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  • 1.
    Varg, Torun
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Oberholtzer, Erica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Brandrisker och skyddshöjande brandtekniska åtgärder för kabelutrymmen, lokaler för växelhuvudströmscentral och transformatorer inom vattenkraftverk2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 210 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's society is dependent on electricity, from getting clean water in the faucet to being able to put fuel in the car electricity is required. Hydroelectric power plants account for almost half of today's production of electricity, which means that hydropower is a vital factor for the community to function. From an environmental perspective, hydropower is considered more environmentally friendly than electricity produced from fossil fuels. Since hydroelectric power plants play a big role in society makes it very important to prevent possible accidents and hold-ups in production, such as a fire. Fires have occurred at hydropower plants around the world. Colorado is an example where the fire started in the flammable material that was being used in a tunnel at the hydropower plant. This resulted in a fire where several workers were trapped in a tunnel underground, all workers died since there was only one escape route. In hydropower stations located underground, it is common that there is only one escape route. The accident demonstrates the complexity that exists in the dimensioning of hydropower stations underground.

    The purpose and goal of this project has been to identify fire risks at two hydropower plants and how to minimize and prevent them. In order to achieve the project's goals, a literature study has been conducted to provide an understanding for the problems that may arise. A risk investigation was also conducted at the hydropower plants to see what they look like in the reality. A computer simulation has also been made to give an idea of the smoke spread. This computer simulation has been performed using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS). The literature study showed, through statistics from MSB's database IDA, that transformer fires are one of the biggest risks in underground facilities. During the visit to Messaure, a hydroelectric power plant, only the local transformers were placed below the ground. These local transformers were of a dry-transformer type, which results in a smaller fire hazard. Previously, there were also other transformers underground, but these are moved above ground to minimize the fire hazard.

    Unlike Messaure, Akkat's, a hydroelectric power plant, transformer was placed underground in a separate transformer hall, which is a separate fire cell. The entrance to this was directly adjacent to the access tunnel which is also used for evacuation. To investigate how much a fire in the transformer hall would affect the evacuation, this space was chosen for an FDS analysis. The conclusion that can be drawn is that if the door should be left open, a fire in the transformer would have a major negative impact on the evacuation. Smoke quickly streamed into the access tunnel, which has an effect on all evacuation. The door should always be closed . However, there is no automatic door closer, which can result in the door being left open. A cost-effective improvement would be to install a door closer, which could save lives.

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