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  • 1.
    Granhag, Pär Anders
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, psykologiska institutionen.
    Ask, Karl
    Göteborgs universitet, psykologiska institutionen.
    Rebelius, Anna
    Göteborgs universitet, psykologiska institutionen.
    Öman, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. Göteborgs universitet, psykologiska institutionen.
    Mac Giolla, Erik
    Göteborgs universitet, psykologiska institutionen.
    ‘I saw the man who killed Anna Lindh!’: An archival study of witnesses' offender descriptions2013In: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, E-ISSN 1477-2744, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 921-931Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An archival study was conducted using offender descriptions reported to the police by witnesses (N=29) of the murder of Swedish Foreign Minister Anna Lindh in 2003. All descriptions had been collected within a month after the attack, and each witness had been interviewed between one and five times. Description accuracy was established using photographs of the perpetrator, captured by CCTV cameras minutes before the attack. Contrasting previous archival studies, offender descriptions were quite unreliable (42% of reported attributes were incorrect), and this pattern held for both basic features (e.g., height, age) and more detailed attributes (e.g., clothes). The completeness and accuracy of descriptions increased after (vs. before) images of the perpetrator had been published in the media, but only with regard to the perpetrators’ clothes. We acknowledge the potential effects of co-witness influence and post-event information.

  • 2.
    Roos af Hjelmsäter, Emma
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Öman, Lisa
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Granhag, Pär Anders
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    The sinking of M/V Estonia: An archival study of the survivors’ witness reports2016In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 244-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most previous eyewitness research has been experimental, and studies examining real events are few. The present study examined eyewitness reports from a real-life, extremely stressful event; the sinking of the passenger ship Estonia in 1994. We analysed the police reports from 131 survivors (age 12–72, 82% men) through a thematic analysis. The results showed that of what could be controlled, most reports were accurate. Thus, this study indicates that eyewitness reports from such a life-threatening event may be reliable. Also, as in previous studies, many reports were fragmentary or incomplete. However, as the survivors reported different aspects, it was possible to obtain more complete information about the event by adding together reports from several persons. This indicates that reports from several persons should be collected in order to achieve a full understanding of events like this. The results provide much needed archival research to complement experimental studies on witnesses’ memory performance.

  • 3.
    Roos af Hjelmsäter, Emma
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Öman, Lisa
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Granhag, Pär Anders
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Vrij, Aldert
    University of Portsmouth, UK.
    ‘Mapping’ deception in adolescents: Eliciting cues to deceit through an unanticipated spatial drawing task2014In: Legal and Criminological Psychology, ISSN 1355-3259, E-ISSN 2044-8333, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 179-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. In this experiment we examined whether an unanticipated spatial task couldincrease the differences between lying and truth telling groups of adolescents. In addition,we explored whether there are some elements of such a spatial task that elicit morediagnostic cues to deception than others.

    Methods. In groups of three, adolescents (N = 150, aged 13–14) either experienced(‘truth tellers’) or imagined (‘liars’) an event. In subsequent individual interviews, theadolescents were asked to provide both a general verbal description of the event (theanticipated task), and a spatial description by making marks on a sketch (the unanticipatedtask). Next, adults (N = 200) rated the degree of consistency between either the generaldescriptions or the spatial descriptions from the adolescents in each triad.

    Results. The differences between liars and truth tellers were larger for the spatialmarkings (the unanticipated task) than for the general verbal descriptions (the anticipatedtask). Importantly, as predicted, the difference between lying and truth-telling triads wasmost manifest for markings of salient (vs. non-salient) aspects of the event.

    Conclusions. The results suggests that (a) using spatial tasks may be a useful tool fordetecting deception in adolescents, but that (b) the assessment of credibility should onlydraw on the salient aspects of the unanticipated spatial task.

  • 4.
    Shaw, Julia
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, Canada.
    Öman, Lisa
    Göteborgs universitet, psykologiska institutionen.
    van Koppen, Peter
    Maastricht University, Criminal Law and Criminology, Faculty of Law.
    Psychology and Law: The Past, Present, and Future of the Discipline2013In: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, E-ISSN 1477-2744, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 643-647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is our pleasure to introduce this special edition of Psychology, Crime & Law, which highlights research conducted by students in the area of psychology and law (an area also referred to as legal psychology, forensic psychology, and psycho-legal psychology). This special edition was compiled as part of the effort of the European Association of Psychology and Law Student Society (EAPL-S) (www.eaplstudent. com) to increase awareness of student research, and to promote student involvement in psychology and law. By fostering a sense of community and building bridges between students and experts in the field, we provide an arena for the development of exceptional scholars to conduct novel and important research. In an attempt to introduce new scholars to the field of psychology and law, and to provide a context for the community of which they are becoming a part, we have summarized the past, present, and future of the discipline. We have done so by providing a summary of the growth of psychology and law on an international scale, and by highlighting the role of students in the present and future growth of the field. We recognize that the students of today are the experts of tomorrow.

  • 5.
    Öman, Lisa
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, psykologiska institutionen.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Göteborgs universitet, institutionen för filosofi, lingvistik och vetenskap.
    Granhag, Pär Anders
    Göteborgs universitet, psykologiska institutionen.
    Angry Voices from the Past and Present: Effects on Adults' and Children's Earwitness Memory2013In: Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, ISSN 1544-4759, E-ISSN 1544-4767, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 57-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The major aim was to examine the effect of the perpetrator’s tone of voice and time delay on voice recognition. In addition, the effect of two types of voice description interviews intended to strengthen voice encoding was tested. Both 11- to 13-year-olds (n = 160) and adults (n = 148) heard an unfamiliar voice for 40 s. The perpetrator either spoke in a normal tone at encoding and in the lineup (congruent), or in an angry tone at encoding and a normal tone in the lineup (incongruent). Witnesses were then interviewed about the voice with global questions or by rating voice characteristics. Half of the witnesses were presented with a lineup shortly after the interview (immediate) and the others after 2 weeks (delayed). Children tested immediately made significantly more correct identifications. This was not the case for adults. (In)congruency between tone of voice and interview type did not significantly affect voice recognition. Witnesses in the congruent–immediate condition performed the best. However, only 25% of the children and 19% of the adults made correct identifications. Poor identification accuracy and the fact that the majority of witnesses believed they would recognise the voice later are reasons for treating voice identification evidence with great caution.

  • 6.
    Öman, Lisa
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, psykologiska institutionen.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Göteborgs universitet, institutionen för filosofi, lingvistik och vetenskap.
    Granhag, Pär Anders
    Göteborgs universitet, psykologiska institutionen.
    Enhancing Adults' and Children’s Earwitness Memory: Examining Three Types of Interviews2013In: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 216-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to find ways to enhance earwitnesses’ memory for voices and content. Another aim was to evaluate an interview protocol used by the Swedish Security Service. Three different types of interviews were compared; the Cognitive Interview, the Swedish Security Service checklist, and a baseline interview. Both 11–13-year-olds (n = 119) and adults (n = 93) were exposed to an unfamiliar voice for 40 seconds and thereafter interviewed. Two weeks later, they were confronted with a seven voice line-up. The overall accuracy for correct identifications was 19.8%. No significant difference was found between the interview conditions. As for content, the results suggest that for adults, the Cognitive Interview may be beneficial for recall of a brief conversation. The checklist used by the Swedish Security Service did not have a positive effect on voice recognition, content recall or for descriptions of voices.

  • 7.
    Öman, Lisa
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, psykologiska institutionen.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för filosofi, lingvistik och vetenskap.
    Granhag, Pär Anders
    Göteborgs universitet, psykologiska institutionen.
    Mobile phone quality vs. direct quality: How the presentation format affects earwitness identification accuracy2010In: The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, ISSN 1889-1861, E-ISSN 1989-4007, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 161-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to gain insight into the effect of mobile phone quality on voice identification using an ecologically realistic design. A total of 165 participants were exposed to an unfamiliar voice, either directly recorded or mobile phone recorded, for 40 seconds. After a two week delay, they were asked to identify the target-voice in a 7 voice target-present line-up. We used a between- subjects design, where half of the subjects were exposed to a directly recorded line-up, and the other half to a mobile phone recorded line-up. Data analysis did not show any significant effect of presentation format or line-up format. These results suggest that the detrimental effect on voice recognition suggested by the poorer sound quality of mobile phone recordings is minimal. They also indicate that there is no benefit from conducting a mobile phone recorded line-up, if the voice is originally heard over a mobile phone. More research is needed, however, before definitive conclusions may be drawn. The overall accuracy for correct identifications was 12.7% which is expected by chance. Further, one particular foil attracted 54% of all false identifications. Future research should focus on explaining why earwitnesses perform so poorly and develop methods to improve identification accuracy.

  • 8.
    Öman, Lisa
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, psykologiska institutionen.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för filosofi, lingvistik och vetenskap.
    Granhag, Pär Anders
    Göteborgs universitet, psykologiska institutionen.
    Overhearing the Planning of A Crime: Do Adults Outperform Children As Earwitnesses?2011In: Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, ISSN 0882-0783, E-ISSN 1936-6469, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 118-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the reliability of earwitnesses using an ecologically realistic experimental set-up. A total of 282 participants, distributed over three age-groups (7–9 vs. 11–13 year olds vs. adults), were exposed to an unfamiliar voice for 40 seconds. After a two week delay, they were presented with a 7-voice lineup. Half of the participants were exposed to a target-present lineup (TP), and the other half to a target-absent lineup (TA). For both types of lineups the participants performed poorly. In the TP-condition only the 11–13-year olds (with 27% correct identifications) performed above chance level. Furthermore, in the TA-condition all age- groups showed a high willingness to make an identification (overall mean = 53%). For both groups of children, voice identification co-varied significantly with speaking rate and pitch level, as did pitch variation for the youngest children. Neither factor correlated significantly with the adults’ identifications.

1 - 8 of 8
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