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  • 1.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    A brief guide to questionnaire design: with examples from ergonomics1985Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    et al.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    A head-model reconstruction based upon photogrammetric data from Sri Lankan adult males relevant to the design of headgear1989In: Journal of Human Ergology, ISSN 0300-8134, Vol. 18, no 2, 199-211 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the large variability in heads and faces in one population, the standard anthropometric dimensions of the head, measured from anatomical landmarks alone, may not suffice for the design of fitting headgear, e.g., helmets. To provide adequate data of the shapes and contours of the head to the designer, appropriate head models sculptured using comprehensive head dimensions, must be developed. This paper describes (a) a procedure of collecting comprehensive anthropometric data of the head using a photogrammetric method and (b) a simple sculpturing technique to reconstruct a head model of the user population

  • 3.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Body size data of Sri Lankan workers and their variability with other populations in the world: its impact on the use of imported goods1987In: Journal of Human Ergology, ISSN 0300-8134, Vol. 16, no 2, 193-208 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    et al.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Body size variability between people in developed and developing countries and its impact on the use of imported goods1989In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 4, no 2, 139-149 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Industrially Developing Countries (IDC) today, to a great extent, depend on Industrialized Countries (IC) for the supply of most industrial goods. An attempt has been made to ascertain the degree of design incompatibility experienced by users of these imported goods due to differences in the body sizes of people in producer and user countries. A comparative study of variations in body sizes is made from data available in literature and from anthropometric surveys. The results reveal differences in almost every part of the human body. The need for reliable anthropometric data in respect of IDC is stressed. Urgent measures are required to introduce changes in equipment, particularly for the benefit of users in IDC.

  • 5.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    et al.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Effect of the hot environment on man1988In: International Symposium on Work in a Hot Environment and Heat Related Disorders, Khartoum 27-31 Jan. 1988, 1988Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Abeysekera, John D.A
    et al.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Ergonomic evaluation of modified industrial safety helmets for use in tropical environments1988In: Ergonomics International 88: proceedings of the tenth congress of the International Ergonomics Association, 1-5 August 1988, Sydney, Australia / [ed] Austen S. Adams, London: Taylor and Francis Group , 1988, 212-214 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    et al.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Ergonomics aspects of personal protective equipment: its use in industrially developing countries1988In: Journal of Human Ergology, ISSN 0300-8134, Vol. 17, no 1, 67-79 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    et al.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Ergonomics assessment of selected dust respirators: their use in the tropics1987In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 18, no 4, 266-72 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The suitability and effectiveness of four different types of British made respirators were studied with respect to comfort, convenience and fit on wearers in Sri Lanka (a developing country). Objective and subjective assessments were made to evaluate the degree of discomfort and interferences to the use of senses. The study revealed that factors such as breathing resistance, work-rate and activity period affected the physiological responses. The weight of the respirator and the skin temperature had no direct relationship with the cardiovascular stress. Positive-pressure respirators that gave lower face temperatures than negative-pressure masks gave this type of respirator an additional advantage in hot environments. Respirators that restricted jaw movement affected the speech intelligibility of the wearer. Orinasal masks restricted vision more than the other types. The problem of fit was found negligible though head and face dimensions significantly differed between the British and the Sri Lankans. Subjective assessment correlated well with objective tests.

  • 9.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    et al.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Ergonomics evaluation of modified industrial helmets for use in tropical environments1988In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 31, no 9, 1317-1329 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hotness, weight, fitting problems etc., have been found to be the chief causes of the unpopularity of industrial safety helmets in tropical environments in developing countries (DC). Some selected safety helmets manufactured in industrialized countries (IC) were modified to provide extra head ventilation and to reduce weight, in order to make them more acceptable to users in hot environments. The modified helmets were subjected to ergonomics evaluation both objectively and subjectively in the laboratory (in simulated tropical conditions) as well as in the field situation. There was evidence that white helmets had some advantages in comfort, viz. reduction of hotness, compared to the other colours, e.g. red, green etc., when worn in the presence of radiant heat in the laboratory. Ventilation holes provided at the top of the shell seemed to reduce the greenhouse effect within the helmet shell which therefore felt less uncomfortable than a fully covered helmet. Even with a small reduction of weight, such as 45 g in helmets weighing about 350g, the difference in weight was perceived by the wearers. In adapting helmets made in IC for use in tropical climates, head ventilation and low weight perception are important aspects in comfort which need to be considered. In addition to low cost, a harness material suitable for sweat absorption is required. Adjustability and sizing to fit 90% of the user population also needs to be considered in the design and manufacture of safety helmets for people in DC.

  • 10. Abeysekera, John D.A.
    et al.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Ergonomics of technology transfer1987In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 1, no 4, 265-272 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is beyond doubt that high technology has elevated the standards of living of mankind. The modern technology created and developed to a great extent by Western or developed societies is now in great demand in Eastern and developing societies who are trying to leap-frog towards advancement. But unfortunately, in the transfer of technology, both the giver and the receiver seem to make many mistakes. A technology transferred without considering the ethnic variables in the societies and differences in the climates, has found to cause problems to the acquirer. Due to the basic human factor differences such as sizes of people, physical environment, physical capacities and organizational and cultural differences, a technology which is unadapted has found to be inappropriate, harmful, hazardous and unsuccessful. In the areas of health, working conditions, production and finance, undesirable effects have resulted through haphazard technology transfer, For a successful transfer, it is therefore stressed that technology has to be adapted or modified taking into consideration the technological, anthropological and socio-economic factors of the acquiring population

  • 11.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    et al.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Ergonomics problems in the use of personal protective wear in industrially developing countries1987In: Proccedings of the XIth World congress on the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases: Stockholm, Sweden, 24-29 May 1987, 1987, 422-424 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Thermal environment and man1986Report (Other academic)
  • 13. Abeysekera, John D.A.
    et al.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Chapman, Larry J.
    Ergonomics in developing countries1990In: Advances in industrial ergonomics and safety 2: proceedings of the annual International Industrial Ergonomics and Safety Conference held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 10-13 June 1990 / [ed] Biman Das, Taylor and Francis Group , 1990, 771-778 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Abeysekera, John
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Piamonte, Dominic Paul T
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Welcoming the millennium from a decade of growth and development in ergonomics education and promotion2001In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 27, no 6, 365- p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Abeysekera, John
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Adaptation to discomfort in personal protective devices: an example with safety helmets1990In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 33, no 2, 137-145 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discomfort in the use of personal protective devices (PPD) has been one of the chief causes of their non-use. A field trial using industrial helmets was carried out to ascertain whether by training and repeated wearing subjects could experience a significant adaptation to discomfort. Ten subjects took part in the trial in a tropical environment by wearing helmets repeatedly (6 h a day) for one month. Subjective evaluations of discomfort were made at the end of the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 14th and 30th day. It was revealed that complaints of discomfort, viz. hotness, heaviness, bad fit, etc., decreased markedly throughout the 30 day period. Though positive responses of adaptation to discomfort seem to reach an optimum towards 30 days, it is difficult to draw any conclusions on the optimum period of adaptation for each discomfort factor. In relation to inherent discomforts that are extremely difficult to overcome without compromising the protection efficiency of a PPD, the principle of adaptation seems to be a very important facet which has to be developed for an effective PPD programme.

  • 16.
    Akita, Munehira
    et al.
    Nibon Fukushi University.
    Lee, Kwan Suk
    Hong-ik University.
    Noy, Ian Y.
    Transport Canada.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Helander, Martin
    Nanyang Technological University.
    Hendrick, Hal W.
    University of Southern California.
    Lee, Kwan S.
    Hong-ik University.
    Kogi, Kazutaka
    Institute for Science of Labour.
    Sugiyama, Sadao
    Kansei Gakuin University.
    Asian ergonomics in the new millennium2000In: Ergonomics for the New Millenium: proceedings of the XIVth Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association and 44th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics society, July 29 through August 4, 2000, San Diego, California USA, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2000, Vol. Vol. 6, 690-691 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asia has more than a half of the world population. However, ergonomics has not been widely applied with exceptions of Japan and Korea. Recently, the excitement of ergonomics is being spread to other countries such as Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Indonesia. Although there have been two regional conferences, PPCOE and SEA Conference, Asian ergonomists have not met together to discuss their activities in a world conference. Therefore, the objectives of this symposium is to provide the opportunities for them to discuss the current status of ergonomics and possibly joints efforts to promote ergonomics in Asia. At the same time, this symposium intends to introduce the ergonomics activities in Asia to Western and non-Asian ergonomists and to look for new guidance to enhance its activities from the world renowned exports who have experienced in working in Asia with Asian ergonomists. This syposium consists of two sessions: one panel session and one technical session

  • 17.
    Baltrenas, P.
    et al.
    Vilnius Technical University, Lithuania.
    Serbenta, K.
    Vilnius Technical University, Lithuania.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Characteristics of the Workforce and Activity Optimization in the Building Industries of Lithuania1996In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, Vol. 2, no 1, 41-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Bao, Shihan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Ergonomics in the developing world: The promises and problems of ergonomics application in the Peoples Republic of China1989In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 20, no 4, 287-292 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ergonomics or human factors, as an applied science concerning the design of interfaces between man, machine and the working environment, has shown its great capacities and potentials for improving working conditions and efficiency during its applications in most industrially developed countries (IC). As a means of improving the economy, industrialisation has been initiated in many industrially developing countries (DC). Knowledge and technology available in ICs have been transferred to DCs in order to increase the process of industrialisation. Ergonomics as a western discipline has also been transferred to many DCs during the technology transfer process. As an example of the transfer and development of ergonomics in industrially developing countries, this paper examines the development of ergonomics and its various areas of application in the People's Republic of China. After reviewing the current ergonomics situation and its applications in China from various points of view - i e, from organisation, research, education and industrial application - promises and problems associatd with the development of this new area of science are discussed.

  • 19.
    Bao, Shihan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Occupational Musculoskeletal disorders in Chinese industries1990In: Annual book on occupaional health, safety and ergonomics, Wuhan: Tongji medical university , 1990, 319-324 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Bao, Shihan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    The state of awareness to the occupational MSD in developing countries1988In: International conference on injuries in the work places: Nov 7-12 Bangkok, Thailand, 1988Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Bao, Shihan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Application of a job analysis method (AET) in some chinese workplaces1991In: Designing for everyone: proceedings of the eleventh Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Paris 1991 / [ed] Yvon Queinnec; François Daniellou, Taylor and Francis Group , 1991, Vol. Vol. 1, 27-29 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Bao, Shihan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Physical work load on the chinese assembly line workers1991In: Designing for everyone: proceedings of the eleventh Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Paris 1991 / [ed] Yvon Queinnec; François Daniellou, Taylor and Francis Group , 1991, 29-30 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Bao, Shihan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Winkel, Jørgen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Interactive effect of ergonomics and production engineering on shoulder-neck exposure: a case study of assembly work in China and Sweden1997In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 20, no 1, 75-85 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ergonomic improvements of work station design have been widely embraced as a measure for reduction of physical work load (mechanical exposure) and prevention or control of occupational shoulder-neck disorders. However, other elements of work rationalization, more in the hands of production engineers, may also influence the mechanical exposure. The present study concerns shoulder-neck exposure in a Chinese and a Swedish assembly line workplace. Interactive effects of ergonomic work station design, and production engineering (in terms of assembly line balancing and sensitivity of assembly line layout to production irregularities) on shoulder-neck exposure have been studied. It was shown that the Swedish workplace has a better ergonomic work station design, reflected in more favorable work postures during assembly operations. At the same time, the Swedish assembly line is better balanced and less sensitive to production irregularities, which probably reduces the total duration of idle time during assembly compared with the Chinese line. On the Swedish assembly line, arm movements are more frequent, and trapezius and infraspinatus muscle activation is more repetitive. Muscle activation levels are similar on the two lines. However, a larger proportion of low level muscle activities were found on the Chinese line compared with the Swedish line. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that the mechanical exposure of the assembly workers is a result of counteracting effects of improved ergonomic design of work stations and more effective production engineering.

  • 24.
    Bao, Shihan
    et al.
    Washington State Department of Labor and Industries, Olympia, WA.
    Winkel, Jørgen
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders at workplaces in the People's Republic of China2000In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, Vol. 61, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents 2 musculoskeletal disorders questionnaire surveys in 10 different Chinese occupational groups. Data collected from 1,603 workers using a modified Nordic musculoskeletal disorders symptom questionnaire showed that the 12-month prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, particularly in the low back and shoulder-neck regions, was high at many Chinese workplaces. Significant differences existed between occupational groups. Assembly workers usually had higher neck-shoulder complaints compared to workers in most other occupations. However, the nature of assembly seemed also to influence the prevalence rate. Workers at a cassette recorder and a TV set assembly plant appeared to have more neck complaints compared with a group of thermos flask assemblers.

  • 25.
    Boucherat, P.
    et al.
    Telecom Research Laboratories.
    Benton, R.H.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Wang, E.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Emulation of a multi-media workstation for the investigation of integration: principles in design for usability1990In: Human factors in telecommunications, Roma: Istituto Superiore Poste e Telecommunicazioni , 1990, 253-260 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Chavalitsakulchai,, Pranee
    et al.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Ohkubo, Takao
    Nihon University.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    A model of ergonomics intervention at work: case study in Japan1990In: 13th Asian conference on occupational health: 18-22 November 1990, Bangkok Thailand, 1990Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27. Chavalitsakulchai, Pranee
    et al.
    Ohkubo, Takao
    Nihon University.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    A model of ergonomics intervention in industry: case study in Japan1994In: Journal of Human Ergology, ISSN 0300-8134, Vol. 23, no 1, 7-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of an ergonomics survey in four different Japanese work places. The survey consisted of two parts. In the first part, the physical and psycho-social problems of the female workers were investigated. Questionnaire techniques were used to assess musculoskeletal disorders in various parts of the body and of psycho-social stress at work as well as in the daily life situation. Furthermore, work posture analysis, task analysis, simple clinical tests and flexibility tests were conducted. In the second part, the ergonomics intervention practices in different types of Japanese work places were examined. Three different questionnaires were developed and used to collect information from representatives of employees, management and responsible governmental agents of the Department of Industrial Safety and Health, Ministry of Labor, with regard to ergonomic interventions at work places. Management, employees, and government representatives expressed desire for cooperation and participation for arrangement of the ergonomics intervention program. A model for appropriate ergonomics intervention in industry is developed with regard to physical and psycho-social problems at work. Factors influencing worker participation and the establishment of a dynamic system of ergonomics intervention at work places are discussed. Practical ways for improving the working conditions of female workers are: (i) cooperation between managers, workers, and government officers is regarded as vital for the ergonomics intervention program, (ii) worker participation, (iii) appropriate training course with regard to ergonomics education, and (iv) managerial support

  • 28.
    Chavalitsakulchai, Pranee
    et al.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    A study of health, working conditions, and working life of female shift workers in a large textile industry in Thailand1990In: Journal of Occupational Accidents, ISSN 0376-6349, E-ISSN 1878-1403, Vol. 12, no 1-3, 249-250 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Chavalitsakulchai, Pranee
    et al.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Ergonomics method for prevention of the musculoskeletal discomforts among female industrial workers: physical characteristics and work factors1993In: Journal of Human Ergology, ISSN 0300-8134, Vol. 22, no 2, 95-113 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In industrial work, working postures play an important role, separately and combined with other strain factors. The combined effects may be worse than those of single factors. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the body size, work postures and musculoskeletal discomforts between a group of female workers in a pharmaceutical plant and another group in a textile plant. Two hundred workers have participated in the following studies; (i) measuring anthropometric data in the standing and sitting positions, (ii) using the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS), and (iii) using the detail Standardized Nordic Questionnaire for analyzing the musculoskeletal troubles in different parts of the body. The investigation has identified five main factors associated with the musculoskeletal discomforts: (i) lack of worker selection and lack of appropriate training to prevent occupational hazards or work-related diseases, (ii) poor ergonomic design of the work place and task including work organization, (iii) poor working postures, (iv) lack of task variation, and (v) insufficient rest breaks. These could be improved by introducing ergonomic interventions for both adjusting the individual work places and the task performed. It is necessary to consider preventive measures for musculoskeletal disorders, especially for female workers in industrially developing countries. Ergonomic aspects of the preventive measures should include: (a) consideration of appropriate worker selection for various works with sufficient training and instruction, (b) ergonomic redesign of work places, and (c) ergonomic considerations in work organization.

  • 30.
    Chavalitsakulchai, Pranee
    et al.
    Lulea University of Technology, Department of Human Work Sciences.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Musculoskeletal discomfort and feeling of fatigue among female professional workers: the need for ergonomics consideration1991In: Journal of Human Ergology, ISSN 0300-8134, Vol. 20, no 2, 257-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subjective feeling of general fatigue and physiological strain were studied in one hundred female professional employees of industrial worker and full-time nurses. Using an interview questionnaire the feeling of fatigue were studied. The subjects were asked to indicate on the body diagram all the areas of musculoskeletal pain from which they perceived discomfort. Furthermore physical strength test consisting of grip test, back and leg strength test were carried out before and after work on all subjects. The results indicated that the two groups of employees showed different symptoms of "pain" and/or "fatigue," with regard to the different parts of body. It was also noted that the physical strength after work was lower for both groups as compared to before work and even lower for the industrial workers than the nurses. The feeling of fatigue between the two investigated groups was not significantly different, but for the musculoskeletal pain was highly significantly different. The worker group used also more pain-killing drugs for releasing the muscle pain. It was evident that ergonomics intervention for female professional workers was of great importance and urgency, particularly for making the workplace more human. Improvement of the working conditions, better organization of work, and ergonomics interventions are suggested as necessary measures for reduction of pain and feeling of discomfort

  • 31. Chavalitsakulchai, Pranee
    et al.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Musculoskeletal disorders of female workers and ergonomics problems in five different industries of a developing country1993In: Journal of Human Ergology, ISSN 0300-8134, Vol. 22, no 1, 29-43 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ergonomics survey was carried out using interviews based on Standardized Nordic Questionnaires for evaluating musculoskeletal disorders of 1,000 female workers in five different industries in Thailand, viz. garment, fertilizer, pharmaceutical, textile, and cigarette. A checklist used in an ILO study for examining ergonomics problems was used for identifying ergonomics problems. The results show that about 50% of the female workers experienced a high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in their lower backs, particularly the textile workers. The musculoskeletal symptoms of each body region were significant in each industry during the last year and the preceding 7 days (p < 0.05). Other ergonomics problems in the survey industries included heavy manual handling, prolonged sitting and standing, awkward work postures, poor machine design and operation, high repetitive and monotonous movements, poor work organization, and unsatisfactory working environments. Based on the results of this survey, it became obvious that ergonomics problems related to occupational health and safety of female workers seem to fall into three categories: (i) poor working practices and workplace programmes without sufficient knowledge of ergonomics principles, (ii) lack of adjustment to local population of imported machinery and equipment and their use, and (iii) lack of appropriate work organization. The findings demonstrate the need and the importance for ergonomics intervention in industrially developing country using low-cost improvements and appropriate training methods. It also indicates that research in ergonomics applications is needed, considering the specific characteristics of the industrially developing country.

  • 32.
    Chavalitsakulchai, Pranee
    et al.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Stress at work and life situation amonf female industrial workers: a psychological study related to musculoskeletal disorder1990In: 13th Asian conference on occupational health: 18-22 november 1990, Bangkok Thailand, 1990Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Chavalitsakulchai, Pranee
    et al.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Symptoms of musculoskeletal pain in female workers of Thailand and its relation to feeling of fatigue1990In: 23e Congrès international de la médecine du travail, de la Commission internationale de la médecine du travail, CIMT: 23rd International Congress on Occupational Health, of the International Commission on Occupational Health, ICOH, Montreal: International Commission on Occupational Health , 1990Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Chavalitsakulchai, Pranee
    et al.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    The effect of continuoue noise to hearing loss of Thai female workers in plastic bag plant1989Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Chavalitsakulchai,, Pranee
    et al.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    The need for a participatory conservation programme for the reduction of noise exposure to Thai female workers1989In: Asia-Pacific journal of public health, ISSN 1010-5395, Vol. 3, no 4, 310-4 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hearing loss induced in thirty female workers because of exposure to continuous noise was studied in a plastic bag plant in Samutprakarn Province, the largest industrial zone in Thailand. The sound level in this plant was 98.5 dBA., 94.0 dBA. and 93.0 dBA. in the weaving, winding and warping sections, respectively. Results of an audiometric test showed a significant relationship between high noise level and hearing loss at frequency 4,000 Hz. A questionnaire survey found that a relatively high number of workers had various symptoms such as: 76.7% general fatigue, 70% headache, 63.3% ear distension and 56.7% vertigo. Concerning the usage of ear protective devices, it was found that 80% of the workers have never used such devices, 16.7% occasionally used them, and 3.3% have always used cotton wool to reduce the high noise level. Their reasons for non-use of ear protective devices were 1) not provided by the employer (86.7%), 2) not necessary (83.3%), 3) accustomed to the noise (63.3%), 4) nobody uses (56.7%), and 5) no loud noise (16.7%). These results point to the need for improving the work conditions and welfare services of the workers at this plant. Also, hearing conservation programmes can be instituted in developing countries through cooperation among the safety inspectorate, the employer and the workers.

  • 36.
    Chavalitsakulchai, Pranee
    et al.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Woman workers and technological change in industrially developing countries from an ergonomic perspective1990Report (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Chavalitsakulchai, Pranee
    et al.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Work posture, muscular effort and its consequences for musculoskeletal disorder among female workers in the pharmaceutical industry of Thailand1991In: Designing for everyone: proceedings of the eleventh Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Paris 1991 / [ed] Yvon Queinnec; François Daniellou, Taylor and Francis Group , 1991, 31-32 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Chavalitsakulchai, Pranee
    et al.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Chapman, Larry J.
    Muscukoskeletal symptoms and work absence among female industrial workers in Thailand1990In: Ny teknik, nya problem, nya möjligheter: NES 90 - Nordiska ergonomisällskapets årskonferens 5-8 september 1990, Kiruna, Sverige / [ed] Hans Hayenhjelm, Stockholm: Nordiska ergonomisäl[l]skapet , 1990Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Chavaltsakulchai, Pranee
    et al.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Problems of ergonomics in five industries of Thailand1991In: Designing for everyone: proceedings of the eleventh Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Paris 1991 / [ed] Yvon Queinnec; François Daniellou, Taylor and Francis Group , 1991, 1565-1567 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40. Choobineh, Alireza
    et al.
    Hosseini, Mostafa
    Lahmi, Mohammadali
    Jazani, Reza Khani
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Editorial2007In: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, Vol. 2, no 1, 1-7 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Choobineh, Alireza
    et al.
    School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.
    Lahmi, Mohammadali
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical.
    Hosseini, Mostafa
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Jazani, Reza Khani
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical.
    Workstation design in carpet hand-weaving operation: Guidelines for prevention of musculoskeletal disorders2004In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, Vol. 10, no 4, 411-424 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carpet weavers suffer from musculoskeletal problems mainly attributed to poor working postures. Their posture is mostly constrained by the design of workstations. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of 2 design parameters (weaving height and seat type) on postural variables and subjective experience, and to develop guidelines for workstation adjustments. At an experimental workstation, 30 professional weavers worked in 9 different conditions. Working posture and weavers' perceptions were measured. It was shown that head, neck and shoulder postures were influenced by weaving height. Both design parameters influenced trunk and elbows postures. The determinant factor for weavers' perception on the neck, shoulders and elbows was found to be weaving height, and on the back and knees it was seat type. Based on the results, the following guidelines were developed: (a) weaving height should be adjusted to 20 cm above elbow height; (b) a 10º forward-sloping high seat is to be used at weaving workstations.

  • 42.
    Choobineh, Alireza
    et al.
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research.
    Lahmi, Mohammadali
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Jazani, Reza Khani
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research.
    Hosseini, Mostafa
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research.
    Musculoskeletal symptoms as related to ergonomic factors in Iranian hand-woven carpet industry and general guidelines for workstation design2004In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, Vol. 10, no 2, 157-168 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carpet weaving is a high risk occupation for developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The objectives of the present study, which was carried out in the Iranian hand-woven carpet industry, were determination of the prevalence of MSD symptoms, identification of major factors associated with MSD symptoms and development of guidelines for workstation design. 1,439 randomly selected weavers participated in this study. A questionnaire was used to collect data on MSD symptoms. The results revealed that the prevalence rates for symptoms in different body regions were high as compared to the general Iranian population (for neck, back and large joints, both p < .0001). The results of multivariate analyses showed that major ergonomic factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms were loom type, working posture, daily working time and seat type. Based on the results, some general guidelines for designing weaving workstations were developed. A prototype test showed that the new workstation was acceptable for subject tests and that it improved working posture.

  • 43.
    Choobineh, Alireza
    et al.
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Lahmi, Mohammadali
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research.
    Major health risk factors in Iranian hand-woven carpet industry2004In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, Vol. 10, no 1, 65-78 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the role and importance of small-scale industries together with the issue of occupational health problems and their causes in Iranian hand-woven carpet industry as a typical informal small-scale industry in an industrially developing country. The objective of this paper is to review health risk factors and related occupational health and ergonomic problems in the carpet industry. Since the overwhelming majority of weavers' health problems originate from ergonomic risk factors, it is concluded that any improvement program in this industry should focus on ergonomic aspects. To assess ergonomic conditions in weaving workshops, a checklist has been developed and an ergonomics index indicating the ergonomic conditions of the workshop has been proposed. To test and verify the checklist, 50 weaving workshops were visited and their ergonomic conditions were assessed. Based on the results some modifications were made and the checklist was shown to be an effective tool.

  • 44.
    Derlicka, Marta
    et al.
    Central Institute for Labour Protection, Warsaw, Department of Ergonomics.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Working conditions in small private enterprises in Poland2000In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, Vol. 6, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study deals with working conditions in small private enterprises in Poland. Data come from 50 small enterprises from the Warsaw area. Information about the evaluation of working conditions and the existence of programmes for their improvement was gathered with the help of questionnaires addressed to employees and employers. The results constitute a "photograph" of the Polish reality at the beginning of its transition from planned to market economy. The study revealed a lack of programmes for the improvement of working conditions in a significant number of the enterprises studied as well as little interest in occupational safety on the part of employers (owners). The study also revealed that all decisions--including those about the improvement of working conditions--were made by employers. Hence, the need for the widest possible dissemination of knowledge on occupational safety and the protection of human in the working environment with particular stress put on employers. Employers who are knowledgeable in this field and who are aware of its importance can significantly influence the improvement of working conditions in small enterprises.

  • 45. Fatollahzadeh, K.
    et al.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Odenrick, Per
    Cederquist, T.
    Ergonomics evaluation of fire fighters' workload with som considerations regarding their equipment use and design1992In: Ergonomics in occupational safety & health: 2nd Pan-pacific conference, Nov 1992, Wuhan, China, European Safety and Reliability Association, 1992, 183-189 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Fowler, Joanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    A model of ergonomics intervention at work: case study in U.K.1992In: Ergonomics for industry: proceedings of the Ergonomics Society's 1992 Annual Conference, Birmingham, England, 7-10 April 1992 / [ed] E.J. Lovesey, Taylor and Francis Group , 1992, 186-191 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Franzen, M.
    et al.
    Department of Statistics, Umeå University.
    Melbin, M.
    ABB Railcar AB.
    Zackrisson, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Quality by a step-by-step programme in low sacle industries1993In: Production research 1993: proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Production Research, Lappeenranta, Finland, 16-20 August, 1993 : 12th ICPR / [ed] Veikko Orpana; A. Lukka, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1993Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Hedman, Leif
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Mörtberg, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Skärmluminans och belysningsstyrka vid bildskärmsarbete1982Report (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Helali, Faramarz
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Participatory ergonomics intervention in an industrially developing country: a case study2008In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, Vol. 14, no 2, 159-176 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In industrially developing countries, a few ergonomists have directed great efforts towards developing ergonomics awareness among managers and workers in organizations. There is little research on the degree of their success, though. Furthermore, access of organizations to ergonomics knowledge is usually very difficult, especially in industrially developing countries. Thus, building ergonomics awareness is certainly the first phase of the process. Three companies from one industry (44 people: 14 females and 30 males) participated in a project aimed at improving their work system. At the beginning, we needed to create a common goal and ensure participation with appropriate ergonomics tools. The findings of this study were the key issue for the ergonomics intervention (i.e., a shared vision, awakened need of change and learning). Further, to build ergonomics awareness and develop a continuous learning process in the company, it was necessary to use more ergonomics tools through workers' participation in different workplaces

  • 50.
    Helali, Faramarz
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Motamedzadeh, Majid
    Tarbiat Modares University, Theran, Department of Occupational Health.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Ergonomics intervention in Iran: Khadro Car company (IKCo)2003In: Ergonomics in the digital age: proceedings of the XVth Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association and The 7th Joint Conference of Ergonomics Society of Korea/Japan Ergonomics Society , August 24-29, 2003, Seoul, Korea, Ergonomics Society of Korea , 2003, Vol. 7Conference paper (Refereed)
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