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  • 1.
    Lindberg, Jonathan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Brismo, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Moderna skolmiljöer: god tillgång till dagsljus genom tidig integrering av statiska, dynamiska och kvalitativa mätindikatorer: Ett gestaltningsförslag med lärdomar ur undersökningar av studieobjekt och dagsljussimuleringar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently more housing is being built than in the past 60 years.

    There are many challenges accompanied with the volume of housing that needs to be built. Many of the dwellings that are going to be built are placed in new densely planned urban areas, which imposes requirements for infrastructure investments, for example in the form of new schools.

    According to forecasts, the number of students in primary school will increase by 250,000 by the year 2025. This implies a need for approximately 1000 new schools in ten years. The need for new schools are long term and therefore the learning environments need to be designed to be long term.

    Daylight and view have a major impact on our work environment, performance and are necessary for our health. Studies have shown that daylight-lit school environments enhance the performance of the students. The building legislation regulates the required levels using the daylight factor metric. Since the 50’s the requirements of daylight levels in schools have been approximately halved from 2 % to 1,0 %. Today the daylight requirements are the same for classrooms as for bedrooms in dwellings.

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine modern school environments in relation to today's regulatory requirements for access to daylight. Furthermore, the work aims to produce good examples of daylight solutions that can be used when designing modern school environments against the regulatory requirements. To assess the daylight access in modern schools, a selection of three nursery schools and two primary schools in the vicinity of Stockholm were chosen. Case studies were conducted using the 3D modelling software, Rhinoceros 3D and the daylight factor was then simulated using the Grasshopper and Honeybee plug-ins. The schools were modelled according to the acquired drawings and daylight were performed using the simulation engine Radiance.

    The result from the daylight factor simulation show that none of the schools examined fully meet the requirements. The reasons why the examined schools do not meet the requirements vary between or constitute a combination of; room depth, window size, window façade, obstruction angles, obstructing components and shading devices. The study shows that rooms such as: common areas and study hall often lack windows towards the outside and therefore only gets borrowed light from other areas. These kinds of rooms are common when using progressive pedagogical approaches. Depending on the intended future use of the rooms, they may be classified in such a way that they need to fulfil the regulations regarding daylight.

    From the literature review it is understood that early integration of daylight design in the design process is necessary to ensure good accesses to daylight in learnings environments. As a part of the thesis project, a design proposal has been developed using a daylight design process. During the design process, the access to daylight has been iteratively simulated to motivate selected design choices and ensure a good daylight level.  For comparison and site-specific results, climate-based simulation methods have been used. The use of the Optimal Day-lit Area (ODA) metric measures the usefulness of the available daylight illumination intensity over a year. At the same time, ODA takes the eventual over lit areas that may cause overheating and glare into account. The presented design proposal demonstrates the use of an integrated daylight design process and its results. 

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