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  • 1.
    Jensen, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Smiding, Erik
    Tyréns AB.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Product configuration of roundabouts2013In: Proceedings of the 30th CIB W78 International Conference, 2013, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to develop methods in the design of roundabouts that can be used in early conceptual phases of infrastructural projects to avoid erroneous solutions propagating downstream the value chain. Adapting theory and principals from mass customization and design configuration, a configurator for roundabouts to be used in early phases was developed and validated in a live project. The configurator is built in SolidWorks and parametrically coupled to the use of Tacton Studio. The configurator generates a drawing and a protocol that informs the user of the chosen configuration and where it doesn’t conform to the Swedish standards.In conclusion, it is possible to use theories from mass customization to develop configurators that can simplify the design process and thus evaluating the design according to norms and standards in early phases of the project. In the search for increased efficiency within infrastructural projects, parametric modeling configurators can be used to speed up the design process and expand the range of alternatives that can be generated. In that sense, this article contributes to the understanding of how mass customization principles in general can be used in construction and how it can be implemented in the design of specific projects.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    4D in city transformations: systems, processes and actors2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The city of Kiruna is facing the challenge of relocating a large proportion of the existing city centre as a consequence of the subsidence caused by underground mining activities. This relocation includes urban residential areas, industrial areas, offices and spaces such as parks and infrastructure. There are a number of challenges in such a city transformation process which require the active participation of the public in the urban planning processes. A big challenge is the stakeholder management since there are stakeholders who share responsibility for the decision-making for the urban plans of the city transformation. The sharing of decision-making has led to a situation where plans are only accepted through discussions and consensus. Much of the planning content is related to time and space which means that 4D models, being 3D planning models linked with schedules, are suitable for enhancing the understanding of the time dimension of planning content, as well as their status. Therefore it is hypothesised that: “4D visualization enhances the opportunity to create transparent, accessible and understandable plans for stakeholders to support communication with urban planners.” The idea of such a support system is that the stakeholders can monitor how the planning content and the planning stages including the realization evolves over time. To investigate how such a planning support system can be realized, the following research questions were defined: RQ1. What are the most important aspects to be communicated in a city transformation process?RQ2.How can this information be visualized and communicated to stakeholders to support a transparent decision-making process?RQ3. What are the requirements of a support system to manage such a process?The city transformation in Kiruna was used as a case study involving the first three steps of a 5 step system research approach.The most important aspects of the city transformation were understanding the forces of transformation, the complexity of the problem to solve (its wickedness), stakeholder values, planning stages and alternatives and the planning regulations controlling the decision-making process. Two main challenges was identified: first, the stakeholders’ power and interests change over time. Second, current methods of communicating the planning proposals do not encourage the public to participate in the city transformation process. The urban information can be visualized to support the accessibility of plans by the public, enhancing the opportunity to share ideas and remarks and support collaborative design and decision-making. Adding a time dimension can help the understanding of (1) the transition from an original state to a new planned state and (2) the spatial consequences of an urban transformation process over time and the dynamics of urban planning under re-development.The case study showed that the traditional communication of urban plans through open exhibition and documents did not provide an efficient method of dissemination and receiving information, especially between the public and urban planners. Therefore, as an answer to the third research question, a planning support system was proposed that could support iterations, visualize plans and status, visualize the planning content adapted to different stakeholders and support two-way asynchronous communication all in a simple, easy-to-use interface to encourage the public to participate in the urban planning process. A first prototype of the communication platform was created based on Google Earth and Facebook, including time-space visualization of urban planning information and the support of two-way asynchronous communication for collecting geo-referenced public opinions. A generic model of urban planning processes was also developed to describe the relationship between stakeholder, design and process more deeply. It was concluded that a PSS must support process, design and stakeholders in order to be efficient. The model was tested against the regulatory framework of the Swedish Plan and Building Act. The development of a generic PSS collaboration hub was proposed that supports the different levels of urban planning processes in a city.

  • 3.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    BIM i infrastrukturprojekt: Kartläggning av VDC-användning i Sverige2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Virtuellt byggande har de senaste åren börjat införas och tillämpas i allt högre grad inom framför allt projektering och byggande av bostäder och lokaler. Ett allt större antal offentliga och privata aktörer genomför nu projekt där modeller används för att effektivisera byggprocessen Även inom anläggningsbyggandet har intresset ökat och ett större antal projekt har använt sig av byggnadsinformationsmodeller (BIM) i olika tillämpningsområden. Frågor som ofta uppstår är bland annat vad som har varit nyttoeffekter och framgångsfaktorer av tillämpningen. För att utveckla användningen av BIM så krävs att dessa frågeställningar besvaras och belyses av olika aktörer så att positiva och negativa erfarenheter sprids. I en intervjustudie av sex stycken projekt identifierades framgångsrika tillämpningar av BIM i anläggningssektorn. Studien genomfördes av Luleå Tekniska Universitet i samarbete med OpenBIM. Det flesta respondenterna i intervjuerna var överens om att användningen av BIM i infrastrukturprojekt befinner sig i ett ganska tidigt skede. I nuläget finns öar av applikationsområden där det krävs stora anpassningar av mjukvaran för att kunna integrera användningen genom projektet och därigenom tillvarata den potentiella helhetsnyttan. Mycket arbete återstår för att uppnå ett sammanhängande informationsflöde mellan planering, produktion och förvaltning. Processen behöver förbättras med strategier, upphandlingsformer, branschöverenskommelser och standardiseringar för att uppnå en transparens och förståelse för ett integrerat modellbaserat arbetssätt. OpenBIM kan här utgöra ett gemensamt forum där aktörer kan samlas, föra dialog med varandra och sprida erfarenheter av BIM i infrastrukturprojekt. Hänsyn behöver tas till organisationen, processen såväl som produkten om BIM ska bli en viktig del i anläggningsprojekt

  • 4.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Grassroots participatory design challenges professional plans2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual reality (VR) applications are commonly used by many professional planning organisations to gain public support of urban planning projects. Within this field, VR is mainly used to provide better accessibility and a common understanding of different proposals in order to support collaboration and decision-making between architects, planners, politicians and the general public. Currently, VR is mainly limited to communicating official proposals to internal and external stakeholders. However, the technology is available on the internet for anyone to quickly create and distribute a proposal using VR. Slussen Plan B is an example of a grassroots group, consisting of a large number of dissatisfied architects, national economists, traffic planners and structural engineers who have decided to develop a competing proposal in their free time. Initially, the proposal was developed using 2D drawings and sketches but, later, interest increased in using 3D design tools and a VR application to communicate the competing proposal to a wider audience. Since experience of VR within the group was limited, the first author was contacted to investigate the creation and use of a VR model for visualisation and communication purposes. To create a VR model was a challenging task, since it had to be developed quickly, at almost no cost and using accessible and user-friendly tools. The creation of the VR model for the Slussen plan B proposal was set up as a single case study using a system development process based on observations of internal and external meetings, in-depth interviews with members of the group and use of archival data. Our findings so far show that it is possible for a grassroots movement to efficiently create and communicate their competing proposal to the general public using VR technology. Communication of the VR proposals to the general public is facilitated through social media such as Facebook and YouTube. These new methods will put additional pressure on the urban planning institutions since groups of skilled people can create and communicate their own proposal using tools and platforms similar to those in the professional planning institutions. As a result, this could lead to improved democracy in planning with more alternatives to consider; however, the complexity of decision-making in urban planning processes may increase.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    PERFORMANCE VISUALIZATION OF URBAN SYSTEMS2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The planning, construction, management and use of our built environment are affected by diverse social, economic and environmental factors. Sustainable urban development is dependent on the understanding of the complex relations between the built environment, the social activities that take place over time and the interaction with the natural environment. The challenge to understand urban systems on both the local and global scale has inspired researchers and national agencies to develop sustainability indicators to support the planning, construction, management and use of the built environment. Access to open data of our built environment in national, regional and local databases opens new possibilities to generate models of our urban systems to facilitate visualization and analysis of indicators in order to enhance awareness of sustainability dimensions. Here spatial Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) technologies can be used in combination with Geographic Information system GIS to manage data sets from multiple sources in different formats. The purpose of this research is to investigate how spatial ETL technologies can be used to develop models in order to analyse and visualize the performance of urban systems. The applied method is grounded in system development and based on an abductive research approach that was repeated in six studies. Three of the studies deal with the relocation of Kiruna where models of the city was created and used to investigate the impact of mining subsidence on energy supply, infrastructure and buildings. The fourth case investigates the selection of insulation material on the embedded energy in a passive house in Kiruna. In the fifth case an urban model of the twin towns Malmberget/Gällivare was created to explore and relate data on attitudes from a survey to public data on population, infrastructure and built environment. The final case is the development of an energy atlas containing 90% of the multifamily building stock in Sweden. The atlas combines the energy performance and renovation status of multifamily buildings with public data of ownership, income of residents etc. for individual buildings in 3D models or aggregated on spatial scales ranging from 250x250 m squares through district and municipality to county areas in Sweden. The result shows that multiple sources in different formats, both standardized and non-standardized, can be utilized in the extraction of information for the purpose of developing urban performance models. The Swedish high-resolution LiDAR digital height model together property information makes it possible to represent the built environment by extruded footprints to give a 3D representation of all urban areas in Sweden (Level-Of-Detail 1). In combination with performance data (e.g. energy use, renovation status or result from surveys) urban performance GIS models can be created and visualized in applications (such as Google Earth, 3D pdf) to support decision-making on both individual and institutional level. The automation of the process to develop performance models offers a method for customizing information deliveries on the fly using original data sources according to defined requirements. The flexibility and customization are kept in the process rather than in the delivered model. This makes it easier to keep the performance model up to date. For the management of large performance models, e.g. the example of the national energy atlas, a staging phase was added in the automation process, in order to reduce the processing time.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Hartmann, Timo
    Department of Construction Management and Engineering, University of Twente.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Development of 4D public participation GIS to improve communication of city transformation processes2012In: Construction Research Congress 2012: Construction challenges in a flat world : proceedings of the 2012 Construction Research Congress, May 21-23, 2012, West Lafayette, Indiana / [ed] Hubo Cai, Reaston, Va.: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2012, p. 1242-1251Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a case study of the city transformation of Kiruna we concluded that the information about the urban planning processes; (1) was scattered and hard to understand and (2) not communicated properly for the public to be able to participate. Here public participation geographical systems (PPGIS) and modeling of a project delivery timeline, also known as 4D, are possibilities to improve communication with stakeholders in urban planning and construction processes. As a result, we set up three requirements for the development of a 4D PPGIS communication platform. Firstly, time-space urban planning information must be available and understandable for the citizens to comprehend. Secondly, the communication platform must support two-way asynchronous communication for collecting public opinions and proposals. Finally, the user interface, operations and management of the platform must engage citizens to participate in the urban planning process. An experimental 4D PPGIS based on Google Earth and Facebook services was developed to visualize geo-referenced past, current and future urban activities and support public discussions regarding planning proposals. The prototype is currently being evaluated in the first iterative cycle of the information system development method

  • 7.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    A communication platform to support decision making in Kiruna city relocation process2011In: Proceedings of the 2011 eg-ice Workshop / [ed] Timo Hartmann; Pieter de Wilde; Yaqub Rafiq, Twente: University of Twente , 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The city of Kiruna in Sweden needs to be relocated due to mining related subsidence which is affecting major parts of the urban environment. Using 4D modelling environment for visualisation of urban planning can support the communication and decision making between the different stakeholders. This paper identifies principles from the definition of wicked problem and rational decision making theory in order to create a communication platform to support the city relocation process. A combined approach consisting of Google Earth for visualisation of 4D plans combined with social networks for enhanced communication and participatory urban planning is suggested to be the main ingredients of the communication platform.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Laurell-Stenlund, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Time-geographic visualisation of stakeholder values: a case study of city relocation2011In: Proceedings of the 6th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organisation: Shaping the Construction/Society Nexus / [ed] Kim Haugbølle; Stefan Christoffer Gottlieb; Kalle E. Kähkönen; Ole Jonny Klakegg; Göran A. Lindahl; Kristian Widén, Hørsholm: Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University , 2011, Vol. 1 : Clients and Users, p. 43-54Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Laurell-Stenlund, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Time-geographic visualisation of stakeholder values: A case study of city relocation2011In: Projektitoiminta, ISSN 1455-4178, E-ISSN 2242-9549, Vol. 34, no 2012, p. 72-77Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful construction projects include stakeholder management. However, it still is difficult to communicate stakeholders’ interest in the early planning processes of complex building projects due to different stakeholder groups and their conflicting values. The question of how city relocation processes are influenced by stakeholder values is investigated in a case study. Secondary data from municipality public information and two in-dept interviews made it possible to analyse stakeholder’s action and their values in a city relocation process over time. A time-interest-power model is developed from the analysis. A city relocation project will be influenced by stakeholder’s power and interest. However, power and interests are influenced by the perceived values for the different stakeholders. Therefore, communication is important in order to identify values and needs of the many stakeholders in the city relocation processes. One problem for the decision makers is the development of good communication channels especially with the citizens.

  • 10.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    A Stakeholder Planning Support System for District Heating Systems2014In: Computing in civil and building engineering: proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering : June 23-25, 2014, Orlando, Florida / [ed] Raymond Issa; Ian Flood, Reston, Va.: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2014, p. 713-720Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy conservation measures are needed to prevent the world from moving in an unsustainable direction. Actions targeting the building sector are especially vital since it stands for a large share of the total energy use. The objective of this research is, therefore, to provide a framework for using visualization of aggregated energy use over time in a district heating network to stakeholders. This is fulfilled by integrating building information and energy data from a district heating supplier. The integration of building information and energy data makes it possible to identify high energy consumers through a performance visualization interface. Furthermore, the interface is connected to a collaboration hub which offers a communication opportunity between consumers, suppliers, energy advisors and urban planners. Additionally, a stakeholder management approach is proposed to support the energy advisor in managing and selecting the consumers to target with advice and actions. The visualization, collaboration and the stakeholder component of the proposed system creates a Planning Support System (PSS) by which the citizens, energy advisors and urban planners can monitor the use of energy and also suggest actions to decrease the energy use of buildings. The next step of this research will be to evaluate and test the PSS together with energy advisors of 20 municipalities in Sweden.

  • 11.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mangold, Mikael
    Research Institutes of Sweden, City Development.
    Development of an energy atlas for renovation of the multifamily building stock in Sweden2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 203, p. 723-736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have highlighted the importance of retrofitting to mitigate the energy use of building stocks. An important step in the development of renovation strategy and energy conservation advising is to gather information of the energy performance of the existing buildings. However, renovation strategies must also consider the socio-economic challenges associated with the cost of energy retrofitting. This paper describes the development of an energy atlas of the multifamily building stock in Sweden for visualizing and analyzing energy use and renovation needs. The atlas has been developed using Extract Transform and Load technology (ETL) to aggregate information on the energy performance, building ownership, renovation status, and socio-economic status of inhabitants from various data sources. The atlas can visualize the energy use and renovation status of multifamily buildings in 2D maps and 3D models, displaying data for either individual buildings or aggregated data on spatial scales ranging from 250 × 250 m squares through district and municipality to county areas. A demonstration of its use on national and city scales indicates that energy retrofits of multifamily buildings reaching a service life of 50 years can reduce the energy use of the existing building stock by up to 50% relative to 1990. However, costs associated with renovation and energy retrofits of multifamily buildings can be problematic, especially in economically weak suburbs. A good understanding of past and future renovation needs and socio-economic consequences is important in the development of a sustainable national renovation strategy.

  • 12.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Segerstedt, Eugenia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Jakobsson, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Revealing Social Values by 3D City Visualization in City Transformations2016In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social sustainability is a widely used concept in urban planning research and practice. However, knowledge of spatial distributions of social values and aspects of social sustainability is required. Visualization of these distributions is also highly valuable, but challenging, and rarely attempted in sparsely populated urban environments in rural areas. This article presents a method that highlights social values in spatial models through 3D visualization, describes the methodology to generate the models, and discusses potential applications. The models were created using survey, building, infrastructure and demographic data for Gällivare, Sweden, a small city facing major transformation due to mining subsidence. It provides an example of how 3D models of important social sustainability indices can be designed to display citizens’ attitudes regarding their financial status, the built environment, social inclusion and welfare services. The models helped identify spatial variations in perceptions of the built environment that correlate (inter alia) with closeness to certain locations, gender and distances to public buildings. Potential uses of the model for supporting efforts by practitioners, researchers and citizens to visualize and understand social values in similar urban environments are discussed, together with ethical issues (particularly regarding degrees of anonymity) concerning its wider use for inclusive planning.

  • 13.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Vesterlund, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Energy performance certificates and 3-dimensional city models as a means to reach national targets: A case study of the city of Kiruna2016In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 116, p. 42-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhanced dissemination of information regarding energy saving and climate change targeted toward property owners is considered to be an important strategy in order to reach the Swedish national target of energy efficiency in the building sector by 2050. Here the municipality energy advisors and the national register for energy performance certificates can facilitate the mitigation of energy use in the building stock. So far few studies have focused on the practical road map to the national target of energy use on the city/district level and to the communication aspects with stakeholders in the creation of energy city models.In this paper a city energy model is developed based on the requests and need for visualization from a group of energy advisors. Six different scenarios are studied in order to analyze the possibility of reaching the energy targets specified by the government in the town of Kiruna. The results show that: (1) it is possible to automatically create city energy models using extract, transform and load tools based on spatial and non-spatial data from national registers and databases; (2) city energy models improve the understanding of energy use in buildings and can therefore be a valuable tool for energy advisors, real estate companies and urban planners. The case study of Kiruna showed that the proposed energy saving measures in the energy performance certificates need to be implemented and new buildings in the urban transformation must be of high energy standard in order to reach the national target in Kiruna.

  • 14.
    Krantz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Assessing the Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Maritime Infrastructure Projects2018In: Sustainability in Energy and Buildings 2018: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference in Sustainability on Energy and Buildings (SEB’18) / [ed] Prasad Kaparaju; Robert J. Howlett; John Littlewood; Chandima Ekanyake; Ljubo Vlacic, Switzerland, 2018, p. 43-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction of maritime infrastructure, such as waterways and seaports, often require large-scale dredging processes. These processes are often both energy-intensive, using various fuels and emit considerable amounts of greenhouse gases such as CO2. Studies on road infrastructure have introduced and successfully implemented a number of sophisticated approaches for assessing and reducing energy use and associated CO2 emissions at a project level. However, research on maritime infrastructure construction has primarily focused on dredging at an equipment level despite the promising opportunities of assessing and reducing the climate impact at a project level. This study proposes a workflow for assessing the energy use and associated CO2 emissions of maritime infrastructure projects and demonstrates its use in a case study. The case study shows that these types of assessments are possible to conduct which also implies that alternative scenarios, such as different material uses, equipment or design choices can be compared. In practical terms project managers can benefit from such assessments and comparisons to lower the overall climate impact of their maritime infrastructure projects.

  • 15.
    Krantz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Evaluating Construction-based Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Alternative Road Alignments2017In: ICCREM 2016: BIM Application and Offsite Construction - Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Construction and Real Estate Management 2016 / [ed] Wang Y.,Al-Hussein M.,Shen G.Q.P.,Zhu Y., Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2017, p. 527-534Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road projects generally begin with broad investigations and progressively advance towards more detailed and immediate issues. Road corridors, which represent rough locations of alternative road alignments, are usually identified, evaluated and compared in early planning stages. Commonly at this stage, costs estimates of the identified road alignment are made whereas their environmental impacts, such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, often are insufficiently accounted for. GHG emissions caused by the construction process are frequently ignored altogether. Despite indications that benefits of decisions and measures can be considerably higher if implemented in early planning stages, much emphasis is put on later stages. Our study presents an approach for estimating project-based GHG emissions of alternative alignments in early planning stages. The findings indicate that if adopted in the planning process, the approach can support projects in reducing their GHG emissions.

  • 16.
    Krantz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Integrating Production Planning into Road Corridor Evaluation Using ETL2016In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering / [ed] Nobuyoshi Yabuki and Koji Makanae, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex road projects, particularly near sensitive locations, often have substantial effects on humans and theenvironment caused by construction, production processes and the use phase. Before a road alignment isdetermined, several road corridors are identified and evaluated during early planning stages. Oftentimes thisevaluation focuses on impacts of the finished road whereas construction and production processes frequently areignored, risking viable corridors to be discarded before having been sufficiently evaluated. Existing IT-systemsenables modeling of relevant aspects such as road corridors, noise, pollution, production and construction, butthere is often a lack of interoperability between these systems. Interoperability problems can be faced withExtract Transform Load (ETL) tools but this has not been adequately examined regarding infrastructure projects.Our study presents a novel method for evaluating road corridors that includes production aspects, which arevisualized and analyzed in 3D. By using ETL technology to handle interoperability problems, existing tools forroad corridor planning, production planning and 3D visualization are used to demonstrate the method. Thefindings indicate that large scale production aspects related to road corridors can be modeled, analyzed andvisualized in 3D, which can benefit stakeholders in making decisions.

  • 17.
    Krantz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    An Energy Model for Sustainable Decision-Making in Road Construction Projects2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road construction operations often require considerable amounts of energy in the form of fossil fuels, thus generating considerable greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. While fuel efficiency of the heavy construction equipment is extensively studied, limited attention is given to how the construction process can be planned in order to reduce energy use and GHG-emissions. In this paper a conceptual model is proposed for the assessment of energy use and GHG-emission in road construction projects. When applied to a case study the conceptual energy model is a useful tool to asses and evaluate project alternatives in the early planning stages of road construction projects. As a result both the energy use and GHG-emissions in road construction projects can be reduced.

  • 18.
    Krantz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Analysis of alternative road construction staging approaches to reduce carbon dioxide emissions2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 143, p. 980-988Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite many studies focusing on assessing energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in road projects, limited attention has been given to practical methods for mitigating environmental impacts at the project planning stage. Our study addresses this issue by proposing a model incorporating a step-by-step guide for calculating carbon dioxide emissions in the project. This model is practically applied to a road construction project where two major supply chain alternatives are evaluated and compared. The findings suggest that major reductions of carbon dioxide emissions can be achieved by (1) identifying and comparing a set of realistic project alternatives, and (2) conducting this at an early stage of the project planning process so that favorable alternatives can be implemented during construction.

  • 19.
    Mangold, Mikael
    et al.
    City Development, Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg.
    Österbring, Magnus
    Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
    Overland, Conny
    Department of Business Administration, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Wallbaum, Holger
    Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
    Building ownership, renovation investments, and energy performance: a study of multi-family dwellings in Gothenburg2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 1684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European building stock was renewed at a rapid pace during the period 1950-1975. In many European countries, the building stock from this time needs to be renovated, and there are opportunities to introduce energy efficiency measures in the renovation process. Information availability and increasingly available analysis tools make it possible to assess the impact of policy and regulation. This article describes methods developed for analyzing investments in renovation and energy performance based on building ownership and inhabitant socio-economic information developed for Swedish authorities, to be used for the Swedish national renovations strategy in 2019. This was done by analyzing measured energy usage and renovation investments made during the last 30 years, coupled with building specific official information of buildings and resident area characteristics, for multi-family dwellings in Gothenburg (N = 6319). The statistical analyses show that more costly renovations lead to decreasing energy usage for heating, but buildings that have been renovated during the last decades have a higher energy usage when accounting for current heating system, ownership, and resident socio-economic background. It is appropriate to include an affordability aspect in larger renovation projects since economically disadvantaged groups are over-represented in buildings with poorer energy performance.

  • 20.
    Rizzo, Agatino
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Food on the Roof: Developing an IT platform to visualize and identify suitable locations for roof farming in cold climates2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to explore the possibility to smartly integrate food production in cold urban environments. The main objective was to sketch an intelligent platform to guide a comprehensive, city-wide approach to urban farming in winter cities and assist city stakeholder.

    We have worked with large databases related to energy consumptions, performances, building stock and size, solar radiation, and so forth. The challenge for us was to integrate big data in a manner that is easy to understand and visualize for all audiences while matching the ambitions of local stakeholders for urban farming.

    Urban farming (UF) has social, economic, and environmental benefits: socially UF will bring people closer to nature and it can become a source of education for local schools and community; economically, UF targets the rapidly growing market of premium, fresh, biological food that is proudly produced locally and can be sold to local restaurants and other customers; environmentally, UF will decrease our reliance from far away and poorly controlled food chains, while decreasing environmental costs for transportation.

  • 21.
    Shadram, Farshid
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    An Integrated BIM-based framework for energy assessment of the building upstream flow2015In: ICCREM 2015: Environment and the Sustainable Building : proceedings of the 2015 international conference on construction and real estate management : August 11-12, 2015 Luleå, Sweden / [ed] Yaowu Wang; Thomas Olofsson; Geoffrey Qiping Shen; Yong Bai, Reston, Va: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2015, p. 107-118Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction and operation of buildings account for a significant part of the energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Most design approaches to reduce the use of energy are focusing on the operational phase of a building’s life. Consequently, the embodied energy from the upstream flow, including production of building material and components, transport and assembly on-site, is often disregarded in the development of energy-efficient buildings. The purpose of this research is to propose a method to facilitate the assessment of the embodied energy and carbon footprint during the design and planning stage from the production of building material and components including the transportation to site. The framework makes use of Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) and supply chain information stored in a relational database of building materials and components, Building Information Models (BIM) for the assessment of the embedded energy in the building. Further, the feature manipulation engine (FME) is used to track transportation distances and transportation times from Google Map (GM) for the assessment of embedded energy from supplier to the construction site. Finally, a prototype is developed to demonstrate the practical application of the framework and to observe possible limitations and barriers.

  • 22.
    Shadram, Farshid
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Schade, Jutta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    An integrated BIM-based framework for minimizing embodied energy during building design2016In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 128, p. 592-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of the embodied energy associated with the production and transportation of materials during the design phase of building provides great potential to profoundly affect the building’s energy use and sustainability performance. While Building Information Modeling (BIM) gives opportunities to incorporate sustainability performance indicators in the building design process, it lacks interoperability with the conventional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tools used to analyse the environmental footprints of materials in building design. Additionally, many LCA tools use databases based on industry-average values and thus cannot account for differences in the embodied impacts of specific materials from individual suppliers. To address these issues, this paper presents a framework that supports design decisions and enables assessment of the embodied energy associated with building materials supply chain based on suppliers’ Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). The framework also integrates Extract Transform Load (ETL) technology into the BIM to ensure BIM-LCA interoperability, enabling an automated or semi-automated assessment process. The applicability of the framework is tested by developing a prototype and using it in a case study, which shows that a building’s energy use and carbon footprint can be significantly reduced during the design phase by accounting the impact of individual material in the supply chain.

1 - 22 of 22
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