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  • 1.
    Andersson, Joel B.H.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Logan, Leslie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Chew, David
    Department of Geology, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Department of Geosciences, Swedish Museum of Natural History, 10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kielman-Schmitt, Melanie
    Department of Geosciences, Swedish Museum of Natural History, 10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kampmann, Tobias C.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bauer, Tobias E.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    U-Pb zircon-titanite-apatite age constraints on basin development and basin inversion in the Kiruna mining district, Sweden2022In: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 372, article id 106613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To constrain the tectonothermal evolution of the type locality for iron oxide-apatite deposits, we have obtained U-Pb zircon, titanite, and apatite age data for the Kiruna mining district in northernmost Sweden. The results indicate that the host basin initiated in an overall extensional regime as indicated by the deposition of alluvial conglomerates and greywackes. A volcanic intercalation in a conglomerate unit northwest of the Luossavaara iron oxide-apatite deposit yields a U-Pb zircon age of 1887 ± 3 Ma representing the timing of the earliest Orosirian volcanism in the central Kiruna mining district coinciding with the onset of basin development. In-situ analysis of titanite on hydrothermally altered fracture planes within a cataclastic fault damage zone (c. 270 m from the fault core system associated to the Luossavaara iron oxide-apatite deposit) yields complex U-Pb data. Applying a strict discordance filter yields a 207Pb/206Pb age of 1889 ± 26 Ma. The age implies that the fault probably has a syn-volcanic origin and that syn-volcanic faults may have played an important role during iron ore emplacement. The mineralized basin was subsequently buried and metamorphosed under upper greenschist-facies conditions and later tectonically exhumed and cooled below the apatite closure temperature at 1805 ± 26 Ma indicated by apatite from the Nukutus iron oxide-apatite deposit. Basin inversion is temporally constrained by syn-tectonic titanite as part of sodic-calcic + Fe + Cl hydrothermal alteration along a brittle-ductile reverse shear zone to the east of the study area. Titanite grains that show sector and oscillatory zoning yield an age of 1812 ± 3 Ma, which we interpret as the onset of basin inversion. Homogeneous (relatively unzoned) titanite in the same sample yields an age of 1802 ± 8 Ma, tentatively indicating that the tectonothermal activity lasted up to c. 20 m.y.

  • 2.
    Logan, Leslie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Utilizing a tectonic framework to constrain the mineral system and remobilization in the Kiruna mining district, Sweden2022Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kiruna mining district, located in the northern Norrbotten ore province, Sweden, is a geologically and economically important area, being the type-locality for Kiruna iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposits and also host to a variety of other deposits including syngenetic stratiform exhalative Cu-(Fe-Zn) (Viscaria, Eastern Pahtohavare), epigenetic stratabound Cu ± Au (Pahtohavare), and iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG, Rakkurijärvi) deposits. However, the timing of IOA versus IOCG within the tectonic evolution is in question based on structural investigations showing Cu- and Fe-sulfides occur in late-orogenic structures. Here we use an established tectonic framework to constrain mineral systems (tectonic/thermal drives, metal and ligand sources, fluid pathways, traps, remobilization mechanisms) related to the early and late phases of the Svecokarelian orogeny in the Kiruna mining district. U-Pb zircon geochronology of intrusions in the district indicates a thermal drive was present during the early phase of the Svecokarelian orogeny from ca. 1920-1865 Ma, however remains enigmatic for the late Svecokarelian orogeny. Zircon grains from a magnetite-ilmenite gabbro yielded an age of 1881 ± 8 Ma, coeval with the Kiirunavaara IOA deposit and suggested to represent an important generation of mafic magmatism related to the ore. Lithogeochemistry of early bimodal Svecokarelian intrusions in the district indicates a within-plate to active continental margin environment with a volcanic arc affinity, pointing to a back arc environment. Epsilon Ndi and 87Sr/86Sri values calculated from the U-Pb ages for the igneous intrusions were compared to samples of ore-related alteration from epigenetic Pahtohavare and Rakkurijärvi deposits, district greenstone, and Archean samples. Results show that each deposit sourced Sr and Nd from a variety of rocks suggesting broad fluid transport. Each deposit has a distinct Sr mixing trend suggesting they formed from different ore-forming fluids and pathways. This is supported by new structural data that constrain the folding event and the ore-related quartz-carbonate-sulfide veins in the Pahtohavare area to a late orogenic timing, compared to the early orogenic timing of Rakkurijärvi. Sulfide trace element and sulfur isotope data from structurally constrained ores within the tectonic framework also record distinct characteristics between early and late deposits. However, remobilization of early Pahtohavare sulfides associated to an increase in Co content and heavier sulfur isotope compositions is recorded. The results of this study illustrate that using a structural framework approach to constrain the ingredients of mineral systems is a powerful strategy for interpreting ore deposit processes in tectonically complex terrains where both IOA and IOCG deposits occur.

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  • 3.
    Logan, Leslie
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andersson, Joel B. H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Department of Geosciences, Swedish Museum of Natural History, SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bauer, Tobias E.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Energy Drive for the Kiruna Mining District Mineral System(s): Insights from U-Pb Zircon Geochronology2022In: Minerals, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kiruna mining district, Sweden, known for the type locality of Kiruna-type iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposits, also hosts several Cu-mineralized deposits including iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG), exhalative stratiform Cu-(Fe-Zn), and structurally controlled to stratabound Cu +/- Au. However the relationship between the IOA and Cu-systems has not been contextualized within the regional tectonic evolution. A broader mineral systems approach is taken to assess the timing of energy drive(s) within a regional tectonic framework by conducting U-Pb zircon geochronology on intrusions from areas where Cu-mineralization is spatially proximal. Results unanimously yield U-Pb ages from the early Svecokarelian orogeny (ca. 1923-1867 Ma including age uncertainties), except one sample from the Archean basement (2698 +/- 3 Ma), indicating that a distinct thermal drive from magmatic activity was prominent for the early orogenic phase. A weighted average Pb-207/Pb-206 age of 1877 +/- 10 Ma of an iron-oxide-enriched gabbroic pluton overlaps in age with the Kiirunavaara IOA deposit and is suggested as a candidate for contributing mafic signatures to the IOA ore. The results leave the role of a late energy drive (and subsequent late Cu-mineralization and/or remobilization) ambiguous, despite evidence showing a late regional magmatic-style hydrothermal alteration is present in the district.

  • 4.
    Logan, Leslie
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andersson, Joel B.H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Drakou, Foteini
    iCRAG, Department of Geology, Museum Building, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    McClenaghan, Sean
    iCRAG, Department of Geology, Museum Building, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Jeon, Heejin
    Department of Geoscience, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Department of Geoscience, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Tornos, Fernando
    Instituto de Geociencias (IGEO, CSIC-UCM), c/Severo Ochoa, 7, 28040 Madrid, Spain .
    Bauer, Tobias E
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Signatures of sulfide remobilization in the Kiruna mining district: a SIMS sulfur isotope and LA-ICP-MS trace element studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kiruna mining district in northern Norrbotten, Sweden, is situated in a region that is broadly described as an iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) district. Kiruna is well known for the iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposits (Kiruna-type), but also hosts several Cu-bearing prospects including the Viscaria and Eastern Pahtohavare stratabound-stratiform Cu-(Fe-Zn), the Rakkurijärvi IOCG, and the Pahtohavare epigenetic Cu ± Au prospects. However the genesis of the Cu mineralization in the district has not been studied from a structural perspective in relation to the tectonic evolution of the region. Utilizing recent structural characterization of the Svecokarelian orogenic cycle as a framework, Cu- and Fe-bearing sulfides have been identified from the pre-, early, and late orogenic phases and assessed for primary and overprinting signatures with in situ δ34S and trace element data. Results indicate that the youngest stage of epigenetic mineralization (late orogenic) in the Pahtohavare area precipitated vein-hosted pyrite from a strongly Co-enriched hydrothermal fluid with δ34S values between 2‰ and 6 ‰. The late mineralization event occurred syn- to post-folding of the host rocks together with remobilization of sulfides from the younger Eastern Pahtohavare deposit. This remobilization is characterized by a fractionation of sulfur isotopes towards heavier values and dispersion of Co and Ni data towards higher and lower concentrations, respectively, and indicates redistribution of metals occurred as a result of the late orogenic mineralization and deformation. This implies a distinct Cu-forming event occurred in the late Svecokarelian orogeny both that introduced new metals and redistributed (and possibly incorporated) metals from a preexisting source. Metamorphic and low temperature remobilization is also recorded in samples from the district characterized by increases in Co and Ni, respectively. 

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  • 5.
    Logan, Leslie
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andersson, Joel B.H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Department of Geoscience, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Tornos, Fernando
    Instituto de Geociencias (IGEO, CSIC-UCM), c/Severo Ochoa, 7, 28040 Madrid, Spain .
    Bauer, Tobias E
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    A mineral systems-scale investigation into the Kiruna mining district and implications for the timing of ore forming processes within a regional tectonic frameworkManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of iron oxide apatite (IOA) and iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits and their relation to each other is currently strongly debated. Recent characterization of the polyphase Svecokarelian orogeny in the northern Norrbotten ore province provides a tectonic framework that can be used to assess the timing of IOA and IOCG genetic processes from a broader mineral systems perspective. This study combined whole rock lithogeochemistry, whole rock Sr and Nd isotopes, U-Pb zircon geochronology, and structural data to gain insight into the Kiruna mining district mineral system. Results show that the igneous intrusions range from mafic to felsic in composition and developed in an active continental margin with both volcanic arc and within-plate affinities. The intrusions have ages ranging from 1891 ± 6 Ma to 1876 ± 11 Ma. One magnetite-ilmenite gabbro gives a concordia age of 1881 ± 8 Ma. These ages indicate a thermal drive for the mineral system can be recognized occurring during an early-orogenic deformation phase (D0-D1) but remains enigmatic for a late-orogenic phase (D2). 87Sr/86Sri and εNdi data from ore-related alteration (Na-alteration and late K-Fe overprint) at Pahtohavare Cu ± Au and Rakkurijärvi IOCG deposits as well as district igneous, greenstone, and Archean rocks indicate that the deposits have distinct Sr-mixing trends and that both sourced Sr and Nd from a wide variety of protoliths. Alteration results show a prominent Na-metasomatism with certain areas showing a K-overprint. New structural analysis of the Pahtohavare area indicates the main ore-related generation of quartz-carbonate-sulfide veins cross cut foliation and were introduced during F2 folding in the late Svecokarelian (D2), suggesting that a late Cu-Au mineralization/remobilization occurred in the Kiruna mining district ca. 80 m.y. after the emplacement of the Kiirunavaara IOA deposit. In brief, our data show that IOA and IOCG systems can be of different ages and sources within the same district.

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  • 6.
    Logan, Leslie
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Veress, Ervin Csaba
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andersson, Joel B. H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bauer, Tobias E.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Structural framework and timing of the Pahtohavare Cu ± Au deposits, Kiruna mining district, Sweden2023In: Solid Earth, ISSN 1869-9510, E-ISSN 1869-9529, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 763-784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of the larger mineral systems approach to Cu-bearing mineralization in northern Norrbotten, this study utilizes structural geology to set the classic Pahtohavare Cu ± Au deposits into an up-to-date tectonic framework. The Pahtohavare Cu ± Au deposits, situated only 5 km southwest of the Kiirunavaara world-class iron oxide–apatite (IOA) deposit, have a dubious timing, and their link to IOA formation is not constrained. The study area contains both epigenic Cu ± Au (Pahtohavare) and iron oxide–copper–gold (IOCG; Rakkurijärvi) mineral occurrences which are hosted in bedrock that has been folded and bound by two shear zones trending northeast to southwest and northwest to southeast to the east and southwest, respectively. Structural mapping and petrographic investigation of the area reveal a noncylindrical, SE-plunging anticline. The cleavage measurements mirror the fold geometry, which characterizes the fold as F2 associated with the late phase of the Svecokarelian orogeny. Porphyroclasts with pressure shadows, mylonitic fabrics, and foliation trails in porphyroblasts indicate S0/S1  is a tectonic fabric. The epigenetic Pahtohavare Cu ± Au mineralization sits in brittle–ductile structures that cross-cut an earlier foliation and the F2 fold, indicating that the timing of the deposits occurred syn- to post-F2 folding, at least ca. 80 Myr after the Kiirunavaara IOA formation. A 3D model and cross-sections of the Pahtohavare–Rakkurijärvi area and a new structural framework of the district are presented and used to suggest that the shear zones bounding the area are likely reactivated early structures that have played a critical role in ore formation in the Kiruna mining district.

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