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  • 1.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Erbil, Iraq.
    Mosul Dam: A Catastrophe yet to unfold2017Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 263-278Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is multipurpose earth fill dam 3.4km long, 113m in height and its storage capacity reaches 11.11 km3 of which 2.95 km3 dead storage. The dam is located on the River Tigris in the northern part of Iraq about 60km north west Mosul city. The dam was built on highly karstified alternating beds of gypsum, marl and limestone. The dam was operating in 1986 and since then, seepage problems started due to the solubility of the gypsum beds, presence of karstification and the effect of the local groundwater aquifer. To stop the seepage insensitive grouting program was put to ensure the stability of the dam. Despite the injection of large quantities of grouting material, it did not stop the seepage. The situation became worse in 2014 when ISIS occupied the dam area and grouting operations were halted. Recent evaluation of the conditions indicates that the dam is in its worst conditions.

    The failure models of the dam indicate that 6 million people will be affected, and 7202km2 of land will be inundated. It is believed that to stop this catastrophe, grouting operations should be continued intensively to elongate the span life of the dam. As a permanent solution, another dam should be built downstream Mosul Dam so that it can take the wave of Mosul Dam in case of its failure.

  • 2.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Department of Geology, University of Kurdistan, Hewler.
    Risk Management Concepts in Dam Safety Evaluation:Mosul Dam as a Case Study2017Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 11, nr 7, s. 635-652Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gradual shift has been observed lately of dam safety procedures from the conventional technical based towards a widerscope of risk management procedure based on risk analysis. The new approach considers the likelihood level of occurrence of a multitude of hazards and the magnitude of the resulting possible consequences in case of failure using rational cause and effect arguments. Most dam owners are shifting towards the use of the new risk based procedures; and even governments themselves are moving towards formalizing the new trend. Legislations in the United States were promulgated [1] after serious dam failures and the adoption of stringent levels of scrutiny led such federal dam owners to pioneer in this field and in developing the concepts and methods required. The corner stone in risk analysis is the definition of the potential modes that may lead to failure and assessment of the likelihood levels of their occurrence and possible category of the consequences which, after thorough evaluation, will shape thedecision making. This type of analysis was applied to Mosul Dam as a case study and resulted in definite recommendations.

  • 3.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq .
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Climate Change: Consequences on Iraq’s Environment2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 43-58Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq as a country is now suffering from Climate Change Impacts in similar or even worse ways than many other countries of the world. The manifestations of these climate changes are being felt in global warming, changes to weather driving elements and sea level rise. Increasing temperatures, declining precipitation rates and changed distribution patterns together with increasing evaporation are causing water stress in Iraq. However, they trigger other changes in a sort of chain reaction; such as droughts, desertification and sand storms. Iraq is not even safe from the consequences of sea level rise where the southern part of the Tigris- Euphrates delta is threatened by inundation and Iraq’s ports and sea coast line are endangered by such projected rise. So far the agricultural sector in Iraq has been hit very badly by the reduced water availability for arable lands; whether rain fed lands as in the northern part, or irrigated lands using the declining discharges of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers as in the southern and middle parts. These discharges have already been additionally strained by the unfair sharing practiced by Turkey from which most of the two rivers’ water resources originate. The present negative climate change trends seem to be continuing in the future as it is obvious from all projections and studies being performed so far. Loss of cultivable land to desertification, recurrent droughts and sand storms and declining agriculture are the pattern of change in Iraq’s already fragile environment; and this will result inevitably in much more distress for the population in the future and will lead to social unrest. These will add to the great pressures facing all future governments unless the government takes protective planning and solutions.

  • 4.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Climate Change: The Uncertain Future of Tigris River Tributaries’ Basins2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 75-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming is hitting all parts of the world for the last fifty years due to Global Climate Change and it is expected to continue in the future in an increasing trend unless the present mode of CO2 emission is limited or reversed. This is manifested in the rising temperature over land and the changes induced in the general weather circulation patterns over land and oceans. The Tigris River catchment as most of other parts in the world is suffering from increased temperatures and reduced precipitation contributing to reduced water resources elements all over it and reduction of the river stream flow itself. Studies using the soil and water assessment tool SWAT were performed on the five Tigris River tributaries basins in Iraq in order to assess these impacts. This paper summarizes the results of those studies, the characteristics of each of the five basins, and illustrates the application of SWAT as a tool for future predictions. Moreover, it explains in more details the work done on one of the basins as an example, summarizes the results of the five studies and then analyzes these results and discusses the expected future outcomes. The final conclusion which can be drawn is that severe shortage in all water resources elements will occur over the five basins and the Tigris River stream flow will suffer a considerable decline. This situation demands that policy makers in Iraq should take steps immediately to improve water and soil management practices to try and reduce as much as possible the expected damage that will hit all water using sectors.

  • 5.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Erbil.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Is Mosul Dam the Most Dangerous Dam in the World?: Review of Previous Work and Possible Solutions2017Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 10, s. 801-823, artikel-id 79510Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is an earth fill dam located on the Tigris River in North Western part of Iraq. It is 113 m in height, 3.4 km in length, 10 m wide in its crest and has a storage capacity of 11.11 billion cubic meters. It is, constructed on be- drocks which consist of gypsum beds alternated with marl and limestone, in cyclic nature. The thickness of the gypsum beds attains 18 m; they are in- tensely karstified even in foundation rocks. This has created number of prob- lems during construction, impounding and operation of the dam. Construc- tion work in Mosul Dam started on January 25th, 1981 and started operating on 24th July, 1986. After impounding in 1986, seepage locations were recog- nized. The cause of seepage is mainly due to: 1) The karsts prevailing in the dam site and in the reservoir area. 2) The existence of gypsum/anhydrite rock formations in the dam foundation alternating with soft marl layers and wea- thered and cavernous limestone beddings. 3) The presence of an extensive ground water aquifer called Wadi Malleh aquifer, which affects considerably the ground water regime in the right bank. The dissolution intensity of the gypsum/anhydrite ranged from 42 to 80 t/day which was followed by a noti- ceable increase in the permeability and leakages through the foundation. In- spection of the dam situation in 2014 and 2015 indicates that the dam is in a state of extreme unprecedentedly high relative risk. In this work, possible so- lutions to the problem are to be discussed. It is believed that grouting opera- tions will elongate the span life of the dam but do not solve the problem. Building another dam downstream Mosul Dam will be the best protective measures due to the possible failure of Mosul Dam, to secure the safety of thedownstream area and its’ population.

  • 6.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Private Consultant Engineering, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, H awler, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Badush Dam: A Unique Case of Flood WaveRetention Dams Uncertain Future and Problematic Geology2019Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 189-205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Badush Dam is a partially completed dam and a unique case of flood reten- tion dams. Its intended main function is to perform flood protection once in its lifetime; that is if Mosul Dam would collapse. In such a case, the Badush dam would temporarily store the whole flood wave and route it safely to the downstream. For this end, the bulk of the reservoir is left dry, while the re- maining  volume  at  the  lower  part  which  is  intended  for  power  eneration does  not  give  an  economic  justification  for  building  the  full  height  of  the dam. The short duration of the intended use as a protection dam has led to relaxing many design assumptions which have raised concerns over the dam integrity.  The  current  controversy  rages  now  over  whether  to  continue  the construction of the dam as it was first designed or to change all that in view of the similar site geology of Mosul Dam. Mosul dam foundations suffer at the moment from the severe continuous dissolution of the soluble materials in its foundation  leading  to  continued  maintenance  grouting  of  that  foundation. This paper gives an overview of the history of Badush dam, its current design and what new equirements which are needed if it is to replace Mosul Damitself.

  • 7.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Private Consultant Engineering, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mosul Dam: Geology and Safety Concerns2019Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 151-177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is an earth fill dam located on the River Tigris northern part of Iraq. The capacity of its reservoir is 11.11 billion cubic meters which makes it the fourth biggest dam in the Middle East. From geological perspective, the dam is located on double plunging anticlines. The rocks of the site are mainly composed of highly jointed and karistified alternating beds of limestones, gysum and marls, since the impoundment of the reservoir seepage of water was recognized under the foundation of the dam. To stop or minimize the seepage, intensive grouting operations were conducted. Recent investigations and evaluation of the conditions of the dam indicate that it is in a critical situation. In this paper, consequences of the dam failure are discussed and possible solutions are given.

  • 8.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Future of the Tigris and Euphrates Water Resources in view of Climate Change2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 59-74Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate Change which results from global warming is affecting the Tigris and Euphrates River basins in similar ways to all other parts of the Middle East and the East Mediterranean region. This contains also what is historically known as the “Fertile Crescent”, which is threatened in the same way as the other parts and may disappear altogether. The climate change is manifested in increased temperatures, reduced precipitation in addition to erratic weather patterns and decreased annual stream flow of the two rivers. These phenomena have been markedly noticed during the last decades of the last century. Studies show that these changes are linked also to the variations of North Atlantic Pressure Oscillation (NAO) induced by Global Climate Change. Modeling studies on the future trends, in trying to define the magnitude of the changes to be anticipated, reveal clearly that these negative impacts are continuous in the future. But, the widely ranging projections and interpretations of different sources depict an uncertain future for the basin’s climatic conditions and indicate theneed for further modeling studies to reach more definitive conclusions. These studies show however, a drastic decline of the Euphrates and Tigris water resources at the end of this century by something like (30 to 70) %; as compared to their resources in the last three decades of the previous century. The wide variations in the projections emphasize the need of further future work on this matter. All in all, these studies should bring alarm to all responsible governments in the region to resort to long range planning by adopting rational policies in soils and water resources management to mitigate the adverse impacts that could hit human societies in these events.

  • 9. Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Elagely, Malik
    Private consultant, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Comparative Study of Mosul and Haditha Dams in Iraq: Different Construction Materials Contribute to Different designs2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 71-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul and Haditha Dams are built on relatively weak foundations. Both of these foundations suffer from extensive karsts which had demanded intensive foundation treatment works among other design precautions. The karst forms; however, are of different origins, activities, nature and shapes. The foundation treatment in both dams was done mainly by constructing deep grout curtains along with other secondary grouting works. Reducing uplift pressure under the dam and cutting down on seepage losses were the major considerations in these works. An additional important requirement in Mosul Dam was to reduce the permeability of the rock formation in the foundations to such a low limit that it can stop the dissolution of gypsum beds present there. This objective; unfortunately, failed due to the lithological composition of this foundation and the presence of many brecciated gypsum beds, which could not be treated successfully. This had resulted in a comprehensive grouting maintenance program which continuous up to date with the everlasting danger of dam failure. On the other hand, in Haditha dam no such complication occurs as the dam had its foundations mainly in limestone. Proper investigation and good planning and performance of the grouting works in this dam contributed highly to its success. Selecting the deep grout curtain as anti-seepage measure in Mosul Dam was not a very wise decision and constructing a positive cutoff in the form of diaphragm wall could have been the proper choice. Good and deep understanding of all geological data can contribute to the success of a dam design or, otherwise it may lead to unsafe one.

  • 10. Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler, KRG. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Badush Dam: Controversy and Future Possibilities2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 17-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Badush Dam is believed to be the first dam in the world which is designed to protect from the flood wave which could result from the collapse of another dam; in this case Mosul Dam.  Badush Dam construction was started in 1988 but it was stopped two years later due to unexpected reasons. From that time on many attempts were made to resume construction without success. Its value was stressed in a multitude of studies and technical reports amid conflict of opinions on how to do this.  The original design of the dam as a protection dam was intended to have a large part of the reservoir empty to accommodate the volume of the expected flood wave for only a few months during which time it’s content are released in a controlled and safe way to the downstream. The lower part of Badush Dam which has a limited height continues before and after this event to act as a low head power generation facility. Among the later studies on the dam, there were suggestions to introduce changes to the design of the unfinished dam which covered the foundation treatment and also asked for constructing a diaphragm in the dam. A long controversy is still going on with many possibilities but with no hope to reach a final solution soon. Any rational solution must consider both Badush Dam and Mosul Dam together as the safety issue involves both of them. This paper may be seen in six paragraphs. The first three describe in brief the history, the outline design and foundation treatment of the dam, therefore, setting the background to follow the conflicting views over its purpose and future which is discussed in the following two paragraphs. The final paragraph is devoted to discussion and our conclusions.

  • 11. Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Elagely, Malik
    Private consultant, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Comparative Study of Mosul and Haditha Dams, Iraq: Foundation Treatments in the Two Dams2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 53-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul and Haditha Dams are built on relatively weak foundations. Both of these foundations suffer from extensive karsts which had demanded intensive foundation treatment works among other design precautions. The karst forms; however, are of different origins, activities, nature and shapes. The foundation treatment in both dams was done mainly by constructing deep grout curtains along with other secondary grouting works. Reducing uplift pressure under the dam and cutting down on seepage losses were the major considerations in these works. An additional important requirement in Mosul Dam was to reduce the permeability of the rock formation in the foundations to such a low limit that it can stop the dissolution of gypsum beds present there. This objective; unfortunately, failed due to the lithological composition of this foundation and the presence of many brecciated gypsum beds, which could not be treated successfully. This had resulted in a comprehensive grouting maintenance program which continuous up to date with the everlasting danger of dam failure. On the other hand, in Haditha dam no such complication occurs as the dam had its foundations mainly in limestone. Proper investigation and good planning and performance of the grouting works in this dam contributed highly to its success. Selecting the deep grout curtain as anti-seepage measure in Mosul Dam was not a very wise decision and constructing a positive cutoff in the form of diaphragm wall could have been the proper choice. Good and deep understanding of all geological data can contribute to the success of a dam design or, otherwise it may lead to unsafe one.

  • 12.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Geopolitics of the Tigris and Euphrates Basins2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 187-222Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Euphrates and Tigris Rivers are the longest Rivers in southwest Asia. The main utilizers of the water of these rivers and tributaries are Turkey, Syria, Iran and Iraq. The two rivers rise in Turkey, which makes it the riparian hegemon. Some of the tributaries of the Tigris and Shat Al-Arab Rivers rise in Iran, which makes it the riparian hegemon for these rivers. Iraq and Syria are the lower countries in the basin and for this reason, they always to ensure the quantity of water required to satisfy their requirements. All these countries are in the Middle East, which characterized by its shortage of water resources. Since the 1970s conflict between riparian counties were noticed due to population growth rates, food security, energy needs, economic and technological development, political fragmentation, international water laws, water and management availability and public awareness. These caused tensions, which sometimes escalated to the verge of war. To solve this conflict a mediator is required that has the capability to bring all countries concerned to the negotiation table. Syria and Iraq are to give Turkey and Iran some incentives to cooperate. Furthermore, all counties are to adopt prudent strategic plan based on comprehensive resources development to ensure good water management and minimum water loses and waste. This due to the fact that modeling studies of the future suggest that water shortage problem will intensify.

  • 13.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU Team.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources of the Euphrates River Catchment2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 1-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The River Euphrates is the longest River in southwest Asia. Its length reaches 2786 km and drains an area of about 440000 km2, which is occupied by 23 million inhabitants. The Euphrates basin is shared by 5 countries (Iraq 47%, Turkey 28%, Syria 22%, Saudi Arabia 2.97%, Jordan 0.03%) where the first three countries are the main riparian. Climate change and construction of dams in the upper parts of the basin has reduced the flow downstream with time. The flow was about 30.6 BCM in Hit (Iraq) before 1974, and now it is about 4 BCM. Syria and Iraq are facing water shortage and quality deterioration problems, which require national, regional and international cooperation to overcome these problems.

  • 14.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources of the Tigris River Catchment2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 21-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tigris River is one of the longest rivers in western Asia. Its length is about 1800 km. It drains a catchment area of 473103 km2 divided in 4 countries (Turkey, Syria, Iran and Iraq). About 23 million people live within this catchment. The flow of the River Tigris is decreasing with time due to the construction of dams and climate change. The discharge of the Tigris River at Baghdad was 1,207 m3/s for the period 1931-1960 and since 2000 onward it is 522m3/s. Riparian countries (mainly Iraq and Iran) are facing water shortage problems. This requires prudent regional and national cooperation and management to overcome this problem.

  • 15.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    AlJawad, Sadeq
    Expert and Consultant Hydrogeologists, Baghdad, Iraq .
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Con sultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Quality within the Tigris and Euphrates Catchments2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 95-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Euphrates and Tigris Rivers are the longest two rivers in southwest Asia. The Basins of these rivers cover an area of 917 103 km2 which is occupied by about 46 million inhabitants. Four countries (Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria) share the basin area of the Tigris River and the other four (Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Saudi Arabia) share the catchment area of the Euphrates River. The flow of the two rivers is decreasing with time due to construction of dams in the upstream part of the basins and climate change. This has impacted the water quality of the two rivers. Iraq is highly affected followed by Syria. The salinity of Tigris Rivers has become alarming downstream Baghdad while the Euphrates water quality deteriorates before entering the Iraqi border. To overcome water quality deterioration, international, regional and national cooperation is required to reach prudent planning for water resources management of the two basins.

  • 16.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Modification-Stabilization of Clayey Silt Soil Using Small Amounts of Cement2017Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 77-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the effects of using a small percentage of cement to stabilize clayey silt with a low organic content. Cement was added at percentages of 1, 2, 4 and 7% by dry weight. The physical and mechanical properties of the treated and untreated soil were evaluated by laboratory tests including tests of consistency limits, unconfined compressive strength, soil density, solidification and pH values. These tests have been conducted after 7, 14, 28, 60 and 90 days of curing time. Workability is defined as how easily the soil can be control or to handle physically. Results showed that the engineering properties of the clayey silt were improved. The soil exhibited better workability directly after treatment, and the workability increased with time. Soil density increased, while water content decreased, with increasing cement content and longer curing time. The pH value was immediately raised to 12 after adding 7% cement content, and then it gradually decreased as curing time increased. An increase of unconfined compressive strength and stiffness was observed, while strain at failure decreased. A gradual change in failure mode from ductile behavior to brittle failure was observed. The findings are useful when there is a need for modification and stabilization of clayey silt in order to increase the possibilities for different use which will reduce transportation and excavation.

  • 17.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Stabilization of Clayey Silt Soil UsingSmall Amounts of Petrit T2017Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 6, s. 540-562Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of using small amounts of a Petrit T, a by-product of manufacture sponge iron, to modify clayey silt soil were investigated in this study. Petrit T was added at 2%, 4% and 7% of soil dry weight. A series of unconfined compressive strength tests, consistency limits tests and pH tests were conducted at 7, 14, 28, 60 and 90 days of curing periods to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of treated soil. Results indicated improving in the unconfined compressive strength, stiffness and workability of treated soil directly after treatment and over time. Increasing in soil density and decreasing in water content were observed, with increasing Petrit T content and curing time. The pH value was immediately increasing after treatment and then gradually decreased over time. Failure mode gradually changed from plastic to brittle behavior with increasing binder content and curing time. The outcomes of this research show a promising way of using a new by-product binder to stabilize soft soils in various engineering projects in order to reduce the costs which are associated with of excavation and transportation works.

  • 18.
    AlJawad, Sadeq
    et al.
    Expert and Consultant Hydrogeologists, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Expert and Consultant Hydrogeologists, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Con sultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Groundwater Quality and Their Uses in Iraq2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 123-144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquifers are porous media with various physical criteria and hydraulic conditions that largely affect the quality of water they contain. When an aquifer is a sedimentary rock, its depositional environment draws along with its present recharge condition and the footprint of its groundwater quality. The geologic setting of Iraq consists of a sedimentary cover 4 – 13 km thick with a sequence of alternating pervious and impervious sedimentary rock beds of coarse clastics and fractured carbonates with fine clastics and hard rock carbonate. This succession has developed a successive multi aquifer systems. The present study has recognized the major formations that so far have been explored and sampled using available data to identify the probability of their water quality which might be obtained when drilling a well through any of the formations. From among tens of thousands of wells drilled to produce water from whatever horizons they encounter, only those wells which penetrate a single formation were considered. The results show that groundwater quality expressed as total dissolved solids in the explored 17 aquifers or aquifer systems are highly variable. Nevertheless, an indicative medium range value can be deduced for each. In principle, lower salinity values and carbonate water type associate with the unconfined aquifers that receive active contemporary recharge as in the case of the exposed aquifers in the High, and to less extend the Low Folded Zones. Even in the Stable Shelf where present recharge is limited, unconfined part of the aquifers is differentiated by their lower salinity and water type. On the other hand, a partial displacement of sea water in the marine deposit carbonates has as well occurred due to previous recharge periods. This was possible to the karstified carbonates of the Stable Shelf due to their high porosity. The finer marine deposits in the Mesopotamia Basin maintained their high groundwater salinity and marine water type. Water suitability for human drinking can be found in most of the aquifers especially aquifers in the High and Low Folded Zones. In the Stable Shelf, Al-Jazira, and even in the Mesopotamian Plain, recharge boundary conditions of the aquifer in the selected drilling spot should be carefully examined. The high variations of water quality in the aquifers in the latter zones requires an evaluation of water suitability well by well. However, most of the groundwater derived from the northern parts of the Stable Shelf and Al-Jazira Zones aquifers are suitable for agriculture, while that those of the southern parts and the Mesopotamian Plain are questionable or unsuitable.

  • 19.
    Alkaradaghi, Karwan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Geology, College of Science, Sulaimani University.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Sulaimani University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of Land Use & Land Cover Change Using Multi-Temporal Landsat Imagery: A Case Study Sulaimaniyah Governorate, Iraq2018Ingår i: Journal of Geographic Information System, ISSN 2151-1950, E-ISSN 2151-1969, Vol. 10, nr 6, s. 247-260Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Land use & land cover change detection in rapid growth urbanized area have been studied by many researchers and there are many works on this topic. Commonly, settlement sprawl in area depends on many factors such as economic prosperity and population growth. Iraq is one of the countries which witnessed rapid development in the settlement area. Remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) are analytical software technologies to evaluate this familiar worldwide phenomenon. This study illustrates settlement development in Sulaimaniyah Governorate from 2001 to 2017 using Landsat satellite imageries of different periods. All images had been classified using remote sensing software in order to proceed powerful mapping of land use classification. Maximum likelihood method is used in the accurately extracted solution information from geospatial imagery. Landsat images from the study area were categorized into four different classes. These are: forest, vegetation, soil, and settlement. Change detection analysis results illustrate that in the face of an explosive demographic shift in the settlement area where the record + 8.99 percent which is equivalent to 51.80 Km2 over a 16-year period and settlement area increasing from 3.87 percent in 2001 to 12.86 percent in 2017. Accuracy assessment model was used to evaluate (LULC) classified images. Accuracy results show an overall accuracy of 78.83% to 90.09% from 2001 to 2017 respectively while convincing results of Kappa coefficient given between substantial and almost perfect agreements. This study will help decision-makers in urban plan for future city development.

  • 20.
    Alkaradaghi, Karwan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Geology, College of Science, Sulaimani University, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq. Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Sulaimani University, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq. Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.Komar Research Center, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Chabuk, Ali
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Site Selection Using MCDM Methods and GIS in the Sulaimaniyah Governorate, Iraq2019Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 17, artikel-id 4530Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A shortage of land for waste disposal is one of the serious problems that faces urban areas in developing countries. The Sulaimaniyah Governorate, located in the north of Iraq, is one of the major cities in the Kurdistan Region of the country, covering an area of 2400 km2 with a population of 856,990 in 2016. Currently, there is no landfill site in the study area that meets scientific and environmental criteria, and inappropriate solid waste dumping is causing negative environmental impacts. The process of landfill site selection is considered a complex process and is restricted by numerous factors and regulations. This paper proposes multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods in a model for landfill site decision. The model assumes the input of two groups of factors that need to satisfy the optimal values of weight coefficients. These groups of constants are natural factors and artificial factors, and they included thirteen selected criteria: slope, geology, land use, urban area, villages, rivers, groundwater, slope, elevation, soil, geology, road, oil and gas, land use, archaeology and power lines. The criteria were used in the geographic information system (GIS), which has a high capacity to process and analyze various data. In addition, multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods followed by the weighted linear combination (WLC) method were used to derive criteria weightings using a matrix of pair-wise comparison. Finally, all the multi criteria decision methods were combined to obtain an intersection of the suitability index map for candidate landfill sites. Seven appropriate sites for landfill were suggested, all of which satisfied the scientific and environmental criteria which were adopted in this study.

  • 21.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. College of Engineering/Al-Musaib, University of Babylon, Hillah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Site Selection of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems in Shallow Groundwater Conditions2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 7, artikel-id 1393Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Underground thermal energy storage (UTES) systems are widely used around the world, due to their relations to heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) applications [1]. To achieve the required objectives of these systems, the best design of these systems should be accessed first. The process of determining the best design for any UTES system has two stages, the type selection stage and the site selection stage. In the type selection stage, the best sort of UTES system is determined. There are six kinds of UTES systems, they are: boreholes, aquifer, bit, tank, tubes in clay, and cavern [2–5]. The selection of a particular type depends on three groups of parameters. They are: Site specific, design, and operation parameters (Figure 1). Apart from site specific parameters, the other two types can be changed through the life time of the system. The site specific parameters, e.g., geological, hydrogeological, and metrological, cannot be changed during the service period of the  ystem. Therefore, the design of the best type should depend, at first consideration, on site specific parameters.

  • 22.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
    Hamza, B.
    University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Kufa University, Kufa, Iraq.
    Site Selection Criteria of UTES Systems in Hot Climate2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the XVII ECSMGE-2019: Geotechnical Engineering foundation of the future, Iceland: The Icelandic Geotechnical Society (IGS) , 2019, Vol. 1, s. 1-8Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Underground Thermal Energy Storage UTES systems are widely used around the world. The reason is that UTES is essential in utilizing Renewable Energy sources (RE). The efficiency of the energy system relies strongly on the efficiency of the storage system. Therefore, in the installation of a hyper-energy system, a lot of attention is to be paid in improving the storage system. In order to design an efficient storage system, firstly, standard criteria are to be investigated. These explain the process of making high efficiency storage system that must be specified. The criteria, mainly, depends on: best type and best location. These two variables are in high interference with each other. The bond between the two variables is represented by the geological, hydrological, meteorological, soil, hydrogeological properties/factors of the site. These factors are specified by geo-energy mapping. Despite the importance of this type of mapping, there is no specific criteria/formula that defines the choice. This paper aims to: give a brief literature review for UTES systems (types, classification, advantages/disadvantages for each type, and examples of an installed system). In addition, some factors within geo-energy mapping are highlighted and standard criteria to achieve good storage system are suggested. The suggested criterion comprises a process to transfer the quantity values to quality values according to the expert opinion. The suggested criteria are defined through the following stages: selecting the best type of UTES systems according to hydro-geological in site conditions; using the analytical hierarchy process to rank the best location to install the storage system and then using ArcMap (GIS-Software) to provide representative results as maps. Karbala Province (Iraq) is the study area used here

  • 23.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Chabuk, Ali
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. University of Babylon, Babylon, Hilla, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    University of Kufa, Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.
    Potential use of UTES in Babylon Governorate, Iraq2019Ingår i: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a global attention that the future energy systems will be based on renewable energy like solar and wind. The large-scale utilization of renewables in space heating and cooling requires large Thermal Energy Storage TES to overcome the varying supply and demand. The process of producing the best Underground Thermal Energy Storage UTES system pass through two steps: first, finding the best type of UTES system, second, finding the best locations to install UTES system. Both of these two steps depend extremely on the site specific parameters such that the depth to the groundwater, transmissivity, type of soil, the depth to the bedrock, and seepage velocity. The purpose of this paper is to explain some of the site specific parameters that the type of UTES-system depends on and explain the suitable type of UTES systems. This study considers Babylon province (Iraq) as study area. This province has electricity deficiency due to Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning HVAC applications. The methodology of this study includes reviewing the literature that consider the study area, and using Arc Map/GIS to visualize some of the in-site parameters. The results indicate that the best type of UTES system for the considered region is either aquifer or pit type, due to the type of the soil and the depth to the crystalline bedrock. The hydraulic conductivity and the seepage velocity in the considered region are (0.0023–2.5) m/d and (1.3 × 10−6 – 3.45 × 10−3) m/d respectively. These conditions satisfy the standards which regard aquifer type.

  • 24.
    Alzeyadi, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla M.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    A Novel Coating Method for Create Filter Media Capable to Remove Phosphate from Wastewater Effectively2019Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, nr 8, s. 443-463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Filtration materials coating with metallic oxides represented a good method for phosphate sorption. However, most of the researchers utilize chemicals as a source of metallic oxides and heating process to set the chemicals over the filtration materials. This study is aimed to introduce the furnace bottom ash FBA as a source of metallic oxides; it is available free because it is dumped as a waste material from power generation plants. The method of creating new filter media involves coating the limestone and sand by FBA, and the ordinary Portland cement OPC utilized as binder to binding the mixture materials. The water is the factor which is responsible for activating the OPC. All factors such as mixed materials ratio, water content and age of reaction have subjected to optimization process. The results revealed that the optimal mixture for phosphate removal consists of 40% FBA, 5% OPC from dry weight of supporting material, 35% water ratio from the total weight of FBA and OPC, and 14 days are enough to complete the materials reaction. Limestone-furnace bottom ash LFBA indicated high capacity for phosphate sorption and possibility  of  efficiency  regenerate.  This  study  demonstrates  a  new  method  for coating the filtration materials more convenient with sustainability approach.

  • 25.
    Ansal, A.
    et al.
    Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, Bogazici University, Istanbul.
    Erdik, M.
    Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, Bogazici University, Istanbul.
    Studer, J.
    Studer Engineering, Zurich.
    Springman, Sarah M.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.
    Buchheister, J.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.
    Giardini, D.
    Institute of Geophysics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.
    Fäh, D.
    Institute of Geophysics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.
    Köksal, D.
    World Institute for Disaster Risk Management- DRM, Virginia.
    Seismic microzonation for earthquake risk mitigation in turkey2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As a tool to improve the state of land use management in Turkey and to better mitigate earthquake risk inthe future, a microzonation project was initiated after the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake. The project had twocomponents (a) drafting a microzonation manual [1], (b) conducting pilot case studies in the selected tworegions affected by the 1999 Marmara earthquakes [2]. The main purpose of the study was to test anddemonstrate the applicability of the methodology proposed in the Seismic Microzonation Manual preparedfor the project. The major contributions of the study are the probabilistic assessment of the regionalearthquake hazard, interpretation of the microtremor records, and interpretation of the available geologicaland geotechnical data based on a grid approach. All the available data was transformed to GIS format andthe results are evaluated to obtain a microzonation with respect to site amplification, liquefactionsusceptibility and landslide hazard. An attempt will be made to summarize the results of the pilot studyconducted for the Gölcük region to give an overview of the proposed methodology.

  • 26.
    Ansal, A.
    et al.
    Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, Bogazici University, Istanbul.
    Laue, Jan
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Buchheister, J.
    ETH Zurich.
    Erdik, M.
    Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, Bogazici University, Istanbul.
    Springman, Sarah M.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Studer, J.
    Studer Engineering, Zurich.
    Köksal, D.
    World Institute for Disaster Risk Management- DRM, Virginia.
    Site Characterization and Site Amplification for a Seismic Microzonation Study in Turkey2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The pilot areas were divided into cells by a grid system of 500 m x 500 m for estimating the effects of site conditions at a scale of 1:5000 by assigning representative soil profiles at the centre of each grid. These soil profiles were classified according to the Turkish Earthquake Code, NEHRP site classification, equivalent shear wave velocity and used for site response analyses. The zonation maps involve the division of the area into three zones as (A, B, and C). In all cases, the variations of the calculated parameters are considered separately and their frequency distributions were determined. Thus the zone A shows the most unsuitable 33 percentile, zone B the medium 34 percentile and zone C shows the most favorable 33 percentile. A suitable pa-rameter is considered to be the average spectral acceleration between 0.5-1.5 sec periods obtained from site response analysis. Even though more empirical, the spectral amplifi-cations calculated using equivalent shear wave velocities gave consistent values that appear to be realistic when compared with the selected soil profiles. Thus microzonation maps with respect to ground shaking were based on the average of spectral accelerations and spectral amplifications obtained from equivalent shear wave velocities.

  • 27.
    Arnold, André
    et al.
    Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Influence of unloaded walls on the stress distribution under a raft foundation2009Ingår i: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering: The Academia and Practice of Geotechnical Engineering, 2009, Vol. 2, s. 1124-1127Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For the calculation of flexible rafts, the rising structure is often not taken into account on the design with the exception of the load transfer location. Mostly, a uniform stress distribution is assumed below a footing, even though this is only valid if the footing is totally flexible and is able to follow the movement of the soil at every point. The assumption of flexibility is dependent on load and stiffness of the footing while already both, the flexible raft made of concrete as well as the structure itself are influencing the stiffness of a raft. Local stiffening of the foundation, e.g. by locally increased thickness of the raft or flexural rigid connected walls, is not taken into account in the design approach. In this contribution centrifuge model tests are carried out for different raft systems to explore the development of the stress distribution under a flexible raft foundation. Focus is given to identify the influence of the stiffening effects of outside walls for structures mostly loaded via middle columns. © 2009 IOS Press.

  • 28.
    Arnold, André
    et al.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zürich.
    Loading behaviour of flexible reaft foundations in ull scale tests and centrifuge models2013Ingår i: / [ed] Delage et al, 2013, s. 879-882Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 29.
    Arnold, André
    et al.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Physical modelling and full scale measurements on soil-structure interaction of flexible raft foundations2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Arnold, André
    et al.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Espinosa, T.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Springman, Sarah M.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Centrifuge modelling of the behaviour of flexible raft foundations on clay and sand2010Ingår i: Physical Modelling in Geotechnics: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics 2010, ICPMG 2010, 2010, Vol. 1, s. 679-684Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, foundations used for housing constructions changed from strip foundations to flexible rafts including the whole ground floor. Strip foundations were usually calculated with the assumption of an even stress distribution, and this is often applied to modern flexible raft foundations. The result of these calculations does not represent reality and may often lead to inappropriate design and unexpected structural damage. Physical model tests have been carried out to study the stress distribution on different foundation types on a variety of soils, and under various loading scenarios. A better understanding of the stress distribution between foundation and soil is possible due to normal stress measurements at the interface. For working loads, a clear difference in stress transfer between foundation and clay and sand soils could be observed while a change in depth of soil or shallow inclined bedrock has less effect on the stress distribution at the interface. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

  • 31.
    Askarinejad, Amin
    et al.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich.
    Springman, Sarah M.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich.
    Effect of bedrock shape and drainage properties on the stability of slopes2014Ingår i: Physical Modelling in Geotechnics - Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics 2014, ICPMG 2014, 2014, Vol. 2, s. 1211-1217Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rainfall induced slope failures were investigated in a series of centrifuge tests on slopes underlain by different bedrock profiles. These tests were designed to interpret observations made during two full scale landslide triggering experiments, focusing on the effect of hydro-mechanical interactions between a soil layer and bedrock during rainfall events. A climate chamber was designed and constructed for the ETH Zurich geotechnical drum centrifuge (Springman et al. 2001). Two different bedrock profiles were tested. The bedrock was parallel to the slope surface as the benchmark, whereas a convex form was placed at the toe of the slope in the alternative, which has potential to act as a supporting buttress. The changes in the pore pressures at the interface of the soil and bedrock were measured. Moreover, the surface movements were monitored by means of cameras installed in the climate chamber. The hydraulic and mechanical responses of the slopes suggested that a convex form of bedrock at the toe might have a "buttressing" effect to the upper parts of the slope due to arching. Moreover, this stabilising effect would be more pronounced if an efficient drainage system was in place behind the buttress to drain locally high pore pressures. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 32.
    Askarinejad, Amin
    et al.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zürich.
    Laue, Jan
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Zweidler, Adrian
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Iten, M.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Bleiker, E.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Buschor, H.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Springman, Sarah M.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Physical modelling of rainfall induced landslides undercontrolled climatic conditions2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of small scale physical modelling tests are performed in a geotechnical drumcentrifuge in order to investigate the triggering mechanisms of landslides due to rainfall. They areconducted under controlled conditions of rainfall intensity and duration, ambient relative humidity, wind,and temperature. These tests have been designed to study the possible failure mechanisms proposed for afull scale landslide experiment. Accordingly, different shapes and hydraulic properties of the bedrock, interms of drainage and exfiltration, are provided for the model. A three dimensional close rangephotogrammetric technique is used to track the movements and monitor the volumetric changes of theground during the cycles of wetting and drying. The slope elevation is filmed during and following therainfall events using a high speed camera and the deformation vectors and strains are elaborated using thePIV method. Details of the design of the climate chamber are discussed in this paper.

  • 33.
    Bernander, Stig
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Dury, Robin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Progressive Landslide Analysis in Canadian Glacial Silty Clay in Churchill River2017Ingår i: / [ed] Vikas Thakur, Jean-Sébastien L’Heureux, Ariane Locat, 2017, s. 1-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The poster presents the risks for a progressive landslide in a natural dam. The stability will be critical when the water level is raised after the building of a hydro power plant, Bernander (2016), Dury (2017). The analysis is based on a finite difference method developed by Stig Bernander (2011), Bernander et al.(2016)

     

    The following issues will be discussed:  

    - Material properties

    - Risk for liquefaction

    - Three possible failure surfaces: one horizontal, one inclined and one curved

    - Failure riska for different material propeties

    - The need to check the real properties of the soil

  • 34.
    Bey-Gress, Ch.
    et al.
    École nationale supérieure des arts et industries de Strasbourg.
    Laue, Jan
    Institut für Geotechnik, ETH Zürich.
    Seiffert, J-G
    École nationale supérieure des arts et industries de Strasbourg.
    Modélisation de l'interaction sol-fondations superficielles1999Ingår i: Revue Francaise de Geotechnique, ISSN 0181-0529, Vol. 88, nr 3, s. 37-45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Les ouvrages de génie civil sont classiquementdimensionnés selon les sollicitations qu'ils doiventreprendre, avec des conditions limites locales souventpeu réalistes. Les fondations sont dimensionnées parailleurs, selon les sollicitations transmises, mais en aucuncas la modification du comportement de l'une des partiesn'est prise en compte pour le dimensionnement de l'autrepartie. Il est nécessaire de comprendre d'abord ce qui sepasse au niveau local sol-fondation pour caractériser lecomportement de cet ensemble de propriétés mécaniqueset rhéologiques différentes soumis à des sollicitationscomplexes, avec tous les problèmes inhérents au contact.Le travail présenté concerne des fondations superficiellesposées sur un milieu pulvérulent homogène isotrope,sous des sollicitations de type effort vertical et momentcouplé ou non-couplé.Modelisation

  • 35.
    Bolton, Malcolm D.
    et al.
    University of Cambridge, Department of Engineering.
    Gui, Meen-Wah
    National Taipei University of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering.
    Garnier, Jacques Ph
    Laboratory Cent. Ponts & Chaussees, Nantes.
    Corté, Jean François
    Laboratory Cent. Ponts & Chaussees, Nantes.
    Bagge, G.
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby.
    Laue, Jan
    Ruhr-Universität, Bochum.
    Renzi, R.
    ISMES Istituto Sperimentale Modelli e Strutture, Bergamo.
    Centrifuge cone penetration tests in sand1999Ingår i: Geotechnique, ISSN 0016-8505, E-ISSN 1751-7656, Vol. 49, nr 4, s. 543-552Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When performing centrifuge tests, it is necessary to carry out in-flight tests such as the cone penetration test (CPT). Recently, miniature CPTs have formed one collaboration entitled 'European Program of Improvement in Centrifuging' (EPIC). This article provides information on both the random and the consistent variations which have been observed with CPTs in sand when identical prototypes have been modeled in the different laboratories.

  • 36.
    Bowman, Elisabeth T.
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Natural Resources Engineering, University of Canterbury.
    Imre, Bernd
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Springman, Sarah M
    Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Hönggerberg, Zürich, Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Experimental modelling of debris flow behaviour using a geotechnical centrifuge2010Ingår i: Canadian geotechnical journal (Print), ISSN 0008-3674, E-ISSN 1208-6010, Vol. 47, nr 7, s. 742-762Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical modelling of debris flows has been carried out in the geotechnical drum centrifuge at ETH Zürich. A new apparatus to model debris flows in the centrifuge is described. The apparatus permits the final reach of a typical debris flow to be modelled within the centrifuge, with unconsolidated material flowing down a slope to deposit as a fan around the drum. Experiments are described for both fixed base conditions and erodible bases. Tests to examine the verification (modelling) of models show that debris flow behaviour is governed mainly by friction and consolidation processes, although some resolution is required between flow behaviour downslope and flow arrest during runout. The results are compared with bulk parameters determined for field-scale debris flows. It is found that some important flow mechanisms, such as contact-dominated behaviour and high pore pressures, are developed that are closer to those developed at fieldscale than tests conducted at 1g. Velocity profiles for erodible beds are compared with a semi-empirical expression derived for experimental debris flows at 1g. Normalized velocity profiles are found to be in agreement; however, absolute velocities differ from those predicted. Scaling, the limitations of the apparatus, and potential for future work are discussed

  • 37.
    Bowman, Elisabeth T.
    et al.
    University of Canterbury.
    Imre, Bernd
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Springman, Sarah M.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Geotechnical centrifuge modelling of debris flows2007Ingår i: International Conference on Debris-Flow Hazards Mitigation: Mechanics, Prediction, and Assessment, Proceedings, 2007, s. 229-239Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A granular debris flow may grow in size through erosion of its substrate, resulting in an increased hazard through greater mass, speed and runout. Exactly what governs the erosion potential of a particular flow is a matter of some debate, however, with apparently similar conditions producing very different entrainment behaviour. Some theories use an extension of sediment transport models that involve the removal of soil through a shear stress applied by the flow. However, comparison of field and laboratory-scale data suggests that other processes, such as undrained loading of the bed, are also likely to have influence at large scales. Hence properties of the bed need to be considered as well as the characteristics of the flow material. The modelling of erosion processes at laboratory scale is generally limited by the low stresses applied by the soil-water mixture at small scale. Modelling flows in a geotechnical centrifuge overcomes this problem by increasing the g-level, therefore allowing for correct prototype stress levels to be accounted for at small scale. This paper describes the development and use of a model debris flow apparatus on a geotechnical drum centrifuge at ETH in Zurich, Switzerland. Preliminary tests have been undertaken to compare fixed and erodible bed conditions - enabling erosion processes to be examined at prototype stress levels. © 2007 Millpress.

  • 38.
    Bowman, Elisabeth T.
    et al.
    University of Canterbury.
    Laue, Jan
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Imre, Bernd
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Zweidler, Adrian
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Springman, Sarah M.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Debris flows in a geotechnical centrifuge2006Ingår i: Physical Modelling in Geotechnics, 6th ICPMG'06: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics, 2006, Vol. 1-2, s. 311-316Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new apparatus to allow the examination of laboratory debris flows at prototype stress levels within a geotechnical drum centrifuge is described. The apparatus consists of a curved aluminium flume that lies within the circumference of the drum, the inclination of which can be altered from 0 to 40 degrees. PPTs may be placed in the base and along one aluminium side wall, while the other wall is made from Perspex, to enable viewing of the flow during a test. A tube at the head of the flume enables flow materials to be introduced after preparation external to the centrifuge, while tests may be carried out with both fixed and erodible beds. A high speed camera is used to capture images of the flow during centrifuge flight. Initial tests suggest a maximum particle size of 4mmmay be introduced to the flow.The influence ofwater content and fluid viscosity is discussed. © 2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

  • 39.
    Buchheister, J.
    et al.
    ETH Zurich.
    Bayraktarli, Y.
    Laue, Jan
    ETH Zurich.
    Faber, M.
    Uncertainities in a detrministic and probabilistic approach on liquefaction susceptibility2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 40.
    Buchheister, J.
    et al.
    ETH Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    ETH Zurich.
    Frist results of cyclic experiments using a hollow cylinder apparaturs2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 41.
    Buchheister, Justine
    et al.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    The influence of different stress states on soil liquefaction under a building2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquefaction of soil depends on the state and type of soil, loading function and the initial stress state ofa soil element prior to a dynamic event. Most studies focus on an initial stress state from the free fieldwhile assuming σ2 = σ3. Therefore, this stress state can be studied in a triaxial apparatus. With ahollow cylinder apparatus, it is possible to apply any possible combination of σ1, σ2 and σ3 in the soilprior to testing and thus enables the reproduction of boundary conditions e.g. as given for different soilelements under a building.Underneath a building different initial stress states need to be taken into account to judge the safetyand the behavior of the building during and after an earthquake. The focus in this contribution is tostudy the influence of these stress states. For a typical building the initial stress states were chosen atthree locations in a depth of 5 m. Experiments with fine sand are carried out under these initial stressstates with combined cyclic shear and axial loading. The results are presented and discussed in termsof the influence of stress state on liquefaction susceptibility and potential failures modes of a buildingtype to be considered in soil structure interaction.

  • 42.
    Buchli, Thomas
    et al.
    Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Hönggerberg, Zürich.
    Laue, Jan
    Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Hönggerberg, Zürich.
    Springman, Sarah M
    Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Hönggerberg, Zürich.
    Amendments to Interpretations of SAAF Inclinometer Data from the Furggwanghorn Rock Glacier, Turtmann Valley, Switzerland: Results from 2010 to 20122016Ingår i: Vadose Zone Journal, ISSN 1539-1663, E-ISSN 1539-1663, Vol. 15, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Raw data processing from a ShapeAccelArray field (SAAF) inclinometerwere made using proprietary software from Measurand, the manufacturerof the SAAF inclinometer. When the inclinometer data obtained from thesame borehole were reprocessed with an updated software version, theresults were found to differ significantly from the values derived using theprevious version of software. Neither the absolute displacements nor thecurve representing displacements with depth agreed with the previous values,despite our best attempts to compare data with alternative sparse fieldmeasurements of surface displacements. There was a change in inclinationof the segments above the shear zone, and the strain rates in the shear zonewere reduced significantly during the winter months. In contrast, there wasno change in the depth of the shear zone. Therefore, the ground modelpresented in the original study is still considered to be the optimal groundmodel of the Furggwanghorn rock glacier. Finally, a simple trigonometricalapproach was conducted to investigate the validity of both software versions.The simplified recalculations could confirm mostly the results of theupdated software version.

  • 43.
    Burjánek, J.
    et al.
    Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zürich.
    Fäh, D.
    Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zürich.
    Michel, C.
    Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zürich.
    Dalgauer, L.
    Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zürich.
    Baumann, C.
    Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zürich.
    Gassner-Stamm, G.
    Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zürich.
    Poggi, V.
    Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zürich.
    Roten, D.
    Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zürich.
    Laue, Jan
    Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zürich.
    Marin, A.
    Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zürich.
    Lestuzzi, P.
    Applied computing and Mechanics Laboratory, EPF Lausanne.
    Karbassi, A.
    Applied computing and Mechanics Laboratory, EPF Lausanne.
    Earthquake Damage Scenario in Visp (Switzerland): From Active Fault to Building Damage2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering 2012 (15WCEE), ETH Zürich , 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a damage scenario based on multidisciplinary study which covers the key elements of the earthquakerisk chain in Visp. Full dynamic rupture simulations are performed using heterogeneous initial distributions,statistically compatible to the database of kinematic inversion results of past earthquakes. The fault is embeddedin the 3D velocity model of the area, which is based on an extensive ambient noise measurement campaign. Inorder to assess the risk in the city of Visp, the buildings were classified based on the screening survey of thebuilding stock. The seismic behavior of each class is described by the mean of fragility curves, partly developedby analytical, numerical and experimental investigations and partly based on existing methods

  • 44.
    Caprez, M.
    et al.
    ETH, Zürich.
    Springman, Sarah M.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    ETH, Zürich.
    Steiger, F.
    ETH, Zürich.
    Testing of TBM excavation material in sandstone and marl for reuse in embankments or as fill2001Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several tunnels in geological formations of molasse, marl or sandstone are planned or are presently under construction in Switzerland. The excavation of these tunnels is very often carried out by tunnel boring machines (TBM). This kind of excavation tends to produce lamellar excavation materials (chips). For the reuse of these materials in road embankments etc., there are certain disadvantages concerning the compression properties. Limiting deformation will be the main restriction on design in the reuse of this material and this is manifested also in terms of the possible changes of volume as a function of time. On the one hand, volume may increase due to instability in relation to water and possibly frost, whereby swelling occurs. On the other hand, volume may decrease due to repeated dynamic loading. Inevitably these volume changes will not occur to the same degree and within the same timeframe. The material can be stabilised by using a variety of cementing agents to improve the key properties. A range of laboratory experiments were performed to find the optimal mixture to be used as a base to the reinforced concrete slabs, which formed the railbed to the major railway line passing through this tunnel. An experimental field test was carried out using this specific mixture to confirm the suitability in relation to the construction method proposed and the properties measured at full scale.

  • 45.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Alkaradaghi, Karwan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Kurdistan Institution for strategic studies and scientific Research, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla Mustafa Muhamed
    Abdullah Mustafa Muhamed Al-Rawabdeh, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq; Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Final Cover Systems Design for Arid Areas Using the HELP Model: A Case Study in the Babylon Governorate, Iraq2018Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 12, artikel-id 4568Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of selecting proper designs for landfills is to accommodate quantities of waste without having a negative effect on the surrounding environment and human health. The Babylon Governorate (province) in Iraq was taken as an example of an arid area with very shallow groundwater and where irregular waste disposal sites had developed that had not been subject to international standards when they were selected for landfill use. In the current study, the suggested design for landfills is a base liner and final cover system. In this suggested design, the final cover system allows for three scenarios. The first scenario considers an evapotranspiration soil cover (ET) (capillary barriers type), the second scenario is a modified cover design of “RCRA Subtitle D”, and the third scenario is a combination of the first and second scenarios. The HELP 3.95 D model was applied to the selected landfill sites in the governorate to check if there was any penetration of the leachate that might in future percolate from the landfill’s bottom barrier layer in arid areas. The results from the suggested landfill design showed that there was no leachate percolation from the bottom barrier layer using the second and third scenarios. For the first scenario, however, there was a small amount of leachate through the bottom barrier layer in the years 2013 and 2014.

  • 46.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    Department of Dams and Water Resources Engineering, University of Mosul, Mosul 41001, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa 51001, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Two Scenarios for Landfills Design in Special Conditions Using the HELP Model: A Case Study in Babylon Governorate, Iraq2018Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikel-id 125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The sound design of landfills is essential in order to protect human health and the environment (air, water, and soil). The study area, Babylon Governorate, is situated in the middle of Iraq, and is distinguished by a hot climate and shallow groundwater. The governorate did not have landfill sites that meet international criteria; in addition, the groundwater depth in Babylon Governorate is commonly shallow. Previously, the most important criteria for the study area and GIS software were used to select the best sites for locating landfills in the major cities of the governorate. In this study, the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP 3.95D) model was applied in order to ensure that there was no leakage of the leachate that results from the waste in the selected landfill sites. It is the most commonly utilized model for landfill design, and it is used to estimate water inflow through the soil layers. For the present study, to avoid groundwater pollution by leachate from a landfill site due to the shallow groundwater depth, compacted waste was placed on the surface using two height scenarios (2 m and 4 m). This design was developed using the soil properties of the selected sites coupled with the weather parameters in Babylon Governorate (precipitation, temperature, solar, and evapotranspiration) for a 12-year period covering 2005 to 2016. The results from both of the suggested landfill designs showed an absence of leachate from the bottom liner.

  • 47.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Kamaleddin, Suhair
    Iraqi Ministry of Housing & Construction, National Center for Construction Laboratories and Research Babylon, Baghdad.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Soil Characteristics in Selected Landfill Sites in theBabylon Governorate, Iraq2017Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 348-363Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Babylon Governorate is situated in the middle of Iraq. It covers an area of 5,315 km

    2 and has 2,092,998 inhabitants distributed throughout its five major cities (Qadhaa). Presently, there is no landfill site in the governorate that meets the environmental criteria for the disposal of municipal and industrial waste. Consequently, GIS (geographic information system) and methods of multi-criteria decision making were used here to select the best sites in each city in the Babylon Governorate that would fulfil the environmental requirements. Two sites were chosen in each city. As the groundwater is very shallow in this area, the design should ensure against groundwater pollution by leachate from these sites. To avoid this problem, soil investigation was conducted at these sites so that the most suitable landfill design could be accomplished. The results of soil investigation in these sites include the soil profile, groundwater depth, chemical properties, allowable bearing capacity, Atterberg limits test results and material characteristics of the soil strata. From the research, it is believed that the best design is one that puts the landfill above ground.

  • 48.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Sitting by Two Methods in Al-Qasim, Babylon, Iraq and Comparing Them Using Change Detection Method2017Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 8, s. 723-737Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The selecting of a site for landfill is considered as a difficult process because many criteria should be involved. The main aim of establishing a landfill is to protect the human and environment. Al-Qasim district is considered as the study area in this work. It is one of the main districts in Babylon Governorate, Iraq. There is no systematic site as landfill that fulfil the environmental and scientific criteria in this area. Therefore, the most important fifteen criteria that suited the environmental requirements were selected in the current study. These criteria are: groundwater depth, urban centers, rivers, villages, soil types, elevation, roads agricultural land use, slope, land use, archaeological sites, power lines, gas pipelines, oil pipelines and railways. Two methods of multi criteria decision making AHP (analytical hierarchy process) and SRS (straight rank sum) were applied to obtain the weights of criteria in dissimilar styles. The raster maps of the selected criteria were prepared and analyzed within the GIS software. Then, the change detection method was implemented to compare the two output raster maps resulted from AHP and SRS methods. Two appropriate candidate sites for landfill were selected to accommodate the cumulative solid waste until the year 2030 in Qasim district. The areas of these sites were 2.766 km2 and 2.055 km2 respectively.

  • 49.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Environment Engineering, college of Engineering, U niversity of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq. .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hazim, Anwer
    Koya university, Koya, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Sites Selection Using MCDM and Comparing Method of Change Detection for Babylon Governorate, Iraq2019Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill site`s selection represents a complicated process due to the large number of variables to be adopted. In this study, an arid area (Babylon Governorate as a case study) was selected. It is located in the middle region of Iraq. In this area, the  landfills do not satisfy the required  international criteria.  Fifteen  of the  most significant criterion were selected for this purpose. For suitable weight for each criterion, the multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were applied. These methods are AHP and RSW. In the GIS software 10.5, the raster maps of the chosen criterion were arranged and analysed. The method of change detection was implemented to determine the matching pixels and non-matching pixels. The final results showed that there are two candidate locations for landfills for each district in the governorate (ten sites). The areas of the selected sites were sufficient to contain the cumulative quantity of solid waste from 2020 until 2030.

  • 50.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Combining GIS Applications and Method of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (AHP) for Landfill Siting in Al-Hashimiyah Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq2017Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, nr 11, artikel-id 1932Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill siting is a complex process. It is one of the major problems in waste management, where many factors should be taken into consideration when selecting a suitable site for landfill in any given area. At the present time, there are many random waste disposal sites distributed throughout Al-Hashimiyah Qadhaa in Iraq. In this study, the Geographic Information System (GIS) and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) were used to select the best sites for landfill. The process of selecting sites for landfill in Al-Hashimiyah Qadhaa comprised two steps. First, fifteen different criteria were mapped and incorporated into overlay analyses within GIS software to produce the final suitability index map for the site. The second step comprises the exclusion of unsuitable areas from the final map to simplify identification of the candidate sites for landfill in the study area. The weightings of criteria were identified using AHP, and the weightings of the sub-criteria of each criterion were determined based on multiple factors. In order to accommodate solid waste from 2020 until 2030, two suitable candidate landfill sites were determined which fulfill the required area of 1.013 km2 with areas of 1.374 km2 and 1.288 km2 respectively.

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