish climatic regimes in order to consider whether the design and dimensioning recommendations should vary between regions. Using a hydrologic model with long-term rainfall and climate data for eleven urban areas in Sweden, hydrologic performance, both in terms of volume reduction and peak-flow attenuation, was evaluated for three types of GI: (1) biofiltration cells, (2) green roof and (3) detention ponds. Climate data were obtained from the SHMI-national meteorological network covering 23 years(1997–2019) at a 15-min time resolution for each of the urban areas, which were selected to include at least two areas within each of the four extreme-rainfall regions identified by Olsson et al. (2019). Modeled facility configurations were based on the existing recommendations (Larm & Blecken,2019). Estimation of daily reference Penman-Monteith evapotranspiration values was used as input for the hydrological model. In addition, uncertainties in hydrologic outputs of the model due to parameter estimation were quantified using a stochastic approach. Preliminary results show variations in annual stormwater volume reduction caused by differences in rainfall volumes, dry durations between events, and air temperatures, which all influence antecedent soil moisture, leading to differences in available retention capacity at the beginning of events. All locations showed considerable stormwater runoff volume reductions using a biofilter cell, ranging from 85% to 92%, with the highest values in Stockholm and Eskilstuna. The highest volume reductions were found for locations with the warmest conditions, which also had the highest average ET. This may be explained by the fact that in GI, the soil’s retention capacity is renewed as stored water is lost to evapotranspiration between events. A higher variability is observed for peak flow reduction. This indicates that while it may be reasonable to have national recommendations for cases where volume reduction is the only objective when peak-flow reduction is of importance, it may be important to account for regional variability. Future work will consider a greater variety of facilities and account for uncertainties in order to identify whether differences between regions are significant. 

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  • 20.
    Razguliaev, Nikita
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Muthanna, Tone
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    An Overview Of Continuous Stormwater Quality Monitoring Technologies2021Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 21.
    Razguliaev, Nikita
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Muthanna, Tone
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Identifying measurement errors in continuous stormwater quality data by comparison with traditional sampling and analysis2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater management in urban areas requires continuous water quality data of high-temporal resolution to better understand and control pollutant loads and dynamics. However, the difficult analytical context of stormwater may lead to significant uncertainties and/or biases in data produced by online water quality sensors. In order to provide insights into the  alignment of continuous data with discreet data collected through conventional sampling and analysis, 25 grab samples were collected and analysed for pH, conductivity and turbidity in parallel with the continuous monitoring using sensors installed in a gully receiving road runoff. Analysis has shown that while differences in laboratory and field-measured pH could be explained by instrumental uncertainty alone, there were significant differences in conductivity and turbidity, meaning the presence of additional errors. This study highlights the need for further investigation of data-quality-related matters in the stormwater field.

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    Manuscript
  • 22.
    Razguliaev, Nikita
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Muthanna, Tone
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Urban stormwater quality: A review of methods for continuous field monitoring2023In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, article id 120929Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Rujner, Hendrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Comparison of spatial interpolation methods for soil moisture in Green Stormwater Infrastructure2021In: 15th International Conference on Urban Drainage 2021 Delegates Handbook / [ed] David McCarthy, 2021, p. 598-600, article id 188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about soil-physical variables of Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GSI) like soil moisture (θ) is essential to understanding their hydrologic and treatment performance. θ depends on many local factors and is subject to high spatial and temporal variability (Takagi and Lin, 2012; Yao et al. 2013; Nasta et al. 2018). Information about the spatially continuous data of θ can help to understand the hydrologic response and provide an input for initial conditions to improve hydrologic modelling results. A number of deterministic and probabilistic interpolation methods and tools are available today to model the spatial distribution of environmental parameters such as θ (Li and Heap 2011; Yao et al. 2013). The quality of the spatial interpolation, however, depends on sample size, sample distribution and correlation to various other factors, for example terrain profile or vegetation coverage and makes the selection of the appropriate method difficult. Six methods commonly applied to soil characteristics have been selected to interpolate data that has been retrieved from 16 time-domain reflectometers measuring θ in the upper 30 cm of a GSI-site ́s surface. As θ changes at each sampling point also vary over time and therefore change the coefficients of some interpolation methods, estimates were compared for each hour of a 24-hour rainfall event. This is especially relevant as GSI soils are not only subjected to rainfall but also to distinct lateral inflows from impervious areas. Cross-validation and common error calculations were used to assess the statistical performance of the results and identify a method with least errors.

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    Spatial interpolation soil moisture green stormwater infrastructure
  • 24.
    Rujner, Hendrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Green infrastructure drainage of a commercial plaza without directly connected impervious areas: a case study2022In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 86, no 11, p. 2777-2793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A paired-catchment study of two adjacent commercial areas in northern Sweden, one with Green Infrastructure (GI) storm drainage and the other with a conventional storm sewer system, served to evaluate the hydrological performance of both drainage systems and demonstrate advantages of GI. The GI catchment avoided directly-connected impervious areas by diverting runoff from a parking lot to a cascade of three infiltration features, a fractured rock strip draining onto a sloping infiltration area, followed by a collector swale. Both catchments were monitored over 4 years by measuring rainfall, runoff and, in the vicinity of the swale, soil water content and groundwater levels. For frequent storms, the median GI efficiencies in reducing runoff volumes and peak flows, and extending peak flow lags, were 96, 99 and 60%, respectively, compared to conventional drainage The storm rainfall depth, initial soil water content, increases in intra-event soil water storage and groundwater levels, had statistically significant effects on either runoff volume or peak flow reductions. No effects were found for storm rainfall intensity and duration, antecedent dry days, and initial groundwater levels. The study demonstrated that GI drainage can be successfully applied even in the challenging environment of a subarctic climate.

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  • 25.
    Tedoldi, Damien
    et al.
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France; SEPIA, 53 rue de Turbigo, 75003 Paris, France.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Chebbo, Ghassan
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France; Faculty of Engineering III, Lebanese University, Hadath, Lebanon.
    Branchu, Philippe
    CEREMA, 12 Rue Léon Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes, France.
    Pierlot, Daniel
    SEPIA, 53 rue de Turbigo, 75003 Paris, France.
    Gromaire, Marie-Christine
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Zirconium deficit as a tracer of urban sediment accumulation in Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems - Application to the calibration of a filtration model.2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 644, p. 941-953, article id S0048-9697(18)32460-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among the processes governing contaminant retention in soil-based Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS), quantifying the relative contribution of particle settling and filtration requires a tracer of runoff-generated solids. Since zirconium (Zr) is a widely used geochemical invariant in pedological approaches, with few anthropogenic sources, the present investigation aims to assess whether its use may be extended to sediment identification in SUDS. High-resolution horizontal and vertical soil sampling was carried out in 11 infiltration systems, as well as in road-deposited sediment. Following elemental analysis via X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, the spatial distribution of both Zr and urban-derived metals could be determined. Zr content in sediment was found to be fairly stable and significantly lower than in soil. In most devices, Zr and metals exhibited "mirror" trends, both horizontally and vertically, i.e. a deficit of Zr could be observed in the most contaminated area. This indicated a "dilution-like" mixture of soil and sediment, the fraction of which could be calculated and appraised spatially. The vertical profiles proved the occurrence of bed filtration over 5 to 15 cm, and enabled the calibration of a simple filtration model. The uncertainties associated with the determined filter coefficient were found to be comparable to the other experimental methods - with the additional improvement that the present approach does not require water sampling.

  • 26.
    Tedoldi, Damien
    et al.
    Univ Lyon, INSA Lyon, DEEP, EA7429, F-69621, Villeurbanne Cedex, France.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gavrić, Snežana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Couvidat, Julien
    Univ Lyon, INSA Lyon, DEEP, EA7429, F-69621, Villeurbanne Cedex, France.
    Gautier, Mathieu
    Univ Lyon, INSA Lyon, DEEP, EA7429, F-69621, Villeurbanne Cedex, France.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Chatain, Vincent
    Univ Lyon, INSA Lyon, DEEP, EA7429, F-69621, Villeurbanne Cedex, France.
    Geochemical signature of urban stormwater sediments: a France/Sweden comparison: [Signature géochimique des sédiments de bassins pluviaux : une comparaison France/Suède]2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detention- and infiltration-based systems for stormwater management trap runoff particles, which gradually form a sediment layer loaded with multiple contaminants. This study examines the trace metal composition of stormwater sediments, through a comparison between French and Swedish infrastructures. Composite sediment samples were collected from 18 infiltration basins in France and 17 wet ponds in Sweden, the catchments of which encompass a diversity of urban and sub-urban contexts. Zinc and copper were consistently more concentrated in sediments than the baseline levels in local soils, while this was not always the case for the other metals in Sweden. Overall, contamination levels were higher in the French sites: median Pb, Cu, and Zn concentrations were respectively 154, 152, and 570 mg/kg in France, and 19, 46, and 178 mg/kg in Sweden. This difference may be due to the functioning of the devices (infiltration vs. detention), but also suggests a possible “dilution” of runoff suspended solids in the Swedish catchments. The latter may originate from crushed traction grit or eroded soil particles, as some of the least polluted Swedish ponds had a relatively high share of permeable surface in their catchments. The geochemical signature of stormwater sediments was also found to be different between the two countries, as illustrated by the different ratios between metals, indicating dissimilarities in emission sources.

  • 27.
    Tedoldi, Damien
    et al.
    LEESU, École des Ponts, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6–8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    LEESU, École des Ponts, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6–8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Le Roux, Julien
    LEESU, École des Ponts, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6–8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Chebbo, Ghassan
    LEESU, École des Ponts, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6–8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France; Faculty of Engineering III, Lebanese University, Hadath, Lebanon.
    Branchu, Philippe
    CEREMA, EPR TEAM, Direction territoriale Ile-de-France, 12 Rue Léon Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes, France.
    Saad, Mohamed
    LEESU, École des Ponts, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6–8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Gromaire, Marie-Christine
    LEESU, École des Ponts, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6–8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Evaluation of contaminant retention in the soil of sustainable drainage systems: methodological reflections on the determination of sorption isotherms2019In: Blue-Green Systems, ISSN 2617-4782, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Runoff infiltration in Sustainable Drainage Systems enables the interception of a part of urban contaminant fluxes owing to several processes. The soil's ability to retain dissolved pollutants is generally assessed via sorption isotherms obtained from batch studies; however, the experimental points are not always in the same range as runoff concentrations. The present work (i) explores the consequences of modelling runoff–soil interactions from out-of-range equilibrium concentrations and (ii) proposes an improved method to ensure that experimental points fall within the desired range. Uncertainty analysis demonstrates that for a non-linear isotherm, using an extrapolated relationship may introduce significant biases in the ensuing estimations. Therefore, the proposed method consists of anticipating the equilibrium state of batch tests to accurately set the experimental conditions and reach appropriate concentrations. It is successfully applied to the determination of the sorption properties of copper and zinc onto three soils with different electrolyte solutions, as well as those of bisphenol A and three alkylphenols onto one soil. The contrasting affinities between the studied species and the soil materials could be related to their intrinsic properties and the soils' pedological parameters, as well as the presence of salt or dissolved organic ligands which partially inhibited metal sorption.

  • 28.
    Wei, Haoyu
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Lundy, Lian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Muthanna, Tone Merete
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    A study of 101 organic substances in gully pot sediments accumulated over a one-year period in Stockholm, Sweden2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 894, article id 165028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater runoff is a key pathway for diffuse pollutants to enter receiving waters. Mitigating measures include pollutant substitution, restricting their release into the urban technosphere and limiting the (re-)mobilisation of substances to minimise their negative impacts on receiving waters. Gully pots (GPs) are one of the most ubiquitous urban drainage infrastructure components, providing both a drainage function and limiting the onward transport of pollutants through in-pot sedimentation processes. In this study, sediments accumulated over a one-year period were collected from 26 GPs in catchments of four land-use types in Stockholm, Sweden. Sediments were analysed for 101 organic substances from eight substance groups (hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalates, organotins, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and brominated fire retardants) to inform an assessment of their occurrence and net accumulation rates over a typical unit operation period. A total of 63 substances were quantified in at least one GP, with aliphatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and organotins quantified in all GP sediments, highlighting their ubiquitous use. The identification of 14 and 21 organic substances in two pedestrian/bike path GPs emphasise the contribution of non-vehicular sources to diffuse pollutant loads. Significantly higher mass accumulation rates of 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-nonylphenols, formaldehyde, dioctyltin and dibutyltin are identified in commercial catchment GPs suggesting the need to enhance source-tracing and runoff quality-control measures within catchments of this land-use type. Sediments in 25 GPs were identified with at least one substance exceeding toxicology-based threshold values, highlighting the runoff quality-control function of GPs in reducing the potential ecotoxic impacts on recipients.

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