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  • 1.
    Garmabaki, Amir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Software Fault Detection in Control Systems2017In: Risk, Reliability and Safety: Innovating Theory and Practice - Proceedings of the 26th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2016 / [ed] Walls L.,Revie M.,Bedford T, CRC Press, 2017, p. 2006-2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fault detection in the software of control systems is a difficult task. In largely interconnected systems, not only the individual performance of one channel, but also its interaction with other components, must be considered. In this conceptual paper, we outline a new maintenance concept for the detection of software faults in control systems. The concept includes two approaches, morning gymnastics test and envelope analysis. The morning gymnastics test generates data for a baseline of the current operational abilities in contrast to the specified abilities and should be applied when feasible in continuous production systems. The test integrates historical and new sets of data to track degradation trends. Envelope analysis can be performed to detect operational anomalies and is based on subsequent deep analysis to distinguish software and hardware faults from each other. By using the envelope analysis it is possible to identify failures and disturbances affecting the control system. Thus, the proposed maintenance concept may facilitate detection and identification of potential failures in critical automated system.

  • 2.
    Harnesk, Dan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Exploring socio-technical design of crisis management information systems2011In: Crisis Response and Management and Emerging Information Systems: Critical Applications, Hershey: Idea Group Publishing, 2011, p. 139-155Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Harnesk, Dan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Information security management: the role of behavior2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Harnesk, Dan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Materializing organizational information security2012In: Nordic Contributions in IS Research: Third Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems, SCIS 2012, Sigtuna, Sweden, August 17–20, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Christina Keller; Mikael Wiberg; Pär J. Ågerfalk; Jenny Eriksson Lundström, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2012, Vol. 124, p. 76-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of situated elderly care this paper discusses the intertwined relationship between organizational security objectives, technology, and employees' security behavior. We use findings from a single case study to aid in our understanding of how managers sought to create a secure work environment by introducing behavioral security technology, and how employees appreciated the new security software in everyday routines. Theoretically the case study is informed by sociomateriality in that it employs the notion of technological affordances of behavioral security technology. Findings show that security technology material is an integral part of security management and security in use, and that both the technical actor and human actors contributed to cultivation of the information security practice in the elderly care center

  • 5.
    Harnesk, Dan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Shaping security behavior through discipline and agility: Implications for information security management2011In: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, E-ISSN 1758-5805, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 262-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to broaden the understanding about security behaviour bydeveloping a security behavior typology based on the concepts of discipline and agility.Design/methodology/approach: A case study was designed to analyze security behaviours in onepublic nursing centre. The inquiry was organized around the themes discipline and agility, culture,and security processes in order to get an in-depth understanding of the complex relationship betweensecurity management, referred to as discipline, and security in use, referred to as agility.Findings: The paper shows that security behaviour can be shaped by discipline and agility and thatboth can exist collectively if organizations consider the constitutional and existential aspects ofinformation security management.Practical implications: This research makes a pivotal stand for the issue how security behavioursnarrate a broad picture to enhance information security management. In particular, this will improvedesign of information security training and awareness programs.Originality/value: This research is relevant to information security management in organizations,particularly as behavioural and cultural aspects are becoming increasingly significant for maintainingand also designing systemic information security management.

  • 6.
    Harnesk, Dan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Lindström, John
    Samuelsson, Sören
    Socio-technical design approach for crisis management information systems2009In: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISSN 1937-9390, E-ISSN 1937-9420, Vol. 1, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes research in progress of a design approach for crisis management information systems. A qualitative study was designed to gather data from four municipalities in northern Sweden, which all have responsibility for crisis management in each local environment. The purpose with the article is to discuss broad but strongly related information issues to crisis management and from that suggest a socio-technical oriented approach for crisis management information systems design. The preliminary design approach suggests that a network of knowledge, IT management and information integration is a promising base for design in the area. Considering that responsible actors in crisis environments have great knowledge in crisis planning and operation indicate that such an environment can be understood as a network of knowledge that account for both the social and technical dimension during crises. Theories from IT management and information integration provide input to the technical dimension of the suggested design approach.

  • 7.
    Harnesk, Dan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Samuelsson, Sören
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Action research supported implementation of a crisis competence centre2009In: ISCRAM 2009: 6th international conference on information systems for crisis response and management : boundary spanning initiatives and new perspectives : Gothenburg, Sweden 10th - 13th of May / [ed] J. Landgren; U. Nulden; B. Van de Walle, Göteborg, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a regional crisis competence centre in Sweden. The overall research approach utilizes action research methodology to support the development process. The overall development process is divided into three steps; early need finding, the organizational platform, and business development. This paper is devoted to the first phase - early need finding - which deals with the specific needs and demand of four municipality organizations and how these requirements can be converged into a organizational setting that correspond to national crisis management strategies as well as regional responsibilities in crisis management. The research approach is action based and the theoretical considerations to support progress in development activities are from the Actor Network Theory (ANT). The main conclusion from the research is that the formation of a crisis competence centre revolves around sharing competences, and compromising between internal and external objectives in the progress towards a common goal.

  • 8.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Functional Products - Goodbye to the industrial age2012In: Ericsson Business Review, ISSN 1653-9486, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 21-24Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Källström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Håkansson, Lars
    Department of Applied Signal Processing, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Bellgran, David
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna.
    Frenne, Nicklas
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna.
    Renderstedt, Reza
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna.
    Lundin, Joakim
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Larsson, Jonas
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna.
    Analysis of automatic transmission vibration for clutch slippage detection2015In: 22nd International Congress on Sound and Vibration: ICSV 2015, Florence, Italy, 12-16 July 2015, Florence: International Institute of Acoustics and Vibrations , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Källström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development. Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Håkansson, Lars
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Lin, Jing
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Vibration-based Condition Monitoring of Heavy Duty Machine Driveline Parts: Torque Converter, Gearbox, Axles and Bearings2019In: International Journal of Prognostics and Health Management, ISSN 2153-2648, E-ISSN 2153-2648, Vol. 10, article id 014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As more features are added to the heavy duty construction equipment, its complexity increases and early fault detection of certain components becomes more challenging due to too many fault codes generated when a failure occurs. Hence, the need to complement the present onboard diagnostic methods with more sophisticated diagnostic methods for adequate condition monitoring of the heavy duty construction equipment in order to improve uptime. Major components of the driveline (such as the gearbox, torque converter, bearings and axles) are such components. Failure of these major components of the driveline may results in the machine standing still until a repair is scheduled. In this paper, vibration based condition monitoring methods are presented with the purpose to provide a diagnostic framework possible to implement onboard for monitoring of critical driveline parts in order to reduce service cost and improve uptime. For the development of this diagnostic framework, sensor data from the gearbox, torque converter, bearings and axles are considered. Further, the feature extraction of the data collected has been carried out using adequate signal processing methods, which includes, Adaptive Line Enhancer, Order Power Spectrum respectively. In addition, Bayesian learning was utilized for adaptively learning of the extracted features for deviation detection. Bayesian learning is a powerful prediction method as it combines the prior information with knowlegde measured to make update. The results indicate that the vibration properties of the gearbox, torque converter, bearings and axle are relevant for early fault detection of the driveline. Furthermore, vibration provide information about the internal features of these components for detecting deviations from normal behavior.

    In this way, the developed methods may be implemented onboard for the continuous monitoring of these critical driveline parts of the heavy duty construction equipment so that if their health starts to degrade a service and/or repair may be scheduled well in advance of a potential failure and in that way the downtime of a machine may be reduced and costly replacements and repairs avoided.

  • 11.
    Källström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Håkansson, Lars
    Department of Applied Signal Processing, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Renderstedt, Reza
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Larsson, Jonas
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Identification of Vibration Properties of Heavy Duty Machine Driveline Parts as a Base for Adequate Condition Monitoring: Axle2016In: ICSV 2016 - 23rd International Congress on Sound and Vibration: From Ancient to Modern Acoustics / [ed] Vogiatzis, K; Kouroussis, G; Crocker, M; Pawelczyk, M, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing complexities in the heavy duty construction equipment, early fault detection of certain components in the machine becomes more and more challenging due to too many fault code generated when a failure occurs. The axle is one of such component. The axle transfers driving torque from the transmission to the wheels and axle failure may result in costly downtime of construction equipment. To reduce service cost and to improve uptime, adequate condition monitoring based on sensor data from the axle is considered. Vibration is measured on the axle. Analysis of the data has been carried out using adequate signal processing methods. The results indicate that the vibration properties of the axle are relevant for early fault detection of the axle. In this way; the health of the axle may be continuously monitored on-board using the vibration information and if the axle health starts to degrade a service and/or repair may be scheduled well in advance of a potential axle failure and in that way the downtime of a machine may be reduced.

  • 12.
    Källström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development. Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Håkansson, Lars
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Öberg, Olof
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Identification of Vibration Properties of Wheel Loader Driveline Parts as a Base for Adequate Condition Monitoring: Bearings2017In: / [ed] Gibbs B., International Institute of Acoustics and Vibration , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reduce costly downtime, adequate condition monitoring of the automatic transmission components in heavy duty construction equipment is necessary. The transmission in such equipment enables to change the gear ratio automatically. Further, the bearings in an automatic transmission provide low friction support to its rotating parts and act as an interface separating stationary from rotating components. Wear or other bearing faults may lead to an increase in energy consumption as well as failure of other related components in the automatic transmission, and thus costly downtime. In this study, different sensor data (particularly vibration) was collected on the automatic transmission during controlled test cycles in an automatic transmission test rig to enable adequate condition monitoring.

    An analysis of the measured vibration data was carried out using signal processing methods. The results indicate that predictive maintenance information related to the automatic transmission bearings may be extracted from vibrations measured on an automatic transmission. This information may be used for early fault detection, thus improving uptime and availability of heavy duty construction equipment.

  • 13.
    Källström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Håkansson, Lars
    Håkansson Lars, Department of Applied Signal Processing, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Öberg, Olof
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Renderstedt, Reza
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Larsson, Jonas
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Identification of Vibration Properties of Heavy Duty Machine Driveline Parts as a Base for Adequate Condition Monitoring: Torque Converter2016In: ICSV 2016 - 23rd International Congress on Sound and Vibration: From Ancient to Modern Acoustics / [ed] Vogiatzis, K; Kouroussis, G; Crocker, M; Pawelczyk, M, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving uptime is paramount in the heavy duty construction equipment business. Failure ofcritical components in the heavy duty machine may lead to unnecessary stops and expensive downtime. The torque converter, a complex omponent of the driveline, transmits and multiplies torque from the engine to the gearbox, and its failure may not only lead to the machine standing still but may also lead to damage of other parts of the automatic transmission. For adequate condition monitoring of the torque converter, different sensor data are measured on a construction equipment machine during controlled driving sessions. Vibration has been measured on the torque converter. An initial investigation of the vibration measured on the torque converter has been carried out to identify its vibration properties in order to enable its health monitoring to prevent failure. Initial signal analysis of the data have been carried out using Order Power Spectrum and Order Modulation Spectrum methods. The results indicate that the torque converter vibration properties contain information relevant for early fault detection.

  • 14.
    Källström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development. Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Olsson, Tomas
    RISE SICS Västerås, Sweden.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Håkansson, Lars
    Department of Applied Signal Processing, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Larsson, Jonas
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    On-board Clutch Slippage Detection and Diagnosis in Heavy Duty Machine2018In: International Journal of Prognostics and Health Management, ISSN 2153-2648, E-ISSN 2153-2648, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reduce unnecessary stops and expensive downtime originating from clutch failure of construction equipment machines; adequate real time sensor data measured on the machinein combination with feature extraction and classification methods may be utilized.

    This paper, based on a study at Volvo Construction Equipment,presents a framework with feature extraction methods and an anomaly detection module combined with Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) for on-board clutch slippage detection and diagnosis in a heavy duty equipment. The feature extraction methods used are Moving Average Square Value Filtering (MASVF) and a measure of the fourth order statistical properties of the signals implemented as continuous queries over data streams. The anomaly detection module has two components,the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and the Logistics Regression classifier. CBR is a learning approach that classifies faults by creating a new solution for a new fault case from the solution of the previous fault cases. Through use of a data stream management system and continuous queries (CQs), the anomaly detection module continuously waits for a clutch slippage event detected by the feature extraction methods, the query returns a set of features which activates the anomaly detection module. The first component of the anomaly detection module trains a GMM to extracted features while the second component uses a Logistic Regression classifier for classifying normal and anomalous data. When an anomalyis detected, the Case-Based diagnosis module is activated for fault severity estimation.

  • 15.
    Lejon, Erik
    et al.
    Gestamp HardTech AB.
    Kyösti, Petter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, ProcessIT Innovations R&D Centre.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, ProcessIT Innovations R&D Centre.
    Machine learning for detection of anomalies in press-hardening: Selection of efficient methods2018In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 72, p. 1079-1083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses machine learning methods, utilizing data from industrial control systems, that are suitable for detecting anomalies in the press-hardening process of automotive components. The paper is based on a survey of methods for anomaly detection in various applications. Suitable methods for the press-hardening process are implemented and evaluated. The result shows that it is possible to implement machine learning for anomaly detection by non-machine learning experts utilizing readily available programming libraries/APIs. The three evaluated methods for anomaly detection in the press-hardening process all perform well, with the autoencoder neural network scoring highest in the evaluation.

  • 16.
    Lideskog, Håkan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Bergsten, Urban
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Ersson, Back Tomas
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Functional products in forestry: challenges and opportunities2012In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Through-life Engineering Services, Cranfield University Press , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    A model for value-based selling: enabling corporations to transition from products and services towards further complex business models2014In: Journal of Multi Business Model Innovation and Technology, ISSN 2245-456X, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 67-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper introduces a tested and verified model for value-based selling, based on an action research approach spanning multiple business models during five cases in a sequence at different corporations. The sales model has been verified to support sales of products, services, solutions and Functional Products, enabling corporations to add additional and more complex business models by being able to quantify and visualize the perceived customer value created/captured. Thus, the sales model can further facilitate a transition from sales of products or services towards sales of offers, based on further complex business models, where customer values created increasingly originate from intangibles that are part of the offer. Such a transition may be necessary for corporations acting on global markets to achieve sustainable competiveness and profitability

  • 18.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    A model to explain a business contingency process2012In: Disaster Prevention and Management, ISSN 0965-3562, E-ISSN 1758-6100, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 269-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present a model to explain a business contingency process to senior management and other employees in organizations during educations or trainings on business continuity planning.Design/methodology/approach - The model has been developed, evaluated/tested in three comprehensive cases. Senior management, IT managers and employees in the three case organizations have participated in this action research effort during the development, implementations, educations or training on business continuity plans and planning. Findings - The model has been evaluated/tested, and is suitable for explaining what may characterize a business contingency process to senior managements and employees in both public and private sector organizations.Practical implications - The model can be used for explaining the issues to senior managements and form the fundament to build a business continuity plan upon, which is part of an organization’s IT- and information security program. It may also be used to explain what a business contingency process is to other staff in an organization. The model can also be used to model parts of business continuity planning, as a basis for training planning, and as support in different training contexts to achieve individual and organizational learning on business continuity plans and activities.Originality/value - The model is graphically visualized and the concept can be adapted to any organization.

  • 19.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Areas and problems to consider within information security and digital preservation during procurement and use of cloud services2011Other (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Aspects to consider within information security during procurement and use of cloud services, v1.002013Other (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Aspects to consider within information security during procurement and use of cloud services, v2.002014Other (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, ProcessIT Innovations R&D Centre. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Digitalisering för företag inom tillverknings- och processindustrin: Visionärt kunskapsunderlag till den regionala digitala agendan2016Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    En praktisk och lite enklare checklista för införskaffande, användning och lämnande av molntjänster. ver 1.02015Other (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Extending the Functional Products definition with additional through-lifecycle aspects2016In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 288-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper provides a comprehensive overview on which through-life cycle aspects of Functional Products (FP) are relevant to consider during development and later operation until end of life. The aspects, which are already proposed as part of the current definition of FP, are corroborated, and the additional new aspects found are proposed to extend the current definition of FP. An additional eight new aspects have been found, spanning, e.g., asset management, business model and research collaboration. Some of these new aspects may be relevant for the concepts of servitisation, through-life engineering services, product-service systems and industrial product-service systems as well. The practical implications of the results are that FP customers can improve their reasoning and requirement engineering together with FP providers. FP providers can, on the other hand, use the results to improve their long-term planning and activities from initial development activities (i.e. business case and requirement engineering) to operation at customer sites. The theoretical implications are that the additional new aspects and the proposed extended FP definition provide a foundation for researchers as well as indicating aspects/areas to further explore.

  • 25.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Improving Functional Product availability: software-related measures planned and taken2017In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 59, p. 202-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper, based on an empirical study involving five companies, concerns software-related measures that are planned and taken by providers together with their customers to improve the availability of Functional Products (FP) or similar offers. The manufacturing industry is showing an increasing interest in adding offerings based on additionally complex business models, as opposed to merely offering products and services. This supports innovation and helps companies to stay competitive and profitable. Considerable focus is placed on performance- or result-based business models. Functional Products (FP) is one such business model, where the provider offers a function to customers at an agreed-upon level of availability, productivity or efficiency. FP comprise four main constituents: hardware, software, service-support system and management of operation, which together deliver value to customers on a long-term basis. The paper highlights nine software-related availability measures planned and taken by manufacturing companies and proposes additional potential software-related availability measures.

  • 26.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Introducing Functional Products in production systems: problems and issues encountered2016In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 41, p. 45-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on an empirical study including 3 companies, the paper addresses, problems and issues that have been encountered when introducing, and later using, Functional Products in production systems. The purpose of a Functional Product is to provide a function to customers with a specified or agreed-upon level of availability or productivity. Both operational and management-level problems and issues have been investigated. The study focuses on the customer side, involving both manufacturing and process industry companies. A set of problems and issues has been identified. The problems and issues found during the literature review have been largely corroborated, and the new problems and issues found are highlighted.

  • 27.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Models, methodology and challenges within strategic information security for senior managements2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work in this thesis is based on an interest for strategic information security, and in particular business continuity planning, in combination with own experiences from strategic management of corporations. Information security policy- and education, practice and awareness issues have also been part of my focus. Strategic information security is the part of information security that senior managements (top managements) should own and care for, like for any other strategic area in an organization. One problem is that this is often not the case as the senior management attention and awareness is focused on other areas instead. The work has mainly addressed explanatory models and methodology to explain what strategic information security including business continuity planning is to senior management teams and a training concept. It has also high-lighted challenges from current and future technology, and terminology problems affecting business continuity planning in a direct or indirect way. The purpose of the thesis was broken down into six objectives matching identified knowledge gaps. These resulted in the research question "How to improve the senior management own and care process for strategic information security, and in particular business continuity planning?" The results from the empirical studies are two models and one methodology to be used when targeting strategic information security issues like modeling and implementations of business continuity planning, security policies and security education, practice and awareness during the own and care process. A further result is a training concept for organizational crisis management. In addition, the results also indicate challenges that need to be addressed during work with security policies and business continuity planning. The thesis further contributes with a framework for business continuity planning guiding how the models and methodology, together with the training concept and challenges should be used together in the own and care process, to resolve problems and achieve organizational change. The contribution is of a general nature and is suitable to use in both private and public sector organizations.

  • 28.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Områden och problem att beakta inom informationssäkerhet och digitalt bevarande vid anskaffning och användning av molntjänster2011Other (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Security and legal challenges for wearable computing: a case study2008In: Smart Event '08, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses IT- and information security and legal challenges for wearable computing encountered during the wearIT@work project. The following novel ideas are introduced in this paper: authorization by proximity using dynamic context information to enable transfer of authorization from one party to another, using dynamic context information to enable transfer of authorization from one party to another,a wearable pairing mechanism to use devices on other wearables, and a more intelligent management of  dynamic IT-security policies to reduce computational overhead on wearable devices having limited to reduce computational overhead on wearable devices having limited capabilities. The last idea includes the importance of having a dynamic security baseline adapted to wearables to maintain the integrity and confidentiality of the body network as well as the privacy of the wearers´ personal and biometric information.

  • 30. Lindström, John
    Security challenges for wearable computing: a case study2007In: Proceedings / IFAWC: 4th International Forum on applied Wearable Computing 2007; March 12-13, 2007, in Tel Aviv / [ed] Otthein Herzog, Berlin: VDE-Verlag , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses IT- and information security challenges for wearable computing encountered during the WearIT@work project. The following novel ideas are introduced in this paper: authorization by proximity using dynamic context information to enable transfer of authorization from one party to another, using dynamic context information to enable transfer of authorization from one party to another, a wearable pairing mechanism to use devices on other wearables, and a more intelligent management of dynamic IT-security policies to reduce computational overhead on wearable devices having limited to reduce computational overhead on wearable devices having limited capabilities. The last idea includes the importance of having a dynamic security baseline adapted to wearables to maintain the integrity and confidentiality of the body network as well as the privacy of the wearers´ personal and biometric information.

  • 31.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Säkerhet2012In: Cloud Swedens Guide till Molnet, Stockholm: Cloud Sweden , 2012, p. 77-96Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Through-lifecycle aspects for Functional Products to consider during development and operation: A literature review2015In: Through-life Engineering Services: Motivation, Theory, and Practice, Cham: Springer-Verlag London Limited , 2015, p. 187-207Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper, which is based on a literature review, concerns which potential through-lifecycle aspects are relevant to consider for Functional Products during development and later operation until end-of-life. The aspects which are already proposed as part of the current definition of Functional Products are corroborated. Additionally, the additional new potential aspects found should be further verified prior to being proposed to extend the Functional Products definition—and in particular the service-support system and management of operation constituents. An additional seven potential new aspects have been found, whereof some may be relevant for the concepts of Through-life Engineering Services, Product-Service Systems and Industrial Product-Service Systems as well

  • 33.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    When moving from products and services towards Functional Products: Which sustainability-oriented customer values are of interest?2016In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 48, p. 16-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper concerns which sustainability-oriented Functional Products (FP) customer values companies, who also provide products and services, consider as important to communicate to customers when offering or planning to offer FP. Currently, the manufacturing industry is showing increasing interest in adding offerings based on additionally complex business models as opposed to merely offering products and services. This is considered necessary if companies are to continue to be able to innovate and stay competitive and profitable in global competition. A considerable focus is directed towards performance- or result-based business models. FP is one such business model, where the provider offers a function to customers at an agreed-upon level of availability, productivity or efficiency. FP comprise the following four main constituents: hardware, software, service support system and management of operation, which together deliver value to customers on a long-term basis. The paper proposes a set of FP sustainability-oriented customer values which are categorized according to the sustainability aspects: economic, ecological and societal, and the set is further analyzed from a regulatory and legal perspective

  • 34.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Berglund, Ulf
    Cicovic, Nada Kapidzic
    En praktisk och enkel checklista för Internet-of-Things, v1.02015Other (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Dagman, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Functional Products lifecycle: Governed by sustainable win-win situations2014In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 22, p. 163-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper proposes a Functional Products (FP) lifecycle viewed from economic, ecologic and societal perspectives. The overall FP lifecycle is further discussed from the viewpoint of its technical and economic lifecycles. The paper suggests that the overall FP lifecycle is governed by a sustainable win-win situation between the provider and customer sides, and thus that there needs to be a balance regarding the perceived value for both parties

  • 36.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Dagman, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    The Functional Products technical lifecycle and its four sub-lifecycles2015In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 38, p. 222-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper provides a further verification of the Functional Products (FP) technical lifecycle and additional details regarding its four sub-lifecycles concerning: hardware, software, service-support system and management of operation. Outlined, in a novel way, is how the four sub-lifecycles may be embodied in order to manage and keep the FP technical lifecycle running at an agreed-upon level of availability. The FP technical lifecycle is further analyzed from the viewpoint of its supporting role to the FP economic lifecycle, as well as compliance, regulatory and commercial aspects.

  • 37.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Gustafsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Impact on production systems from recent and emerging complex business models: Explicit and tacit knowledge required2015In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 38, p. 210-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses, based on an empirical study, what impact the use of recent complex business models, in particular, Functional Products, may have on production systems in terms of the explicit and tacit knowledge that is required. Requirements for new knowledge currently lacking or in the process of being acquired have been of specific interest for the study. The study focuses on the customer side, involving both manufacturing and process industry companies. A set of explicit and tacit knowledge aspects has been identified. The current set of knowledge aspects found during the literature review has largely been corroborated and the new specific knowledge identified is highlighted.

  • 38.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, ProcessIT Innovations R&D Centre. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Eliasson, Jens
    ThingWave AB.
    Hermansson, Anders
    BnearIT AB.
    Blomstedt, Fredrik
    BnearIT AB.
    Kyösti, Petter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, ProcessIT Innovations R&D Centre. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Cybersecurity level in IPS2: A case study of two industrial internet-based SME offerings2018In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 73, p. 222-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n a case study comprising two SMEs offering Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS2) based on the industrial internet the paper addresses the current cybersecurity level of the two SMEs and the perceived need for added cybersecurity features. Cybersecurity is of crucial importance for most IPS2-offerings if they involve data communications, data collection and storage, and are also part of the customers’ critical processes (i.e., the core processes that always need to work with a high level of availability). The case study reveals that both IPS2-offerings have a basic level of core security spanning IoT-devices, IoT-networks, cloud services and users as well as administrators. Further, of interest is that the SMEs would like to add security cloud services with advanced security functionality in order to achieve scalability and efficiency regarding security- and general management as well as lifecycle management functionality. However, most of the security cloud services are mainly aimed at larger companies and not adapted for SMEs in terms of required knowledge, time and effort required to keep the security configurations up-to-date.

  • 39.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Petter, Kyösti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, ProcessIT Innovations R&D Centre.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Toward Predictive Maintenance of Walls in Hard Rock Underground Facilities: IoT-Enabled Rock Bolts2019In: Enterprise Interoperability VIII.  vol 9. Springer, Cham / [ed] Popplewell K., Thoben KD., Knothe T., Poler R., Cham: Springer, 2019, Vol. 8, p. 319-329Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the first one-and-a-half cycles, out of four planned, in an action research effort concerned with predictive maintenance of walls and ceilings in tunnels of hard rock underground facilities by using Internet-of-Things-enabled Rock Bolts (IoTeRB). The IoTeRB concept is developed together with a consortium of companies ranging from rock bolt manufacturers, sensor specialists, researchers, and cloud-service providers to data analysts. Thus, the action research effort is a multi-disciplinary endeavor. The result of the paper is an action plan for the second cycle concerning technology and business development which, according to the design criterion, will move the IoTeRB toward commercialization.

  • 40.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Hanken, Claas
    Nemetschek Bausoftware GmbH.
    Security challenges and selected legal aspects for wearable computing2012In: Journal of Information Technology Research, ISSN 1938-7857, E-ISSN 1938-7865, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 68-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses information security challenges encountered during the wearIT@work project and selected legal aspects of wearable computing. Wearable computing will offer interesting opportunities to improve and reengineer work processes in organizations, but can at the same introduce alignment problems as users in organizations may adopt the new technology before organizations are prepared. In addition, needed supportive legal frameworks have not yet fully addressed the new wearable computing technology. Different alignment concepts for how such challenges can be managed are discussed in the paper.

  • 41.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Hanken, Claas
    Nemetschek Bausoftware GmbH.
    Wearable Computing: Security Challenges, BYOD, Privacy and Legal Aspects2014In: Analyzing Security, Trust, and Crime in the Digital World, IGI Global, 2014, p. 96-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Hanken, Claas
    Nemetschek Bausoftware GmbH.
    Wearable Computing: Security Challenges, BYOD, Privacy and Legal Aspects2018In: Wearable technologies: concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications, Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2018, p. 1043-1067Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wearable computing is gaining more and more interest as new "wearables," intended for both work and leisure, are introduced. This trend brings benefits and challenges; for instance, the potential to improve work processes and issues related to IT management and privacy. The introduction and use of wearable computing provides opportunities to improve and reengineer work processes in organizations but can at the same time introduce alignment problems, as users in organizations may adopt the new technology before organizations are prepared. Further, alignment problems posed by the emerging trend, "Bring Your Own Device" (BYOD), are discussed. In addition, as in the cloud computing area, needed and necessary supportive legal frameworks have not yet fully addressed the new wearable computing technology. In the light of recent developments regarding global intelligence gathering, security and privacy concerns must be given careful consideration. Different alignment concepts for managing security challenges and legal aspects related to wearable computing, such as cultivation, care, hospitality, and care with hospitality, are discussed in the chapter. © 2018 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

  • 43.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Harnesk, Dan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Laaksonen, Elina
    Niemimaa, Marko
    A methodology for inter-organizational emergency management continuity planning2012In: Managing Crises and Disasters with Emerging Technologies: Advancements, IGI Global, 2012, p. 197-215Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper extends emergency management literature by developing a methodology for emergency management continuity planning (EmCP). In particular, the methodology focuses on inter-organizational continuous and coordinated planning among emergency management organizations. The authors draw on Soft Systems Methodology (Checkland & Scholes, 1999; Checkland, 2000), using it as a base for better understanding of EmCP. Barriers that must be overcome before the methodology can be introduced and established, as well as potential benefits, are also discussed.

  • 44.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Harnesk, Dan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Laaksonen, Elina
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Niemimaa, Marko
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    A methodology for inter-organizational emergency management continuity planning2010In: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISSN 1937-9390, E-ISSN 1937-9420, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper extends emergency management literature by developing a methodology for emergency management continuity planning (EmCP). In particular, the methodology focuses on inter-organizational continuous and coordinated planning among emergency management organizations. The authors draw on Soft Systems Methodology (Checkland & Scholes, 1999; Checkland, 2000), using it as a base for better understanding of EmCP. Barriers that must be overcome before the methodology can be introduced and established, as well as potential benefits, are also discussed.

  • 45.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Hermanson, Anders
    Adage AB.
    Hellis, Mats
    Adage AB.
    Kyösti, Petter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Optimizing recycling management using industrial internet supporting circular economy: a case study of an emerging IPS22017In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 64, p. 55-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper concerns a case study about optimizing recycling management in terms of emptying containers holding, for instance, glass, paper, plastics or metal waste collected, thus supporting sustainability of natural resources and the circular economy. The case has been followed from the very start all the way to the current transformation into an IPS2 sold on a subscription basis. The main results of the case study suggest that the provider side must change considerably in terms of the business and organizational set-up, which has been challenging compared to the necessary, though more easily implemented, technological changes. Further, the IPS2 customers foresee improved efficiency and a decrease in unnecessary work if containers are emptied on time. In addition, the core of the IPS2 seems generalizable and transferable to other applications where collection and analysis of data are needed to support decision-making.

  • 46.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Hermansson, Anders
    Adage AB, C/O BnearIT.
    Blomstedt, Fredrik
    BnearIT AB.
    Kyösti, Petter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    A multi-usable cloud service platform: a case study on improved development pace and efficiency2018In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The case study, spanning three contexts, concerns a multi-usable cloud service platform for big data collection and analytics and how the development pace and efficiency of it has been improved 50-75% by using the Arrowhead framework and changing development processes/practices. Further, additional results captured during the case study are related to technology, competencies and skills, organization, management, infrastructure, and service and support. A conclusion is that when offering a complex offer such as an Industrial Product-Service System, comprising sensors, hardware, communications, software, cloud service platform, etc., it is necessary that the technology, business model, business set up and organization all go hand in hand during the development and later operation, as all “components” are required for a successful result.

  • 47. Lindström, John
    et al.
    Hägerfors, Ann
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    A model for explaining strategic IT- and information security to senior management2009In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 17-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Awareness and understanding of strategic IT- and information security appears to be a low priority amongst senior managers although this falls within their responsibilities. In this paper a tested and confirmed model used to explain strategic IT- and information security is described. The model has been iteratively developed and applied in development, implementation or training in five different organizations. In these five cases, senior management awareness and understanding of strategic IT- and information security was verified as being very low. The model was originally developed to explain IT- and information security to corporate senior management. It has been adapted for use in the public sector by changing some of the terminology to match that used within the public sector. The model may also be used for training purposes, with regards to senior management or personnel in strategic IT- and information security. The importance of senior management ownership and care for strategic elements of the organization's security programme is also discussed and the conclusion drawn is that the operative levels should be coordinated by one or a few members of the senior management team.

  • 48.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Jonsson, Martin
    Gestamp Hardtech AB.
    Larsson, Hans
    Gestamp Hardtech AB.
    Lejon, Erik
    Gestamp Hardtech AB.
    Towards intelligent and sustainable production: combining and integrating online predictive maintenance and continuous quality control2017In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 63, p. 443-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses intelligent and sustainable production in the sense of combining and integrating online predictive maintenance andcontinuous quality control. The rationale for combining and integrating them is that continuous quality control can provide input to the onlinepredictive maintenance in cases where no signs of maintenance issues have been indicated and inadequate output is produced (and the processparameters cannot be adjusted in order to meet the output specifications). The paper outlines the first part of an action research effort atGestamp HardTech AB in Sweden, whose objective is to keep its position as a world-leading provider of press-hardened vehicle parts. The firstinitial design criteria concerned with simplicity and low-cost was changed after learning more details and what can be accomplished, and theupdated first design criteria focused instead on robustness, high-quality output and future-proofing. The intermediary result is an action plan forthe technical change, whereas the organizational change will be addressed later during the action research effort.

  • 49.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Outlining an overall Functional Product lifecycle: combining and coordinating its economic and technical perspectives2017In: CIRP - Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, E-ISSN 1878-0016, Vol. 17, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, industry is showing increasing interest in performance-based business models. Functional Products is one such business model, where the provider offers a function to customers at an agreed-upon level of availability, productivity or efficiency, etc. A Functional Product comprises the following four main constituents: hardware, software, service support system and management of operation, which together deliver value to customers on a long-term basis. This paper, based on empirical data, provides an outline and starts the verification of a proposed overall Functional Product lifecycle combining and coordinating its economic- and technical perspectives. The perspectives are combined and the key aspects of the necessary coordination between and within the perspectives, i.e., sustainable win-win situations and coordination of sub-lifecycles for the economic perspective, and the need for coordination between the Functional Products’ technical perspective's four sub-lifecycles (hardware, software, service-support system and management of operation), are elaborated and discussed. Further, addition of new functionality, contract management, and long-term management of operation are discussed in the light of managing fleets/individual customers, assets and availability. The proposed overall Functional Product lifecycle is further analyzed from a number of views and aspects.

  • 50.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Kurkkio, Monika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Nilsson, Kent
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Functional Products business model elements: five industrial cases mapped to Hill categories2016In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 47, p. 513-518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the Functional Products business model and how its elements are mapped to Hill categories in five industrial cases. The Hill categories include: order-winners, order-losers and qualifiers. The objective for Functional Products is to provide a function to customers with an agreed-upon level of availability, productivity or efficiency, etc. The paper outlines how different cases and their offers, based upon the Functional Products business model, can be element-wise mapped to Hill categories. Insight into the importance of the different business model elements provides valuable knowledge for an appropriate planning, design, sales and provision of Functional Products, as well as for determining how much effort, resources and money to spend on keeping the status of the element sharp, up-to-date, acceptable or just present.

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