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  • 1.
    Abdeldjouad, Lokmane
    et al.
    EVRNZA Laboratory, University of Ouargla, Ouargla, Algeria; Department of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Ouargla, Ouargla, Algeria.
    Dheyab, Wisam
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Tikrit University, Tikrit, Iraq.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Asadi, Afshin
    EnvoGéotechnique Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Shukla, Sanjay Kumar
    Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Research Group, School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027, Australia.
    Thermal curing effects on alkali-activated treated soils with palm oil fuel ash2023In: Case Studies in Construction Materials, E-ISSN 2214-5095, Vol. 19, article id e02455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regarding the significance of binder quantity, alkali activator molarities, and thermal curing, this work was utilized to geopolymerize with a potassium-based alkaline activator to strengthen soils. Five different molarities of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) in four different amounts were utilized to activate the clayey soil. POFA admixtures have been used to test soils. The results showed that for mixtures with 10 and 12.5 molarities, the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) with 15 % and 20 % of POFA was stronger. Comparing the strengths of the blends with various POFA amounts and concentration molarities allowed for this determination. To increase the strength, it is crucial to consider how the geopolymerization method's temperature and curing time affect the UCS of the soil-POFA mixture with and without fibers. The UCS of the treated soil mixtures was changed by heating at 30, 50, 70, and 90 degrees C. The outcomes demonstrate that increasing the curing temperature will hasten the alkaline activation process. After seven days of heating, the treated soil specimens with and without fibers exhibit the best mechanical properties at a healing temperature of about 70 degrees C, with compressive strengths of 16.7 and 11.4 MPa. The interaction between the geo-polymeric matrix and the fiber surface, the molarities of the alkaline solution, and the heating temperature were the most important aspects, according to an investigation of the microstructures, in improving the behavior of the reinforced mixes. By offering an efficient approach for increasing the qualities of soil treated by the alkali activation of POFA through the inclusion of glass fibers with adequate molarities of reagent and cure heating temperature, the current work offers new insights into soil stabilization operations. This has advantages over conventional calcium-based binders due to their emission of carbon dioxide during manufacture, which is one of the major causes of global warming.

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  • 2.
    Abdulhameed, Ali A.
    et al.
    Department of Reconstruction and Projects, University of Baghdad, Baghdad 10071, Iraq.
    Hason, Mahir M.
    Disaster Information Management Centre, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad 10071, Iraq.
    Sharba, Amjad Ali K.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Hanoon, Ammar N.
    Department of Reconstruction and Projects, University of Baghdad, Baghdad 10071, Iraq.
    Amran, Mugahed
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, 11942 Alkharj, Saudi Arabia.; Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and IT, Amran University, 9677 Amran, Yemen.
    Magbool, Hassan M.
    Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Experimental and environmental investigations of the impacts of wood sawdust on the performance of reinforced concrete composite beams2023In: Case Studies in Construction Materials, E-ISSN 2214-5095, Vol. 19, article id e02550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been established that using recycled materials to replace some of the fine aggregates is a viable solution. Most researchers focused on the durability aspect of wood sawdust concrete, while less information is available on its structural performance. Therefore, this article aimed to investigate the performance of reinforced concrete beams fabricated from concrete with a partially replaced fine aggregate (FA) by wood sawdust (WS) in the range of 5–45 % (by weight). Six beams underwent 4-point bending tests till collapse. The beams' slump, density, compressive strength, cracking and failure mode, energy absorption, and economic and environmental aspects were studied. The findings showed that the failure region of sawdust concrete was more significant than the reference samples. Despite the compressive strength of the concrete containing different ratios of sawdust being reduced by about 7–30 %, the target compressive strength still has a limit of low to normal concrete grade. The results show that the increase in sawdust percentages decreased the acquired absorbed energy of the subjected load to reach failure. A cost reduction of 9 % and a cost index of 61 % is achieved using wooden sawdust-based concrete. By substituting sawdust for fine aggregate, the sustainability of sawdust concrete in terms of cost and environmental advantages may be improved. In addition, it is well-known that harnessing the transformative potential of industrial waste in concrete production not only minimizes landfill usage, but also promotes resource efficiency, reduces carbon emissions, and advances the circular economy, propelling designers, engineering and builders towards a greener and more sustainable future in the construction industry. According to the test findings, wood sawdust may be utilized to produce normal and low-strength structural concrete.

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  • 3.
    Abdullah, Gamil M. S.
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Najran University, P.O. 1988, Najran, Saudi Arabia.
    Ahmad, Mahmood
    Institute of Energy Infrastructure, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, 43000, Kajang, Malaysia; Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar (Bannu Campus), Bannu, 28100, Pakistan.
    Babur, Muhammad
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan.
    Badshah, Muhammad Usman
    Water Wing, Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), WAPDA House Peshawar, Peshawar, 25000, Pakistan.
    Al-Mansob, Ramez A.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Gombak, 50728, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Fawad, Muhammad
    Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland; Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Boosting-based ensemble machine learning models for predicting unconfined compressive strength of geopolymer stabilized clayey soil2024In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 2323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present research employs new boosting-based ensemble machine learning models i.e., gradient boosting (GB) and adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) to predict the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of geopolymer stabilized clayey soil. The GB and AdaBoost models were developed and validated using 270 clayey soil samples stabilized with geopolymer, with ground-granulated blast-furnace slag and fly ash as source materials and sodium hydroxide solution as alkali activator. The database was randomly divided into training (80%) and testing (20%) sets for model development and validation. Several performance metrics, including coefficient of determination (R2), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean squared error (MSE), were utilized to assess the accuracy and reliability of the developed models. The statistical results of this research showed that the GB and AdaBoost are reliable models based on the obtained values of R2 (= 0.980, 0.975), MAE (= 0.585, 0.655), RMSE (= 0.969, 1.088), and MSE (= 0.940, 1.185) for the testing dataset, respectively compared to the widely used artificial neural network, random forest, extreme gradient boosting, multivariable regression, and multi-gen genetic programming based models. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis result shows that ground-granulated blast-furnace slag content was the key parameter affecting the UCS.

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  • 4.
    Abkar, Mahdi Mohammed Abdullah
    et al.
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Johor, Parit Raja, Malaysia.
    Yunus, Riduan
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Johor, Parit Raja, Malaysia.
    Al-Shameri, Ahmed Saleh Ahmed Saif
    Faculty of Technology Management & Business, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Johor, Parit Raja, Malaysia.
    Harouache, Ahmed
    Faculty of Technology Management & Business, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Johor, Parit Raja, Malaysia.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    An empirical investigation of automation technology as material waste mitigation measure at Johor construction sites2023In: Frontiers in Built Environment, E-ISSN 2297-3362, Vol. 9, article id 1232195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation technology in the construction industry is the use of advanced tools, devices, and processes that reduce manual labor and enhance efficiency in various construction activities. Automation technology can minimize waste, optimize resource utilization, and reduce the environmental impact of construction processes. This study aims to examine the relationship between automation technology adoptions (ATAs) utilizing reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R), building information modeling (BIM), industrialized building systems (IBSs), green building index (GBI), and Internet of Things (IoT) practices toward construction site performance (CSP) to measure their influences on material waste mitigation measures at Johor construction sites. To achieve these goals, five hypotheses were developed to explore the association between ATA and CSP. Data were gathered utilizing an online survey. The participants were contractors and expert practitioners in the Johor construction industry, including architects, project managers, and academicians/researchers. A total of 257 valid responses were used to investigate the assumptions. The partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) procedure was used. The findings revealed that ATA utilizing 3R, BIM, IBS, GBI, and IoT as material mitigation measures positively enhances CSP.

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  • 5.
    Al-Maliki, Hadi Naser Ghadhban
    et al.
    Civil Engineering Department, Engineering College, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Balhawi, Ali
    Civil Engineering Department, Engineering College, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Taai, Salwa R.
    Civil Engineering Department, Engineering College, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Madhloom, Huda M.
    Civil Engineering Department, Engineering College, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Structural Behavior Of Precast High Strength Reinforced Concrete Vierendeel Truss Walls: A Numerical Approach2021In: International Journal of GEOMATE, ISSN 2186-2982, Vol. 21, no 84, p. 137-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reinforced concrete (RC) walls have been widely used in different types of civil engineering projects. Therefore, their behaviour under several kinds of loading is of utmost importance. In this study, the main objective is to investigate the behaviour of RC Vierendeel walls under the applied loads by employing numerical analyses for the studied walls. Several assumptions are adopted in these analyses to simulate the actual behaviour of Vierendeel walls, which were experimentally studied in previous investigations. The numerical results showed that the simulated numerical behaviour has a very good agreement with the experimental results of the tested models. Statically, this agreement is validated and verified in terms of the mean and standard deviation values. Therefore, the proposed numerical models and assumptions are the suitable ones to simulate the structural behaviour of these walls under the applied conditions. The structural behaviour is presented in terms of load capacity, crack pattern, deflection, and mode of failure. The results show that the reactive powder concrete (RPC) models have more resistance under the applied load in terms of deflection, cracks, and ductility index than the models of normal strength concrete (NSC). Also, the openings are the main reason for the diagonal cracking at the corners of the RC walls. The deflection in all models is a single curvature. The mode of failure for all models is shear.  

  • 6.
    Alnadish, Adham Mohammed
    et al.
    Department of Transportation and Geotechnical Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Balochistan Campus, Quetta, Pakistan.
    Katman, Herda Yati Binti
    Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang, Malaysia.
    Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan
    Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Mashaan, Nuha S.
    School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    A bibliometric analysis and review on the performance of polymer-modified bitumen2023In: Frontiers in Materials, E-ISSN 2296-8016, Vol. 10, article id 1225830Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The addition of polymer to a base binder has been documented as a successful approach in terms of improving physical and rheological properties of the base bitumen. However, the main drawbacks of polymer-modified bitumen are incompatibility and degradation of polymer due to aging. This article aims to introduce a bibliometric analysis and review on modifying bitumen with polymers. Additionally, this article intent to highlight the significant gaps and recommendations for future work. Furthermore, another objective of this article is to provide a worth attempt regrading reducing the negative impact of polymer’s drawbacks on the performance of polymer-modified base binder. The findings of this article demonstrated that the test of storage stability for polymer-amended bitumen should be modified, in which the softening point of aluminum tube centerpiece should be measured to introduce a better evaluation for the storage stability of polymer-amended bitumen. In addition, the effects of kinetic factors (mixing sequence, viscosity of blend, shear rate, and time of mixing) on the compatibility of polymer-amended bitumen should be investigated. Moreover, the addition of compatibilizers and stabilizers to polymer-modified binder is recommended to improve compatibility and reduce the effect of aging on degradation of polymer.

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  • 7.
    Al-Sarafi, A. H.
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Alias, A. H.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Jakarni, F. M.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Shafri, H. Z. M.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Building Information Modelling: Challenges, Benefits, and Prospects for Adoption in Developing Countries2023In: International Conference on Information Systems and Intelligent Applications: ICISIA 2022 / [ed] Mostafa Al-Emran; Mohammed A. Al-Sharafi; Khaled Shaalan, Springer Nature, 2023, p. 551-566Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the fast-expanding construction industry worldwide, building information modelling (BIM) is a robust process. However, to date, developing countries are not very well adopting the techniques proven to help significantly produce effective management of construction projects. This study reviews numerous current studies conducted on the challenges and benefits of adopting BIM. It aims to identify the challenges and benefits of BIM. Additional focus was given to developing countries since fewer documented articles were found in the literature. However, many challenges are identified which hinder BIM adoption to full potential, particularly in developing countries. The most common findings proposed five critical benefits of BIM adoption, namely: i) improved data management (rich) information; ii) improved visualization of project execution; iii) clash detection; iv) reducing waste in the material; v) reducing the financial risk associated with the project in order by obtaining earlier reliable cost estimates. Likewise, the most common findings defined five major BIM adoption obstacles are: i) resilience to change industry culture; ii) high Investment cost; iii) lack of client demand; iv) absence of stakeholder collaboration; v) lack of awareness. It was found that there is a considerable benefit gained by those construction organizations already practicing the information modelling. Most of the organizations that adopted BIM are situated in European countries, followed by the united states of America. Thus, future work should focus on how to raise the level of awareness and general adaptability, especially in developing nations.

  • 8.
    Alshaeer, Honin Ali Yahya
    et al.
    Jamilus Research Centre for Sustainable Construction (JRC-SC), Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja 86400, Johor, Malaysia.
    Irwan, J. M.
    Jamilus Research Centre for Sustainable Construction (JRC-SC), Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja 86400, Johor, Malaysia.
    Alshalif, Abdullah Faisal
    Jamilus Research Centre for Sustainable Construction (JRC-SC), Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja 86400, Johor, Malaysia.
    Noman, Efaq Ali
    Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Taiz University, Taiz, Yemen; Micropollutant Research Centre (MPRC), Institute of Integrated Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja 86400, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.
    Amran, Mugahed
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, 11942 Alkharj, Saudi Arabia; Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and IT, Amran University, 9677 Amran, Yemen.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500 Bandar, Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Alhokabi, Abdulmajeed
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Al-Gheethi, Adel Ali
    Micropollutant Research Centre (MPRC), Institute of Integrated Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja 86400, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.
    Optimisation of compressive strength of foamed concrete with a novel Aspergillus iizukae EAN605 fungus2023In: Case Studies in Construction Materials, E-ISSN 2214-5095, Vol. 19, article id e02400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of concrete by incorporating a microorganism has emerged as a promising research area, offering potential benefits such as reduce carbon footprint, enhance durability and increased strength. The present study reported for the first time using a fungal strain (Aspergillus iizukae EAN605) in biocementation. The study aims to investigate the effectiveness of incorporating Aspergillus iizukae EAN 605 into foam concrete to improve its performance, particularly its strength. The study employs the response surface methodology (RSM) to explore the relationship between density, microorganism concentration and water /cement ratio (w/c) and their effects on compressive strength. Through a series of experiments,the highest recorded compressive strength was achieved with a density of 1800kg/m3, w/c ratio of 0.5, and Aspergillus iizukae EAN605 concentration of 0.5g/l, resulting in a remarkable 37.5% increase compared to foam concrete (FC). The variables of density, A. iizukae EAN 605 and their interaction density*fungi (D*F) significantly impacted compressive strength, with p-values of 0.000, 0.016, and 0.010, respectively.X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was employed to identify the crystalline composition of the precipitates formed on the fungal hyphae, providing insights into the mineralogical transformations occurring during the biocementation process. Additionally, scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging was utilised to visualise the morphology and distribution of the calcite crystals, further supporting the evidence of fungal-mediated mineral precipitation in foam concrete. The findings of this study hold significant implications for the concrete industry, as the incorporation of Aspergillus iizukae EAN605 in foam concrete offers a sustainable solution to enhance compressive strength and contribute to environmental friendly construction practices. This study provides valuable insights for future research and practical applications in the field of bio-foamed concrete (B-FC).

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  • 9.
    Alyami, Mana
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia.
    Khan, Majid
    Civil Engineering Department, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, 22060, Pakistan.
    Javed, Muhammad Faisal
    Civil Engineering Department, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, 22060, Pakistan.
    Ali, Mujahid
    Department of Transport Systems, Traffic Engineering and Logistics, Faculty of Transport and Aviation Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Krasińskiego 8 Street, 40-019, Katowice, Poland.
    Alabduljabbar, Hisham
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering in Al-Kharj, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, 11942, Saudi Arabia.
    Najeh, Taoufik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Application of metaheuristic optimization algorithms in predicting the compressive strength of 3D-printed fiber-reinforced concrete2024In: Developments in the Built Environment, E-ISSN 2666-1659, Vol. 17, article id 100307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the construction industry has been striving to make production faster and handle more complex architectural designs. Waste reduction, geometric freedom, lower construction costs, and speedy construction make the 3D-printed fiber-reinforced concrete (3DPFRC) alternative for future construction. However, achieving the optimum mixture composition for 3DPFRC remains a daunting task, entailing the consideration of multiple variables and necessitating an extensive trial-and-error experimental process. Therefore, this study investigated the application of different metaheuristic optimization algorithms to predict the compressive strength (CS) of 3DPFRC. A database of 299 data samples with 16 different input features was compiled from the experimental studies in the literature. Six metaheuristic algorithms, such as human felicity algorithm (HFA), differential evolution algorithm (DEA), nuclear reaction optimization (NRO), Harris hawks optimization (HHO), lightning search algorithm (LSA), and tunicate swarm algorithm (TSA) were applied to identify the optimal hyperparameter combination for the random forest (RF) model in predicting the CS of 3DPFRC. Different statistical metrics and 10-fold cross-validation were used to evaluate the accuracy of the models. The TSA-RF model exhibited superior performance compared to other models, achieving correlation (R), mean absolute error (MAE), and root mean square error (RMSE) values of 0.99, 2.10 MPa, and 3.59 MPa, respectively. The LSA-RF model also performed well, with R, MAE, and RMSE values of 0.99, 2.93 MPa, and 6.23 MPa, respectively. SHapley Additive exPlanation (SHAP) interpretability elucidates the intricate relationships between features and their effects on the CS, thereby offering invaluable insights for the performance-based mix proportion design of 3DPFRC.

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  • 10.
    Amran, Mugahed
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, 11942 Alkharj, Saudi Arabia.
    Onaizi, Ali M.
    School of Architecture and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.
    Makul, Natt
    Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Phranakhon Rajabhat University, Bangkok 10220, Thailand.
    Abdelgader, Hakim S.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya.
    Tang, W. C.
    School of Architecture and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.
    Alsulami, Badr T.
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering and Islamic Architecture, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 24382, Saudi Arabia.
    Alluqmani, Ayed Eid
    Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic University of Madinah, Madinah 41411, Saudi Arabia.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Shrinkage mitigation in alkali-activated composites: A comprehensive insight into the potential applications for sustainable construction2023In: Results in Engineering (RINENG), ISSN 2590-1230, Vol. 20, article id 101452Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extant body of literature articulates a noticeable disparity in the susceptibility to cracking and concomitant material degradation between alkali-activated composites (AAC) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC), predominantly attributable to shrinkage and subsequent drying phenomena. This divergence derives from the nanoscopic porosity of AAC binders, which is substantially finer than their OPC counterparts. However, experimental research validates that the judicious incorporation of alternative cementitious materials and fibrous reinforcements enriches the shrinkage characteristics of AAC, thereby enhancing its overall structural performance. Given the crucial role of shrinkage in defining the material integrity of AAC, especially under constrained environmental conditions, an in-depth understanding of shrinkage mechanisms materializes as a necessity for conceiving efficient shrinkage-mitigating strategies. In light of the growing interest in optimizing AAC through various material integrations and methodological innovations aimed at shrinkage diminution, this scholarly review undertakes an extensive synthesis of the laboratorial investigations focused on AAC shrinkage behavior and mitigation. However, this article critically evaluates widespread strategies for shrinkage mitigation, explicating their operative mechanisms. Moreover, it is outlined gaps in the existing research paradigm, promoting for targeted scholarly endeavors to yield a more clear understanding of shrinkage dynamics and to facilitate the advancement of environmentally sustainable AAC composites. Meanwhile, this study intended to consolidate existing research on developing trends in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the possible uses of AACs and identify viable strategies for addressing AAC shrinkages. By addressing the challenges related to micro-cracking and shrinkage, the long-term durability of AACs may be improved, leading to increased adoption of these materials as sustainable building options in the construction industry today.

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  • 11.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Machine learning in concrete technology: A review of current researches, trends, and applications2023In: Frontiers in Built Environment, E-ISSN 2297-3362, Frontiers in Built Environment, E-ISSN 2297-3362, Vol. 9, article id 1145591Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine learning techniques have been used in different fields of concrete technology to characterize the materials based on image processing techniques, develop the concrete mix design based on historical data, and predict the behavior of fresh concrete, hardening, and hardened concrete properties based on laboratory data. The methods have been extended further to evaluate the durability and predict or detect the cracks in the service life of concrete, It has even been applied to predict erosion and chemical attaches. This article offers a review of current applications and trends of machine learning techniques and applications in concrete technology. The findings showed that machine learning techniques can predict the output based on historical data and are deemed to be acceptable to evaluate, model, and predict the concrete properties from its fresh state, to its hardening and hardened state to service life. The findings suggested more applications of machine learning can be extended by utilizing the historical data acquitted from scientific laboratory experiments and the data acquitted from the industry to provide a comprehensive platform to predict and evaluate concrete properties. It was found modeling with machine learning saves time and cost in obtaining concrete properties while offering acceptable accuracy.

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  • 12.
    Gamil, Yaser
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Abd Rahman, Ismail
    Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, Malaysia.
    Impact of poor communication on dispute occurrence in the construction industry: a preliminary exploratory study of Yemen construction industry2023In: International Journal of Construction Management, ISSN 1562-3599, Vol. 23, no 16, p. 2729-2735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Yemeni construction industry has been declining in it progress since early 2011 when the political unrest started, and many projects have been financially suffering and suspended or failed to achieve the primary plans. Disputed has been associated with the declination and in fact dispute in construction industry is a chronic and common issue for all countries. Many construction projects have been delayed or even failed due to dispute, misunderstanding and incongruities among construction parties. Many researchers have viewed this issue from the perspective of unclear contract terms and unclear distributions of responsibilities. However, this study aims to scrutinize the issue from the standpoint of poor and lack of communication among Yemeni construction parties. The study implements qualitative interviews with ten construction experts to share their views and uncover the issue. The method of analysis is based on the transformation of interviewed data into transcriptions and extraction and thematic analysis. The study found that poor communication is a major cause of dispute in the Yemeni construction industry, improper management of communication and its channels as the leading cause of the initial occurrence of dispute. Furthermore, the study found that integration with other success factors can bring about strategies to avoid dispute. The outcomes of this study are very useful in developing initiatives to minimize the issue and insuring successful and organized communication among construction parties which lead to successful project completion.

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  • 13.
    Gamil, Yaser
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Abd Rahman, Ismail
    University of Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, Malaysia.
    Studying the relationship between causes and effects of poor communication in construction projects using PLS-SEM approach2023In: Journal of Facilities Management, ISSN 1472-5967, E-ISSN 1741-0983, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 102-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a structural relationship model to study the relationship between causes and effects of poor communication and information exchange in construction projects using Smart-PLS.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The first method of this research is to identify the causes and effects factors of poor communication in construction projects from the extant of literature. The data used to develop the model was collected using a questionnaire survey, which targeted construction practitioners in the Malaysian construction industry. A five-point Likert type scale was used to rate the significance of the factors. The factors were classified under their relevant construct/group using exploratory factor analysis. A hypothetical model was developed and then transformed into Smart-PLS in which the hypothetical model suggested that each group of the cause factors has a direct impact on the effect groups. The hypothesis was tested using t-values and p-values. The model was assessed for its inner and outer components and achieved the threshold criterion. Further, the model was verified by engaging 14 construction experts to verify its applicability in the construction project setting.

    Findings

    The study developed a structural equation model to clarify the relationships between causes and effects of poor communication in construction projects. The model explained the degree of relationships among causes and effects of poor communication in construction projects.

    Originality/value

    The published academic and non-academic literature introduced many studies on the issue of communication including the definitions, importance, barriers to effective communication and means of poor communication. However, these studies ended up only on the general issue of communication lacking an in-depth investigation of the causes and effects of poor communication in the construction industry. The study implemented advanced structural modeling to study the causes and effects. The questionnaire, the data and concluding results fill the identified research gap of this study. The addressed issue is also of interest because communication is considered one of the main knowledge areas in construction management.

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  • 14.
    Gamil, Yaser
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400, Johor, Malaysia.
    Alhajlah, Hamed
    Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, West Midlands, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.
    Kassem, Mukhtar A.
    Department of Quantity Surveying, Faculty of Built Environment & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Malaysia.
    Automated Project Progress Monitoring in Construction Projects: A Review of Current Applications and Trends2023In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Intelligent Systems / [ed] Al-Sharafi, M.A.; Al-Emran, M; Al-Kabi M.N.; Shaalan, N., Springer Nature, 2023, p. 274-293Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Gamil, Yaser
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Al-Sarafi, A.H.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Seri Kembangan, Malaysia.
    Najeh, Taoufik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Post COVID-19 pandemic possible business continuity strategies for construction industry revival a preliminary study in the Malaysian construction industry2023In: International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, ISSN 1759-5908, E-ISSN 1759-5916, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 640-654Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - COVID-19 pandemic has unprecedentedly shattered the entire world economy and development. Without exclusion, the construction industry has undergone very extreme disruption. Many projects have been suspended, many employees lost their jobs and many construction companies bankrupted. This study aims to explore the possible business continuity plans, a roadmap to recovery and strategies to revive the construction industry after COVID-19.

    Design/methodology/approach - Mix mode method approach was used to address the research problem, and that includes interviews with 16 selected construction experts who have been working in the Malaysian industry for more than 10 years and a questionnaire with 187 construction practitioners. The aim of conducting the interviews is to get an insight into the current impact of the pandemic on the construction industry, and the questionnaire aims to statistically rank the importance of revival strategies using a Likert-type scale. Further, the data were analysed using a univariate approach by calculating the relative importance index to assess the importance of each strategy.

    Findings - The findings showed that the pandemic has severely affected the Malaysian construction industry in many aspects and effective restoration strategies are necessary to cope with the changes. The strategies were categorized into four different aspects includes health and practice, technology, operational, legal and governmental strategies. The finding shows that the topmost ranked strategy in terms of importance is introducing COVID-compliant operating procedures and protocols on-site by adjusting current working procedures, urgent government stimuli (loan, financial aid to the affected firms) and other financial incentives, leveraging digital and online technology for virtual meeting and communication, comprehensive and revision study of the health guidelines to suit construction activities and digital transformation of work. The study suggests a more in-depth study to evaluate the impact and assess the success of strategies for the betterment of the future of the Malaysian construction industry.

    Practical implications - The study presented a better understanding of the possible business continuity strategies for construction industry revival, which are important for decision makers and the government to reconsider for the revival of the industry. The findings also are of interest to the construction stakeholders.

    Originality/value - There have been many research addressing the impact of the pandemic on the construction industry, but less are available on the possible strategies for continual and revival of construction industry amid and after the pandemic. It is, therefore, crucial to address this topic, especially the assessment of these strategies based on their importance.

  • 16.
    Gamil, Yaser
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Digital Transformation of Concrete Technology—A Review2022In: Frontiers in Built Environment, E-ISSN 2297-3362, Vol. 8, article id 835236Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital transformation of concrete technology is one of the current“hot topics”tackled byboth academia and industry. Thefinal goal is to fully integrate the already existing advancedconcrete technologies with novel sensors, virtual reality, or Internet of things to create self-learning and highly automated platforms controlling design, production, and long-termusage and maintenance of concrete and concrete structures. The digital transformationshould ultimately enhance sustainability, elongate service life, and increase technologicaland cost efficiencies. This review article focuses on up-to-date developments. It explorescurrent pathways and directions seen in research and industrial practices. It indicatesbenefits, challenges, and possible opportunities related to the digital transformation ofconcrete technology.

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  • 17.
    Gamil, Yaser
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    The Impact of Different Parameters on the Formwork Pressure Exerted by Self-Compacting Concrete2023In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 16, no 2, article id 759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the advantageous benefits offered by self-compacting concrete, its uses are still limited due to the high pressure exerted on the formwork. Different parameters, such as those related to concrete mix design, the properties of newly poured concrete, and placement method, have an impact on form pressure. The question remains unanswered on the degree of the impact for each parameter. Therefore, this study aims to study the level of impact of these parameters, including slump flow, T500 time, fresh concrete density, air content, static yield stress, concrete setting time, and concrete temperature. To mimic the casting scenario, 2 m columns were cast at various casting rates and a laboratory setup was developed. A pressure system that can wirelessly and continuously record pressure was used to monitor the pressure. Each parameter’s impact on the level of pressure was examined separately. Casting rate and slump flow were shown to have a greater influence on pressure. The results also demonstrated that, while higher thixotropy causes form pressure to rapidly decrease, a high casting rate and high slump flow lead to high pressure. This study suggests that more thorough analysis should be conducted of additional factors that may have an impact, such as the placement method, which was not included in this publication.

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  • 18.
    Gamil, Yaser
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Experimental based assessment of formwork pressure theoretical design models for self-compacting concrete2023In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 68, article id 106085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) offers favourable properties which help accelerate the casting time, especially in congested reinforced structures but when casting with SCC uncertainty remains a challenge on the behaviour of its formwork pressure. Researchers have introduced several design models to predict pressure and its behaviour. This research aims to assess the design models that have been reported in the literature. The assessment was carried out through a series of rigorous laboratory tests and the results from the tests served as input for the mathematical model evaluation. Twelve concrete columns with 2 m height were cast in the laboratory to study the effect of varying the input parameters in the existing design models. The formwork pressure was documented by a pressure monitoring system, with the capacity to produce instant results for real-time remote monitoring of the pressure development during and after concrete casting. The formwork pressures were calculated according to the current design models and were compared with pressure data acquitted from the laboratory tests. The results showed that the pressure predicted by the design models was typically greater than the pressure observed during the laboratory tests. The DIN18218 design model showed a relatively close approximation of the pressure distribution over the formwork height and casting time. The limitation of the models is observed when the casting rate varies, and models are sensitive to the input parameters. Thus, additional development of the current design models is needed to enable reliable estimations of the pressure, for example, in the case of low and high casting rates. The laboratory tests also showed that high casting rates and high slump flows generate higher pressures whereas higher thixotropy results in faster pressure reduction during construction.

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  • 19.
    Gamil, Yaser
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Lateral Formwork Pressure for Self-Compacting Concrete—A Review of Prediction Models and Monitoring Technologies2021In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 14, no 16, article id 4767Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maximum amount of lateral formwork pressure exerted by self-compacting concrete is essential to design a technically correct, cost-effective, safe, and robust formwork. A common practice of designing formwork is primarily based on using the hydrostatic pressure. However, several studies have proven that the maximum pressure is lower, thus potentially enabling a reduction in the cost of formwork by, for example, optimizing the casting rate. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding formwork pressure, parameters affecting the maximum pressure, prediction models, monitoring technologies and test setups. The currently used pressure predicting models require further improvement to consider several pressures influencing parameters, including parameters related to fresh and mature material properties, mix design and casting methods. This study found that the maximum pressure is significantly affected by the concretes’ structural build-up at rest, which depends on concrete rheology, temperature, hydration rate and setting time. The review indicates a need for more in-depth studies.

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  • 20.
    Gamil, Yaser
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Najeh, Taufik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Formwork pressure prediction in cast-in-place self-compacting concrete using deep learning2023In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 151, article id 104869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prediction of formwork pressure exerted by self-compacting concrete (SCC) remains a challenge not only to researchers but also to engineers and contractors on the construction site. This article aims to utilize shallow neural networks (SNN) and deep neural networks (DNN) using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) approach to develop a prediction model based on real-time data acquitted from controllable laboratory testing series. A test setup consisting of a two-meter-high column, ø160 mm, was prepared and tested in the laboratory. A digital pressure monitoring system was used to collect and transfer the data to the cloud on a real-time basis. The pressure was monitored during- and after casting, following the pressure build-up and reduction, respectively. The two main parameters affecting the form pressure, i.e., casting rate and slump flow, were varied to collect a wide range of input data for the analysis. The proposed model by DNN was able to accurately predict the pressure behavior based on the input data from the laboratory tests with high-performance indicators and multiple hidden layers. The results showed that the pressure is significantly affected by the casting rate, while the slump flow had rather lower impact. The proposed model can be a useful and reliable tool at the construction site to closely predict the pressure development and the effects of variations in casting rate and slump flow. The model provides the opportunity to increase safety and speeding up construction while avoiding costly and time-consuming effects of oversized formwork.

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  • 21.
    Ghadhban Al-Maliki, Hadi Naser
    et al.
    Civil Engineering Department, Engineering College, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Alshimmeri, Ahmad Jabbar Hussain
    Civil Engineering Department, Engineering College, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Ali, Asma Mahdi
    Civil Engineering Department, Engineering College, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Madhloom, Huda M.
    Civil Engineering Department, Engineering College, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nonlinear Simulation Analysis of Tapered Reinforced Concrete Column (Solid and Hollow) Behavior Under Axial Load2021In: International Journal of GEOMATE, ISSN 2186-2982, Vol. 21, no 86, p. 131-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tapered columns are a type of column that is used for different purposes, including architectural purposes or structural needs to take into account the changes that occur to moments along with the height of the column. For example, in highway bridges, tapered columns are used to reduce the number of moments transmitted to the base of the columns and from there to the foundation. This research studied the analysis of short reinforced concrete columns with variable cross-sections along the column in a linear manner by using the ANSYS V.15 software package. The variables that were studied included the type of section, solid or hollow, the ratio of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement, the ratio of the hollowness, and the comparison of numerical results with those obtained from the previous study. The results we obtained from the simulation of the numerical analysis of the models showed a very good agreement with the results of the experimental studies for them. This agreement can also be observed through statistical analysis using the arithmetic mean and standard deviation when compared. Thus, the proposed model by numerical analysis and hypotheses is suitable for formulating the behavior of these reinforced concrete tapered column models under the effect of axially applied load and other variables. The behavior of column models is based on applied loads, load-displacement curves, crack patterns, and failure modes. The results showed that increasing the ratio of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement increases the resistance of the R.C. column models and the ductility index with a decrease in the corresponding lateral displacement. This behavior is observed when changing the section from hollow to solid. Finally cracks pattern is represented in the concrete crushing and concrete spalling out of some parts at the end of the tapered and diagonal cracks in different places, especially at the end of the tapered. 

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  • 22.
    Gong, Fang
    et al.
    School of Physics and Engineering Technology, Chengdu Normal University, Chengdu, China.
    Jiang, Xi
    School of Physics and Engineering Technology, Chengdu Normal University, Chengdu, China; Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Iftikhar, Bawar
    Department of Civil Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad, Pakistan.
    Thomas, Blessen Skariah
    Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kozhikode, Kerala, India.
    An overview on spalling behavior, mechanism, residual strength and microstructure of fiber reinforced concrete under high temperatures2023In: Frontiers in Materials, E-ISSN 2296-8016, Vol. 10, article id 1258195Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has shown that the incorporation of fibres, such as steel and polypropylene fibres, in concrete can significantly improve its resistance to spalling under high-temperature conditions. However, the reported outcomes of studies on the spalling performance of Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) vary significantly due to differences in cementitious matrix and fibre types, mix design, and testing techniques. Existing review studies have struggled to systematically and precisely consolidate the diverse aspects of the literature. To address these limitations, this paper adopts the latest approach for mining, processing, and analyzing data to interpret bibliographic data on the fire resistance of FRC. The primary objective of this study is to comprehensively explore the viability of FRC as a fire-resistant and refractory material. In pursuit of this goal, the paper thoroughly reviews various aspects of FRC behavior at elevated temperatures, including pore pressure behaviors. Moreover, this review also discusses spalling behaviors, mechanisms, and residual mechanical properties under high temperatures. The microstructural analysis of FRC is also discussed comprehensively to gain an in-depth understanding of its behavior under elevated temperatures. By analyzing available data, this study aims to shed light on the potential of FRC as a suitable material for resisting spalling in high-temperature scenarios. Additionally, the research delves into prospects and challenges in achieving sustainable FRC with enhanced spalling resistance, considering both material and structural levels.

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  • 23.
    Hauashdh, Ali
    et al.
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, Johor, 86400, Malaysia.
    Nagapan, Sasitharan
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, Johor, 86400, Malaysia; Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India.
    Jailani, Junaidah
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, Johor, 86400, Malaysia.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia .
    An integrated framework for sustainable and efficient building maintenance operations aligning with climate change, SDGs, and emerging technology2024In: Results in Engineering (RINENG), ISSN 2590-1230, Vol. 21, article id 101822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While existing literature offers various frameworks, they primarily focus on traditional building maintenance procedures and overlook the importance of integrating sustainability, climate change, environmental factors, and emerging technologies. To address this gap, this research has developed a comprehensive framework that caters to current needs, challenges, and future priorities. The integrated framework for building maintenance operations aligns with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), climate change mitigation and adaptation, the adoption of emerging technology, energy conservation, as well as safety, resilience, and effectiveness. The development of the framework encompassed four phases: pre-development phases 1 and 2, development phase 3, and validation phase 4. During this process, current issues and challenges were identified, impacts were assessed, and strategies were developed. The framework serves as a roadmap to address these challenges and requirements in future building maintenance operations, making significant contributions to all three dimensions of sustainability: environmental, social, and economic. In summary, this study offers a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of the current issues, challenges, and potential improvements and benefits in building maintenance operations, providing a practical guide for industry stakeholders and making a significant contribution to the existing body of knowledge.

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  • 24.
    Iftikhar, Bawar
    et al.
    School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor Bahru Johor, Malaysia; Department of Civil Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus 22060, Pakistan.
    Alih, Sophia C.
    Institute of Noise and Vibration, School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor Bahru Johor, Malaysia.
    Vafaei, Mohammadreza
    School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor Bahru Johor, Malaysia.
    Ali, Mujahid
    Department of Transport Systems, Traffic Engineering and Logistics, Silesian University of Technology, Krasinskiego 8 Street, Katowice, Poland.
    Javed, Muhammad Faisal
    Department of Civil Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus 22060, Pakistan.
    Asif, Usama
    Department of Civil Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus 22060, Pakistan.
    Ismail, Muhammad
    Department of Civil Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus 22060, Pakistan.
    Umer, Muhammad
    Department of Civil Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus 22060, Pakistan.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Amran, Mugahed
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, 11942, Alkharj, Saudi Arabia; Department of Civil Engineering, Amran University, 9677, Amran, Yemen.
    Experimental study on the eco-friendly plastic-sand paver blocks by utilising plastic waste and basalt fibers2023In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 9, no 6, article id e17107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic waste poses a significant hazard to the environment as a result of its high production rates, which endanger both the environment and its inhabitants. Similarly, another concern is the production of cement, which accounts for roughly 8% of global CO2 emissions. Thus, recycling plastic waste as a replacement for cementitious materials may be a more effective strategy for waste minimisation and cement elimination. Therefore, in this study, plastic waste (low-density polyethylene) is utilised in the production of plastic sand paver blocks without the use of cement. In addition to this, basalt fibers which is a green industrial material is also added in the production of eco-friendly plastic sand paver blocks to satisfy the standard of ASTM C902-15 of 20 N/mm2 for the light traffic. In order to make the paver blocks, the LDPE waste plastic was melted outside in the open air and then combined with sand. Variations were made to the ratio of LDPE to sand, the proportion of basalt fibers, and sand particle size. Paver blocks were evaluated for their compressive strength, water absorption, and at different temperatures. Including 0.5% percent basalt fiber of length 4 mm gives us the best result by enhancing compressive strength by 20.5% and decreasing water absorption by 50.5%. The best results were obtained with a ratio of 30:70 LDPE to sand, while the finest sand provides the greatest compressive strength. Moreover, the temperature effect was also studied from 0 to 60 °C, and the basalt fibers incorporated in plastic paver blocks showed only a 20% decrease in compressive strength at 60 °C. This research has produced eco-friendly paver blocks by removing cement and replacing it with plastic waste, which will benefit the environment, save money, reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and be suitable for low-traffic areas, all of which contribute to sustainable development.

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  • 25.
    Iftikhar, Bawar
    et al.
    School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru Johor.
    C. Alih, Sophia
    Institute of Noise and Vibration, School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru Johor.
    Vafaei, Mohammadreza
    School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru Johor.
    Javed, Muhammad Faisal
    Department of Civil Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus 22060, Pakistan.
    Ali, Mujahid
    Department of Transport Systems, Traffic Engineering and Logistics, Faculty of Transport and Aviation Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Krasinskiego 8 Street, Katowice, Poland.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Rehman, Muhammad Faisal
    Department of Architecture, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Abbottabad Campus, Pakistan.
    A machine learning-based genetic programming approach for the sustainable production of plastic sand paver blocks2023In: Journal of Materials Research and Technology, ISSN 2238-7854, Vol. 25, p. 5705-5719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic sand paver blocks (PSPB) provide a sustainable alternative by reprocessing plastic waste and decreasing reliance on environmentally hazardous materials such as concrete. They promote waste management and environmentally favorable building practices. This paper presents a novel method for estimating the compressive strength (CS) of plastic sand paver blocks based on gene expression programming (GEP) techniques. The database collected from the experimental work comprises 135 compressive strength results. Seven input parameters were involved in predicting the CS of PSPB, namely, plastic, sand, sand size, fiber percentage, fibre length, fibre diameter, and tensile strength of the fibre. Simplified mathematical expressions were used to figure out the CS. The results of GEP formulations showed that they were better in line with the experimental data, with R2 values for CS of 0.89 (training) and 0.88 (testing). The models' performance was evaluated using sensitivity analysis and statistical checks. The statistical evaluations show that the actual and predicted values are closer together, which lends credence to the GEP model's capacity to forecast PSPB CS. The sensitivity analysis showed that sand size and fibre percentage contribute more than 50% of the CS in PSPB. In addition, the results demonstrate that the proposed models are accurate and have a robust capacity for generalization and prediction. This research can improve environmental protection and economic benefit by enhancing the reuse of PSPB in producing green ecosystems.

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  • 26.
    Khan, Majid
    et al.
    Civil Engineering Department, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, 22060, Pakistan.
    Nassar, Roz-Ud-Din
    Department of Civil and Infrastructure Engineering at American University of Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates.
    Anwar, Waqar
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA.
    Rasheed, Mazhar
    College of Engineering and Technology, University of Sargodha, 40100, Pakistan.
    Najeh, Taoufik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Farooq, Furqan
    NUST Institute of Civil Engineering (NICE), School of Civil and Environmental Engineering (SCEE), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Sector H-12, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan; Military Engineer Service (MES), Ministry of Defence (MoD), Rawalpindi, 43600, Pakistan.
    Forecasting the strength of graphene nanoparticles-reinforced cementitious composites using ensemble learning algorithms2024In: Results in Engineering (RINENG), ISSN 2590-1230, Vol. 21, article id 101837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrating nanomaterials into concrete is a promising solution to improve concrete strength and durability. However, the intricacies of such nanoscale cementitious composites are highly complex. Traditional regression models encounter limitations in capturing these intricate compositions to provide accurate and reliable estimations. This study focuses on developing robust prediction models for the compressive strength (CS) of graphene nanoparticle-reinforced cementitious composites (GrNCC) through machine learning (ML) algorithms. Three ML models, bagging regressor (BR), decision tree (DT), and AdaBoost regressor (AR), were employed to predict CS based on a comprehensive dataset of 172 experimental values. Seven input parameters, including graphite nanoparticle (GrN) diameter, water-to-cement ratio (wc), GrN content (GC), ultrasonication (US), sand content (SC), curing age (CA), and GrN thickness (GT), were considered. The models were trained with 70 % of the data, and the remaining 30 % of the data was used for testing the models. Statistical metrics such as mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R) were employed to assess the predictive accuracy of the models. The DT and AR models demonstrated exceptional accuracy, yielding high correlation coefficients of 0.983 and 0.979 for training, and 0.873 and 0.822 for testing, respectively. Shapley Additive exPlanation (SHAP) analysis highlighted the influential role of curing age and GrN thickness (GT), positively impacting CS, while an increased water-to-cement ratio (w/c) negatively affected CS. This study showcases the efficacy of ML techniques in accurately predicting CS of graphene nanoparticle-modified concrete, offering a swift and cost-effective approach for assessing nanomaterial impact on concrete strength and reducing reliance on time-consuming and expensive experiments.

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  • 27.
    Khan, Yasar
    et al.
    Department of Structural Engineering, Military College of Engineering (MCE), National University of Science and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.
    Zafar, Adeel
    Department of Structural Engineering, Military College of Engineering (MCE), National University of Science and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.
    Rehman, Muhammad Faisal
    University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Abbottabad campus, Abbottabad, 22060, Pakistan.
    Javed, Muhammad Faisal
    Department of Civil Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Abbottabad, 22060, Pakistan.
    Iftikhar, Bawar
    Department of Civil Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Abbottabad, 22060, Pakistan.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Bio-inspired based meta-heuristic approach for predicting the strength of fiber-reinforced based strain hardening cementitious composites2023In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 9, no 11, article id e21601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recently introduced bendable concrete having hundred times greater strain capacity provides promising results in repair of engineering structures, known as strain hardening cementitious composites (SHHCs). The current research creates new empirical prediction models to assess the mechanical properties of strain-hardening cementitious composites (SHCCs) i.e., compressive strength (CS), first crack tensile stress (TS), and first crack flexural stress (FS), using gene expression programming (GEP). Wide-ranging records were considered with twelve variables i.e., cement percentage by weight (C%), fine aggregate percentage by weight (Fagg%), fly-ash percentage by weight (FA%), Water-to-binder ratio (W/B), super-plasticizer percentage by weight (SP%), fiber amount percentage by weight (Fib%), length to diameter ratio (L/D), fiber tensile strength (FTS), fiber elastic modulus (FEM), environment temperature (ET), and curing time (CT). The performance of the models was deduced using correlation coefficient (R) and slope of regression line. The established models were also assessed using relative root mean square error (RRMSE), Mean absolute error (MAE), Root squared error (RSE), root mean square error (RMSE), objective function (OBF), performance index (PI) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE). The resulting mathematical GP-based equations are easy to understand and are consistent disclosing the originality of GEP model with R in the testing phase equals to 0.8623, 0.9269, and 0.8645 for CS, TS and FS respectively. The PI and OBF are both less than 0.2 and are in line with the literature, showing that the models are free from overfitting. Consequently, all proposed models have high generalization with less error measures. The sensitivity analysis showed that C%, Fagg%, and ET are the most significant variables for all three models developed with sensitiveness index higher than 10 %. The result of the research can assist researchers, practitioners, and designers to assess SHCC and will lead to sustainable, faster, and safer construction from environment-friendly waste management point of view.

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  • 28.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Zhaka, Vasiola
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Formwork Engineering for Sustainable Concrete Construction2023In: CivilEng, E-ISSN 2673-4109, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 1098-1120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides a comprehensive review of the engineering challenges of formwork in concrete construction. The paper investigates different formwork systems, their design based on form pressure, and the difficulties of form stripping. Alternative binders are gaining more and more interest by opening new opportunities for sustainable concrete materials and their impact on form pressure and concrete setting is also investigated in this paper. The discussion involves several engineering challenges such as sustainability, safety, and economy, while it also explores previous case studies, and discusses future trends in formwork design. The findings pinpoint that choosing an appropriate formwork system depends significantly on project-specific constraints and that the development of innovative materials and technologies presents significant benefits but also new challenges, including the need for training and regulation. Current trends in formwork design and use show promising possibilities for the integration of digital technologies and the development of sustainable and ‘smart’ formwork systems. Continued research within the field has the possibility to explore new formwork materials and technologies, which will contribute to the implementation of more effective and sustainable practices in concrete construction.

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  • 29.
    Qureshi, Hisham Jahangir
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia.
    Alyami, Mana
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia.
    Nawaz, R.
    Center for Applied Mathematics and Bioinformatics (CAMB), Gulf University for Science and Technology, 32093 Hawally, Kuwait.
    Hakeem, Ibrahim Y.
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia.
    Aslam, Fahid
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering in Al-Kharj, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia.
    Iftikhar, Bawar
    Department of Civil Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus 22060, Pakistan.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Prediction of compressive strength of two-stage (preplaced aggregate) concrete using gene expression programming and random forest2023In: Case Studies in Construction Materials, E-ISSN 2214-5095, Vol. 19, article id e02581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to predict preplaced-aggregate concrete (PAC) compressive strength (CS) by using machine learning approaches such as gene expression programming (GEP) and random forest (RF). PAC requires injecting a portland cement-sand grout with admixtures into a mold after coarse aggregate has been deposited, making CS prediction complicated and requiring substantial study. Machine learning methods were used to cut down on the time and money needed for extensive experimental testing. The database includes 135 values for CS with eleven input variables. There is an acceptable degree of agreement between predicted and experimental values, as shown by the CS R2 values of 0.94 for GEP and 0.96 for RF. When comparing RF with GEP, RF performed better as measured by R2. The lower values displayed by the statistical error also showed that RF performed better than GEP. To compare, the GEP model's COV, MAE, RSME, and RMSLE were 0.527, 1.569, 2.706, and 0.133, whereas those for RF were 0.450, 1.648, 2.17, and 0.092. The SHAP analysis showed the effects of each input parameter, illuminating the positive effect of increasing the superplasticizer content on strength and the negative effect of raising the water-to-binder ratio. Using machine learning approaches to forecast the CS of PAC, this study has the potential to boost environmental protection and economic advantage.

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  • 30.
    Waghe, Uday
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering (YCCE), Nagpur 441110, India.
    Agrawal, Dhiraj
    Department of Civil Engineering, Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering (YCCE), Nagpur 441110, India.
    Ansari, Khalid
    Department of Civil Engineering, Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering (YCCE), Nagpur 441110, India.
    Wagh, Monali
    Department of Civil Engineering, Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering (YCCE), Nagpur 441110, India.
    Amran, Mugahed
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, 11942 Alkharj, Saudi Arabia.
    Alsulami, Badr T.
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering and Islamic Architecture, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 24382, Saudi Arabia.
    Maqbool, Hassan M.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Civil Eng., School of Eng., Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500 Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Enhancing eco-concrete performance through synergistic integration of sugarcane, metakaolin, and crumb rubber: Experimental investigation and response surface optimization2023In: Journal of Engineering Research, ISSN 2307-1877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable construction has gained paramount importance due to the consideration of the devastating effects of construction activities on the environment. Researchers are exploring innovative approaches to mitigate the carbon footprint and enhance the durability of concrete. In order to regulate the demand and cost of concrete constituents, such as cement and sand, there is a need to invent alternative materials and utilize various industrial and agricultural wastes instead of concrete ingredients, either partially or completely. The experimental investigation and optimization of eco-concrete composites by integrating sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA), metakaolin (MK), and crumb rubber (CR) are cutting-edge research areas that aim to develop environmentally friendly and high-performance concrete materials. The present research work has attempted to utilize SCBA up to 15% by weight of cement with an increment of 5%, MK as a fractional exchange of cement up to 15% with 5% intervals, and CR was utilized as fractional volumetric substitution of sand from 0% to 15% in concrete. Different sets of combinations were evaluated to identify effects on density, workability, compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, and microstructural properties. This study has obtained satisfactory results when compared to the control concrete for 10% substitution of cement with MK and 10% substitution of cement with SCBA, along with a 10% replacement of fine aggregate (i.e., sand) with CR. The results were analyzed and optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), which illuminated a strong correlation between experimental findings and RSM models, with an R squared (R2) value of 0.9580. The experimental findings and RSM models showed a significant correlation. The increment in the substitution of sand with CR resulted in a decline in strength, and it can be controlled by adopting different effective pretreatment techniques for CR.

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  • 31.
    Zhang, Yin
    et al.
    China Construction Sixth Engineering Bureau Co., Ltd, Tianjin, China; China Construction Sixth Engineering Bureau Civil Engineering Co., Ltd, Tianjin, China.
    Li, Huihong
    China Construction Sixth Engineering Bureau Civil Engineering Co., Ltd, Tianjin, China.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Iftikhar, Bawar
    Department of Civil Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad, Pakistan.
    Murtaza, Haseeb
    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, Pakistan.
    Towards modern sustainable construction materials: a bibliographic analysis of engineered geopolymer composites2023In: Frontiers in Materials, E-ISSN 2296-8016, Vol. 10, article id 1277567Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineered cementitious composites (ECC) exhibits impressive tensile strength but has significant environmental drawbacks due to high cement consumption. Recently, engineered geopolymer composites (EGC) have gained attention as a potential ECC alternative. This comprehensive study reviews the latest EGC advancements, encompassing mix design, design theory, engineering properties, environmental benefits, and durability. It emphasizes how factors like activators, precursors, fibers, additives, and aggregates impact EGC properties, making it a cost-effective material for fire, chemical resistance, and dynamic loads. To address limitations in traditional literature reviews, innovative research methods, including scientometric analysis, were employed to provide a cohesive analysis. This review aims to facilitate knowledge dissemination and collaboration by summarizing EGC advances and highlighting remaining challenges in developing practical applications. It is revealed from the review that various manufacturing methods enhance geopolymers, especially in geopolymer concrete, where replacing 50% of ordinary Portland cement with fly ash boosts strength. Geopolymer concrete excels in pre-cast applications, offering durability and resistance to harsh conditions as an eco-friendly alternative to Portland cement. It suits highway pavement, walls, marine coatings, and tiles, reducing carbon emissions and promoting efficient waste management. EGCs find broad use in construction due to their strong, durable, and eco-friendly qualities, supporting sustainable infrastructure development.

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  • 32.
    Zhou, Yi
    et al.
    Changchun Institute of Technology, School of Architecture, Jilin, Changchun, China.
    Althoey, Fadi
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia.
    Alotaibi, Badr Saad
    Architectural Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Iftikhar, Bawar
    Department of Civil Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad, Pakistan.
    An overview of recent advancements in fibre-reinforced 3D printing concrete2023In: Frontiers in Materials, E-ISSN 2296-8016, Vol. 10, article id 1289340Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, has recently gained significant attention and popularity as a transformative technology across various industries. One area where 3D printing is making remarkable strides is in the construction field, particularly with the emergence of 3D printing concrete (3DPC). While 3DPC holds immense promise, there are still challenges to overcome, such as incorporating reinforcement. This study reviews the potential of using fibre reinforcement to overcome the challenge of making ductile concrete for 3D printing that can withstand substantial tensile stresses. Effects of various types of fibre addition on widespread aspects of 3DPC are systematically reviewed. This review study considers various aspects of 3DPC: rheological characteristics, buildability, anisotropic mechanical behavior, and ductility. These characteristics of fibre-reinforced 3DPC are discussed in light of the published literature. This research’s graphical and statistical visualizations offer valuable insights for academic scholars. This review summarizes recent advancements in fibre-reinforced 3DPC while highlighting the persisting challenges in developing fibre-reinforced 3DPC with desired properties for real-world applications.

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