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  • 1.
    Andersson, B. M.
    et al.
    Dept. of Physics, Umeå University, 5-90187 Umeå, Sweden.
    Easterling, Kenneth E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Guo, S. J.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sundqvist, B.
    Dept. of Physics, Umeå University, 5-90187 Umeå, Sweden.
    Electrical resistivity and critical temperature of bi-based high-t superconductors to 1 GPa1990Ingår i: High Pressure Research, ISSN 0895-7959, E-ISSN 1477-2299, Vol. 3, nr 1-6, s. 120-122Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Andersson, B. M.
    et al.
    Dept. of Physics, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Easterling, Kenneth
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Loberg, Bengt
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Niska, J.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sundqvist, B.
    Dept. of Physics, Umeå University, Sweden.
    High-pressure properties of high-Tc superconductor samples produced by hot isostatic pressing1990Ingår i: High Pressure Research, ISSN 0895-7959, E-ISSN 1477-2299, Vol. 3, nr 1-6, s. 123-125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Ashby, M.F.
    et al.
    Cambridge University.
    Easterling, Kenneth E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    A first report on welding diagrams1981Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Data for carbide dissolution and grain growth in the heat affected zone of a weld can be assembled into a diagram showing the extent of each, for different weld cycles, and at different points in the zone. The diagrams are based on elementary kinetic models for grain growth and carbide dissolution, integrated over the weld cycle. The sets of kinetic constants which appear in such a treatment are determined by fitting the equations to data from real or simulated welds, at certain fixed points. Diagrams are presented for six steels. As well as summarizing much data they allow the effect of change in weld procedure, or of preheat, to be predicted.

  • 4.
    Barbaro, F. J.
    et al.
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Australia; Slab and Plate Products Division, BHP Steel International Group, Australia.
    Krauklis, P.
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Easterling, Kenneth E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet. School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Formation of acicular ferrite at oxide particles in steels1989Ingår i: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, E-ISSN 1743-2847, Vol. 5, nr 11, s. 1057-1068Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental steels similar in composition to structural grades were prepared from weld metal deposits to study the formation of acicular ferrite under conditions experienced in the heat affected zone for a range of welding processes. The formation of acicular ferrite under these conditions is found to be dependent on the presence of a suitable distribution of oxide inclusions > 0·4 μm in size. The characteristics and proportion of acicular ferrite in the microstructure also depend on the prior austenite grain size and cooling rate. The relationship between these factors is presented in a simplified quantitative model, which is supported by data from limited welding trials. Metallographic observations suggest that acicular ferrite forms in two stages. The first involves the formation of relatively large primary acicular ferrite plates by multiple nucleation at intragranular inclusion sites, and the second involves the formation of many smaller acicular ferrite grains that grow sympathetically from the primary plates.

  • 5.
    Bengtsson, B.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Easterling, K.E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Quantitative STEM microanalysis1978Ingår i: Scandinavian journal of metallurgy, ISSN 0371-0459, E-ISSN 1600-0692, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 57-59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 6. Billy, J.
    et al.
    Johansson, T.
    Loberg, Bengt
    Easterling, Kenneth
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stress-relief heat treatment of submerged-arc-welded microalloyed steels1980Ingår i: Metals Technology, ISSN 0307-1693, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 67-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of microalloyed steels containing various combinations of Al, Ti, V, Nb, and submerged-arc welded using wires of either high or low Mo additions, were studied in both the as-welded and stress-relieved conditions, with particular reference to impact toughness and microstructure. It was found that, irrespective of thermal treatment, the heat-affected base metal always has a much lower impact transition temperature than the weld metal. In the as-welded condition, the most important constituent with respect to toughness is the amount of pro-eutectoid ferrite present

  • 7.
    Easterling, K. E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Recent developments in quantitative electron microscopy1977Ingår i: International Metals Review, ISSN 0308-4590, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 1-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments across the whole field of electron microscopy and associated equipment and techniques are reviewed with particular emphasis on quantitative measurements and analysis. The review is intended to cover a wide field embracing transmission, scanning, and scanning transmission microscopy as well as X-ray spectroscopy, on-line image analysis, and in situ experimentation, with the object of seeing how and to what effect quantitative electron microscopy is serving materials technology.

  • 8.
    Easterling, K. E.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Fischmeister, H. F.
    Metallurgical case studies for engineering students1973Ingår i: Metals and Materials, ISSN 0026-0940, Vol. 7, nr 10, s. 452-454Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The course described attempts to help engineering students adapt themselves to solving problems typically encountered in the metals industries

  • 9.
    Easterling, K.E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Metallurgical applications of scanning transmission electron microscopy1977Ingår i: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 12, nr 5, s. 857-868Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is shown that scanning transmission microscopy (STEM) has followed two main lines of development, the pure STEM based upon a field emission electron source in which the emphasis is given to high resolution, and a combined system in which STEM is an attachment to a conventional transmission microscope (TEM+STEM). When used in combination with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, the combined TEM+STEM system is shown to be extremely versatile and possibly the more useful for the applied metallurgist. The high vacuum requirements of pure STEM, however, make this system suitable to be used in conjunction with an Auger spectrometer. Examples of the various microanalysis facilities of STEM are given in the article, including micro-diffraction, rocking-beam channelling patterns, qualitative and quantitative X-ray spectroscopy analysis, particle analysis, and in situ experimentation. The controversial subject of whether thicker specimens can be studied in STEM compared with conventional TEM is also discussed

  • 10.
    Easterling, K.E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Scanning-transmission electron-microscopy and microanalysis1977Ingår i: Scandinavian journal of metallurgy, ISSN 0371-0459, E-ISSN 1600-0692, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 3-5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Easterling, K.E.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Navara, E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Some recent developments in powder metallurgy in Sweden1979Ingår i: Science of Sintering, ISSN 0350-820X, Vol. 11, nr spec, s. 105-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors concentrate on some recent scientific and technological developments in the two main areas of activity in Sweden, i.e. cemented carbides and steel powder metallurgy. They also give a few details of some interesting preliminary work on the hot isostatic pressing of silicon nitride and the development of sintered oxide containers for storing nuclear waste materials

  • 12.
    Easterling, K.E.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Tholen, A.R.
    The nucleation of martensite in steel1976Ingår i: Acta Metallurgica, ISSN 0001-6160, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 333-341Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Calculations of the total energy for transforming austenite to martensite in the form of thin ellipsoidal plates, fully coherent with the austenite, show that the process may be spontaneous in the presence of pre-existing dislocations. It is found that dislocations, or groups of dislocations, in the austenite are suitable sites for martensite nucleation in that their strain fields may interact favourably with the strain field associated with the Bain deformation thereby eliminating the energy barrier to nucleation. The driving force for twinning to occur virtually simultaneously with nucleation is large and when this happens energy is released for thickening and growth of the nucleus. It is also found that the strain energy of coherent plates of martensite, whether twinned or untwinned, is a function of their orientation in the austenite, although the lowest strain energy case occur nevertheless over a relatively wide range of orientations

  • 13.
    Easterling, K.E.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Thölén, A.R.
    Department of Applied Physics I, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    On the growth of martensite in steel1980Ingår i: Acta Metallurgica, ISSN 0001-6160, Vol. 28, nr 9, s. 1229-1234Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Criteria based on minimum energy and maximum stress considerations have been developed for the first stages of growth of martensite in steel. It is shown that the critical size of nucleus at which dislocation-assisted growth can occur is about 25 nm diameter. The mode of growth governing low carbon lath martensite forming on {111} austenite habit planes is found to be fundamentally different from that of plate martensite which forms on irrational habit planes. A mechanism for lath thickening and growth is advanced in which dislocations nucleate at the thickest section of the lath and then follow after the coherent leading edge of the lath to generate ledges. Plate growth on the other hand can occur by the formation of twins which nucleate and thicken laterally behind the coherent leading edge of the plate.

  • 14.
    Easterling, Kenneth E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Mechanisms of deformation and fracture: proceedings of the interdisciplinary conference held at the University of Luleå, Luleå, Sweden, September 20-22, 19781979Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Easterling, Kenneth E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    The Transmission Electron-Microscope as a Chemical Laboratory1981Ingår i: Ultramicroscopy, ISSN 0304-3991, E-ISSN 1879-2723, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 411-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Ion, John C.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Easterling, Kenneth E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Computer modelling of weld-implant testing1985Ingår i: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, E-ISSN 1743-2847, Vol. 1, nr 5, s. 405-411Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A theoretical model is developed for determining the optimum notch position in an implant test used for predicting the susceptibility to hydrogen cracking during welding. Using a microcomputer for processing the equations for weld-bead geometry and heat flow during welding, a microstructural cross-section, with the notch positioned at the center of the grain-growth zone, and an implant testing diagram, showing the notch position and microstructure as a function of welding parameters, can be generated. A single bead-on-plate weld is used to determine the unknown kinetic and geometrical constants in the equations. It is shown that notch position is very sensitive to the type of welding process employed and that implant diagrams thus can be used to position the notch with greater reliability and hence reduce the scatter in the fracture loads measured in this test.

  • 17.
    Ion, John C.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Easterling, Kenneth E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ashby, M.F.
    Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Cambridge, England.
    A second report on diagrams of microstructure and hardness for heat-affected zones in welds1984Ingår i: Acta Metallurgica, ISSN 0001-6160, Vol. 32, nr 11, s. 1949-1962Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper improves and extends kinetic models to include: precipitate coarsening; the use of semi-empirical equations including carbon-equivalence to predict microstructure and hardness; a comparison between the theory and data obtained from different types of real welds; and an alternative, more easily used diagram.

  • 18. Loberg, Bengt
    et al.
    Johansson, T.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Easterling, K. E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Improvement in toughness of welded constructional steels through titanium additions1980Ingår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, ISSN 0080-4614, Vol. 295, nr 1413, s. 306-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary form only given. The authors present an interim report on the effect of various alloying additions in the weld deposit and base material on the precipitate dispersion and stability, the microstructure and toughness of microalloyed constructional steels, in both the as-welded as well as welded and stress-relieved conditions. Materials investigated include welded AlTi, AlTiV, AlTiNb and AlV steels with the use of electrodes either with or without Mo additions

  • 19. Navara, Eric
    et al.
    Easterling, Kenneth E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    The effect of alloying additions on the inclusion-matrix bond in oxide dispersion hardened alloys1974Ingår i: IV. Medzinárodná Konferencia o Práskovej Metalurgii, Československá Socialistická Republika 1974, [Vysoké Tatry, 1 - 3.X]: IV. Internationale Konferenz über Pulvermetallurgie, 1974 IV. International Conference on Powder Metallurgy, Slovenska Vedeckotechnicka Spolocnost; Kosice , 1974, s. 265-280Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The factors contributing to strength and ductility of a series of Fe-Al2O3 dispersion hardened alloys are investigated. It is found that the bonding strength between the phases is of particular importance in alloys produced by powder metallurgy techniques, and this aspect of the problem is studied in detail using electron microscopy. The nature of bonding strength is then discussed and a model of diffuse interface postulated in order to account for improvements in the work of adhesion, caused by alloying the matrix with interface active elements. The diffuse-interface bond increases the strain required for the onset of void formation, and in extreme cases fracture occurs within the particles

  • 20.
    Navara, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Easterling, Kenneth E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Comments to the paper ''on the nature of diffusional flow in porous-massive monometallic couples'' by Godokhindi and Tendolkar1978Ingår i: Science of Sintering, ISSN 0350-820X, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 273-278Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent experimental evidence presented by Godkjindi and Tendolkar in support of the ''Geguzin effect'' is found inadequate and fails to prove either their's or Geguzin's claims concerning pore nucleation in solid metals

  • 21.
    Porter, D.A.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Easterling, K.E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Dynamic studies of the tensile deformation and fracture of pearlite using high-resolution 200-KV sem1978Ingår i: Scandinavian journal of metallurgy, ISSN 0371-0459, E-ISSN 1600-0692, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 55-56Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22. Porter, D.A.
    et al.
    Easterling, K.E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Smith, G.D.W.
    Dynamic studies of the deformation and fracture of pearlite using 200 kV SEM1978Ingår i: Electron microscopy 1978: [papers presented at the ninth International Congress on Electron Microscopy held in Toronto, Canada, August 1-9, 1978 / [ed] J.M. Sturgess, Toronto: Microsopical Soc. of Canada , 1978, s. 578-579Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary form only given, as follows. The influence of interlamellar spacing on the mechanics of deformation was studied and the materials examined ranged from coarse pearlite, with a mean interlamellar spacing λ~0.4 μm, to fine pearlite with λ~0.1 μm. The problems of ex post facto reasoning regarding the modes of deformation were avoided by continuously following deformation with the TV monitor and recording high resolution slow scan micrographs from the same area both before and after straining. The results of this investigation have shown that there are large differences in the deformation and fracture mechanisms between coarse and fine pearlites, especially when the cementite lamellae are aligned close to the tensile axis

  • 23.
    Porter, D.A.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Easterling, K.E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Smith, G.D.W.
    Department of Metallurgy and Science of Materials, University of Oxford, England.
    Dynamic studies of the tensile deformation and fracture of pearlite1978Ingår i: Acta Metallurgica, ISSN 0001-6160, Vol. 26, nr 9, s. 1405-1422Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High resolution 200 kV scanning electron microscopy has been used to study in situ the tensile deformation and fracture of a range of pearlites, from relatively coarse mean interlamellar spacing of about 400 nm, to very fine mean spacing of about 90 nm. It was found that there were considerable differences in the tensile deformation behaviour between fine and coarse pearlites. A model is proposed to account for the differences based upon a combination of pile-up and fibre loading stresses, in which the operating deformation mode is largely determined by which type of mechanism is dominant

  • 24.
    Porter, D.A.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Easterling, Kenneth E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Smith, G.D.W.
    Department of Metallurgy & Science of Materials, University of Oxford.
    The mechanism of deformation of pearlite1979Ingår i: Mechanisms of deformation and fracture: proceedings of the interdisciplinary conference held at the University of Luleå, Luleå, Sweden, September 20-22, 1978 / [ed] Kenneth E. Easterling, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1979, s. 87-96Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    Porter, David A.
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Easterling, Kenneth
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sherif, Mohamed Y.
    SKF Group, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.
    Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys2021 (uppl. 4)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26.
    Roberts, W.
    et al.
    Institute for Metals Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lehtinen, B.
    Institute for Metals Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Easterling, Kenneth E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    An in situ sem study of void development around inclusions in steel during plastic deformation1976Ingår i: Acta Metallurgica, ISSN 0001-6160, Vol. 24, nr 8, s. 745-758Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Void development around ellipsoidal inclusions (mainly MnS) in steel has been investigated by means of in situ SEM tensile tests using specimens such that the tensile axis is the short-transverse direction in rolled plate. By simultaneous video recording of the microscope image and a load-elongation curve, the nucleation and growth of cavities has been monitored quantitatively. Careful investigation reveals that the behaviour at a free surface as regards cavitation is rather accelerated in comparison to that observed internally; this can be reconciled with a modified interfacial stress distribution around those hard particles in a plastically deformed matrix which lie at or near the specimen surface. In addition, some observations pertaining to the coalescence of cavities as a prerequisite to terminal ductile separation, are described and considered.

1 - 26 av 26
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