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  • 1.
    Huang, Xianzhu
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing .
    Wu, Jian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Lu, Xiaohua
    Key Laboratory of Material and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing .
    Feng, Xin
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing .
    Shi, Yijun
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Tribological Properties of Porous PEEK Composites Containing Ionic Liquid under Dry Friction Condition2017Inngår i: Lubricants, ISSN 2075-4442, Vol. 5, nr 2, artikkel-id 19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    NaCl particles were added into Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and its composites to produce porous PEEK-based materials by washing NaCl away after the high-temperature compression molding process. After that, an ionic liquid was added into the porous materials under vacuum condition. Carbon fibers (CF), as reinforcement, and PTFE, as an internal solid lubricant, were employed to prepare PEEK composites. Tribological properties under dry friction condition were studied on a ring-on-disc tribo-meter. The influence of CF and PTFE on tribological properties was carefully investigated. The results indicated that, in comparison with traditional PEEK composites (CF/PTFE/PEEK), the porous PEEK composites containing ionic liquid showed much better tribological properties. It is found that CF can help PEEK form effective pores to suck in the ionic liquid resulting in a better tribological performance. CF reinforced porous PEEK containing ionic liquid (p-CF/PEEK + IL) demonstrated the lowest friction coefficient (27% of CF/PTFE/PEEK) and the lowest wear loss (only 0.9% of CF/PTFE/PEEK). Long time tribological test revealed that the wear mass loss comes from the running-in period, while its wear is negligible after this period. It is also found that the addition of PTFE has a negative influence on the tribological behaviors, especially under high sliding velocity and applied load

  • 2.
    Huang, Xianzhu
    et al.
    College of Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing .
    Wu, Jian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Zhu, Yudan
    College of Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University.
    Zhang, Yumeng
    College of Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University.
    Feng, Xin
    College of Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University.
    Lu, Xiaohua
    College of Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University.
    Flow-resistance analysis of nano-confined fluids inspired from liquid nano-lubrication: A Review2017Inngår i: Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, ISSN 1004-9541, E-ISSN 2210-321X, Vol. 25, nr 11, s. 1552-1562Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     How to reduce flow resistance of nano-confined fluids to achieve a high flux is a new challenge for modern chemical engineering applications, such as membrane separation and nanofluidic devices. Traditional models are inapplicable to explain the significant differences in the flow resistance of different liquid–solid systems. On the other hand, friction reduction in liquid nano-lubrication has received considerable attention during the past decades. Both fields are exposed to a common scientific issue regarding friction reduction during liquid–solid relative motion at nanoscale. A promising approach to control the flow resistance of nano-confined fluids is to reference the factors affecting liquid nano-lubrication. In this review, two concepts of the friction coefficient derived from fluid flow and tribology were discussed to reveal their intrinsic relations. Recent progress on low or ultra-low friction coefficients in liquid nano-lubrication was summarized based on two situations. Finally, a new strategy was introduced to study the friction coefficient based on analyzing the intermolecular interactions through an atomic force microscope (AFM), which is a cutting-point to build a new model to study flow-resistance at nanoscale.

  • 3.
    Mu, Liwen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement. Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH, USA.
    Wu, Jian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Chen, Minjiao
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Zhu, Jiahua
    Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH, USA.
    Shi, Yijun
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Two important factors of selecting lignin as efficient lubricating additives in poly (ethylene glycol): Hydrogen bond and molecular weight2019Inngår i: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 129, s. 564-570Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin, one of the most abundant natural polymers, has been successfully used as an effective lubricant additive with high value. The chemical structure of lignin is very diverse and strongly affected by both the source of lignin (i.e. plant species) and the lignin extraction process. In this work, a series of lignin from different biomass sources (hard or soft wood) and extraction process (organosolv with or without acid catalyst) has been successfully incorporated into poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and fortified lubricating properties were achieved. The effects of different lignin on the rheological, thermal and tribological properties of the lignin/EG lubricants were systematically investigated by different characterization techniques. Lignin in PEG significantly improves the lubricating property, where a wear reduction of 93.8% was observed. The thermal and lubrication properties of the PEG lubricants filled with different kinds of lignin are tightly related to the synergistic state of hydrogen bonding and molecular weight distribution. Lignin with broader molecular weight distribution and higher hydroxyl content shows better adhesion on metal surfaces and strengthened lubricating film, which could be used as the efficient lubricating additives. This work provides a criterion for selecting appropriate lignin as the efficient lubricant additive and accelerates the application of lignin.

  • 4.
    Mu, Liwen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement. Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron.
    Wu, Jian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Chen, Minjiao
    Vahidi, Alireza
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Zhu, Jiahua
    Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron.
    Shi, Yijun
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Lignin from Hardwood and Softwood Biomass as a Lubricating Additive to Ethylene Glycol2018Inngår i: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 23, nr 3, artikkel-id 537Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethylene glycol (EG)-based lubricant was prepared with dissolved organosolv lignin from birch wood (BL) and softwood (SL) biomass. The effects of different lignin types on the rheological, thermal, and tribological properties of the lignin/EG lubricants were comprehensively investigated by various characterization techniques. Dissolving organosolv lignin in EG results in outstanding lubricating properties. Specifically, the wear volume of the disc by EG-44BL is only 8.9% of that lubricated by pure EG. The enhanced anti-wear property of the EG/lignin system could be attributed to the formation of a robust lubrication film and the strong adhesion of the lubricant on the contacting metal surface due to the presence of a dense hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network. The lubricating performance of EG-BL outperforms EG-SL, which could be attributed to the denser H-bonding sites in BL and its broader molecular weight distribution. The disc wear loss of EG-44BL is only 45.7% of that lubricated by EG-44SL. Overall, H-bonding is the major contributor to the different tribological properties of BL and SL in EG-based lubricants.

  • 5.
    Wu, Jian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Improving the Lubricating Performance of Ionic Liquids for Different Contacts2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Wu, Jian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement. State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University.
    Huang, Xianzhu
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing .
    Berglund, Kim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Lu, Xiaohua
    Key Laboratory of Material and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing .
    Feng, Xin
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing .
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Shi, Yijun
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    CuO nanosheets produced in graphene oxide solution: An excellent anti-wear additive for self-lubricating polymer composites2018Inngår i: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 162, s. 86-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, graphene oxide is used as template to produce CuO nanosheets, which solves aggregation and dispersion problems of CuO nanosheets resulting in improved lubricating performance. SEM and AFM studies show that CuO nanosheets are present in fusiform flake shape with a thickness, width and length of around 13, 400 and 1000 nm, respectively. CuO nanosheets were added to the carbon fibers reinforced Polytetrafluoroethylene (CF/PTFE) to study their lubricating performance. It is interesting, from fractured surfaces of composites, to find that CuO nanosheets enhance the interface properties between carbon fibers and PTFE. The wear resistance property of CF/PTFE is remarkably improved after filling CuO nanosheets. For example, the wear rate is reduced by 51% after filling 1.5 wt % CuO nanosheets. The wear resistance improvement effect of CuO nanosheets is much better than that of commercial CuO nanogranules and CuO nanorods. Worn surfaces and counter-surfaces studying indicates that CuO nanosheets can not only prevent the rubbed-off of PTFE or the detachment of CF, but also improve the properties of transfer films, which greatly reduce the adhesive wear and abrasive wear.

  • 7.
    Wu, Jian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement. State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology.
    Lu, Xiaohua
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology.
    Feng, Xin
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing University of Chemical Technology, State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology.
    Shi, Yijun
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Halogen-free ionic liquids as excellent lubricants for PEEK-stainless steel contacts at elevated temperatures2016Inngår i: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 104, s. 1-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced polymers sliding against steel under ionic liquids (ILs) has great potential applications. However, halogen-containing ILs (h-ILs) often induce high corrosive wear to steel. In this work, halogen-free ILs (hf-ILs) were used as neat lubricants to investigate the performance of poly(ether-ether-ketone)-AISI304 stainless steel (PEEK-304ss) contacts at elevated temperatures. The results indicate that hf-ILs with short alkyl chains show excellent anti-corrosion and antiwear properties. The wear rates of 304ss lubricated by hf-ILs at 160 °C are 3–71% of those by h-ILs. The friction coefficients of PEEK-304ss lubricated by hf-ILs are just 13–33% of those by h-ILs. The excellent performance of hf-ILs can be attributed to the reason that hf-ILs will not generate any halogen containing acid during the test

  • 8.
    Wu, Jian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement. Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, China.
    Mu, Liwen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Feng, Xin
    Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, China.
    Lu, Xiaohua
    Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, China.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Shi, Yijun
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Poly(alkylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide)-Based Polymerized Ionic Liquids: A Potential  High-Performance Lubricating Grease2019Inngår i: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 6, nr 5, artikkel-id 1801796Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymers prepared from ionic liquids are widely called polymerized ionic liquids (PILs). Compared to monocationic and dicationic ILs, PILs have higher molecular weights, charge, and greater intermolecular interactions, which make PILs have a higher possibility to generate better lubricity. PILs of poly‐alkylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (PImC6NTf2) is studied herein. Dicationic ILs of 1,1′‐(pentane‐1,5‐diyl)‐bis(3‐butylimidazolium) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BIm5‐(NTf2)2) is used as additive to decrease the crystallization temperature of PImC6NTf2. Lubricity of PImC6NTf2 and PImC6NTf2+BIm5‐(NTf2)2, as well as BIm5‐(NTf2)2 for comparison is evaluated under severe conditions, i.e., 3.0 to 3.5 GPa and 200 °C. The rheological study suggests that PImC6NTf2 can be classified into grease. Tribological test results show that PImC6NTf2 has much better antiwear property than BIm5‐(NTf2)2, especially at 3.5 GPa. Adding 4% BIm5‐(NTf2)2 to PImC6NTf2 is able to reduce friction under high pressure. At 200 °C, PImC6NTf2 exhibits excellent lubricity. The mixture of 96%PImC6NTf2+4%BIm5‐(NTf2)2 shows even better antiwear property than neat PImC6NTf2 and exhibits the highest friction reducing property among the ILs at 200 °C. It is speculated that the robust strength of PILs and strong adhesion between PILs and solids are key factors in achieving the excellent antiwear property.

  • 9.
    Wu, Jian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement. State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing Tech University.
    Mu, Liwen
    Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron.
    Zhu, Jiahua
    Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron.
    Chen, Yifeng
    Key Laboratory of Material and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing .
    Yin, Xiang
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing Tech University.
    Feng, Xin
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing .
    Lu, Xiaohua
    Key Laboratory of Material and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing .
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Shi, Yijun
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Turning the solubility and lubricity of ionic liquids by absorbing CO22018Inngår i: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 121, s. 223-230Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ionic liquids (ILs) attract high interest as lubricants or lubricant additives due to their special physicochemical characteristics. CO2 is a widely distributed gas. In many situations, its influence on lubricants cannot be avoided. In this work, three ILs are synthesized from choline and amino acids of glycine, l-proline and lysine, respectively. The influence of CO2 absorption on their solubility and lubricity is investigated. In general, it is interesting to find that the solubility is decreased and their lubricity is obviously improved after absorbing CO2, which is strongly related to their functional group (amino group) interactions with CO2. The formation of carbamate groups greatly increases the viscosity resulting in less solid contacts, and strengthens the interfacial adhesion between ILs and solids.

  • 10.
    Wu, Jian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement. State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University.
    Mu, Liwen
    Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron.
    Zhu, Jiahua
    Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron.
    Feng, Xin
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing .
    Lu, Xiaohua
    Key Laboratory of Material and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing .
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Shi, Yijun
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Synthesis of hollow fullerene-like molybdenum disulfide/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites with excellent lubricating properties2018Inngår i: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 134, s. 423-430Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, bubble-on-plate structure is realized on hollow IF-MoS2/reduced graphene oxide (HIF-MoS2/RGO) nanocomposites. HIF-MoS2 nanocages templated with the generated ammonia (NH3) are connected to RGO through the interlayered MoS2. The as-prepared HIF-MoS2/RGO is added into an ionic grease to study the tribological behavior of HIF-MoS2/RGO. For comparison, commercial grade MoS2 nanoparticles, single RGO or HIF-MoS2 or their physical mixture are also studied. Tribological results show that, compared with other additives, HIF-MoS2/RGO nanocomposites have the best anti-wear properties especially under higher load of 3.0 GPa. The wear reduction of HIF-MoS2/RGO reinforced grease under 2.5 GPa and 3.0 GPa reached 67% and 96%, respectively. In addition, HIF-MoS2/RGO reinforced grease achieves much lower and stable friction coefficient (0.079, the value of neat grease is 0.098) under 3.0 GPa. HIF-MoS2/RGO reinforced grease maintains very low friction coefficient and wear up to 4.1 GPa, while the normal MoS2 and RGO show high wear at the pressure up to 3.0 GPa. It is proposed that HIF-MoS2 nanocages on RGO act as rolling balls during friction resulting in better separation of steels.

  • 11.
    Wu, Jian
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, PR China.
    Zhu, Jiahua
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, USA.
    Mu, Liwen
    School of Materials Engineering, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing, PR China.
    Shi, Yijun
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Dong, Yihui
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, PR China.
    Feng, Xin
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, PR China.
    Lu, Xiaohua
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, PR China.
    High load capacity with ionic liquid-lubricated tribological system2016Inngår i: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 94, s. 315-322Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering polymers with high glass transition temperature have been widely used in dynamic friction systems by oil or solid lubrication. However, in high-load systems, oil lubrication is less efficient due to the viscosity decrease at higher temperatures induced by friction heat. [Bmim][PF6] ionic liquid was used and compared with traditional L-HM46 oil and solid PTFE. Taking advantage of high [Bmim][PF6] viscosity, strong steel-[Bmim][PF6] but poor PEEK-[Bmim][PF6] interaction, the [Bmim][PF6] lubricated PEEK/steel slide falls in hydrodynamic lubrication and elastohydrodynamic lubrication region under 150–1500N. While the oil and PTFE both failed to lubricate under 800N.

  • 12.
    Yin, Xiang
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing Tech University.
    Wu, Jian
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing Tech University.
    Li, Chang
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing Tech University.
    Lu, Xiaohua
    Key Laboratory of Material and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing .
    Feng, Xin
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing .
    Shi, Yijun
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Right Way of Using Graphene Oxide Additives for Water-Lubricated PEEK: Adding in Polymer or Water?2018Inngår i: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 66, nr 3, artikkel-id 103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Water-lubricated polymer is attracting more and more interest from the industry. Adding nanoparticles is considered to be an effective way to improve the tribological performance. In this work, water-lubricated Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)-steel contacts were employed as the objects of study. A careful comparative study was made by investigating the effect of adding graphene oxide (GO) into water or into PEEK. Results show that adding GO into water can significantly reduce the wear and friction coefficient of pure PEEK, which is much more effective than adding GO into PEEK. Under the lubrication of GO aqueous dispersion, the wear of PEEK remains very low even under a harsh condition where the pressure reaches 50 MPa and the linear sliding speed is 0.7 m/s. Neat PEEK and GO/PEEK composites in pure water exhibit serious wear under this harsh condition. The excellent lubricating properties of GO aqueous dispersion are attributed to GO nanosheets entering into solid contacts, which can not only form a protective layer on steel counterpart repairing the worn surface, but also strongly adhere to the PEEK matrix resulting in an in situ-formed GO coating and prevent the scratch by steel counterpart.

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