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  • 1.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Antti, Marta-Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Emami, Reza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Kuhn, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Minami, Ichiro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Gustafsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Milz, Mathias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Behar, Etienne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Wolf, Veronika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Dordlofva, Christo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Mendaza de Cal, Maria Teresa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Jamali, Maryam
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Roos, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Ottemark, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Nieto, Chris
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Soria Salinas, Álvaro Tomás
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Vázquez Martín, Sandra
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Nyberg, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Neikter, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Lindwall, Angelica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Fakhardji, Wissam
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Projekt: Rymdforskarskolan2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Graduate School of Space Technology

  • 2.
    Maimaitiyili, Tuerdi
    et al.
    Photons for Engineering and Manufacturing Group, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland;Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics, Malmö universitet, Malmö, Sweden.
    Woracek, Robin
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund, Sweden; Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAS, Husinec—Řež, Czech Republic.
    Neikter, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Boin, Mirko
    Department of Microstructure and Residual Stress Analysis, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Berlin, Germany.
    Wimpory, Robert C.
    Department of Microstructure and Residual Stress Analysis, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Berlin, Germany.
    Pederson, Robert
    Department of Engineering Science, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Strobl, Markus
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund, Sweden; Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAS, Husinec—Řež, Czech Republic; Neutron Imaging and Applied Materials Group, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Drakopoulos, Michael
    Imaging and Microscopy Group, Diamond Light Source Ltd., Oxfordshire , UK.
    Schäfer, Norbert
    Department of Nanoscale Structures and Microscopic Analysis, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Berlin, Germany.
    Bjerkén, Christina
    Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics, Malmö universitet, Malmö, Sweden.
    Residual Lattice Strain and Phase Distribution in Ti-6Al-4V Produced by Electron Beam Melting2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 4, article id 667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residual stress/strain and microstructure used in additively manufactured material are strongly dependent on process parameter combination. With the aim to better understand and correlate process parameters used in electron beam melting (EBM) of Ti-6Al-4V with resulting phase distributions and residual stress/strains, extensive experimental work has been performed. A large number of polycrystalline Ti-6Al-4V specimens were produced with different optimized EBM process parameter combinations. These specimens were post-sequentially studied by using high-energy X-ray and neutron diffraction. In addition, visible light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) studies were performed and linked to the other findings. Results show that the influence of scan speed and offset focus on resulting residual strain in a fully dense sample was not significant. In contrast to some previous literature, a uniform α- and β-Ti phase distribution was found in all investigated specimens. Furthermore, no strong strain variations along the build direction with respect to the deposition were found. The magnitude of strain in α and β phase show some variations both in the build plane and along the build direction, which seemed to correlate with the size of the primary β grains. However, no relation was found between measured residual strains in α and β phase. Large primary β grains and texture appear to have a strong effect on X-ray based stress results with relatively small beam size, therefore it is suggested to use a large beam for representative bulk measurements and also to consider the prior β grain size in experimental planning, as well as for mathematical modelling.

  • 3.
    Neikter, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Microstructure and hydrogen embrittlement of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work of this doctoral thesis has been performed between the 24th of August 2015 to the 6th of September 2019. The general purpose of this work has been to increase the knowledge of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V when it comes to microstructure, texture and hydrogen embrittlement. Several additive manufacturing (AM) processes have been addressed, the main focus, however, has been on the two processes electron beam melting (EBM) and selective laser melting (SLM). The work has been performed at Luleå University of Technology and at Monash Centre of Additive Manufacturing (MCAM), which is a part of Monash University, Melbourne Australia. GKN Aerospace Engine Systems has been involved in the work as a collaborative industrial partner. Where the main interaction and support has been between GKN in Trollhättan, Sweden. GKNs facility in Filton, United Kingdom, however, has also been involved in sample production. The texture measurements using neutron time of flight (TOF) diffraction were performed in Dubna, Russia at Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, using the spektrometer kolitshestvennovo analiza tekstury (SKAT) instrument and in Los Alamos at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, using the texture instrument high pressure preferred orientation (HIPPO). The interest of specifically additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V originates from GKN Aerospace Engine Systems as they have been contracted to manufacture parts for the Ariane rockets. In aerospace, weight is of utter importance as reduced weight of the components reduce the fuel costs and makes it possible to transport increased loads. Therefore, titanium has been suggested to replace heavier metal alloys (such as nickel-based superalloys) due to titanium’s high specific strength and overall good properties. The work has been managed under the supervision of Professor Marta-Lena Antti, Professor Robert Pederson and Dr. Pia Åkerfeldt at Luleå University of Technology and by Professor Xinhua Wu and Professor Aijun Huang at MCAM. The project has been financed by three parties Space for Innovation and Growth (RIT), Nationellt Rymdtekniskt Forskningsprogram (NRFP) and the Graduate School of Space Technology. The thesis is composed of a literature review along with the appended papers that have been written throughout the duration of the project. The purpose of the literature review is to give the reader a broader knowledge and context about the theory behind the work conducted during the Ph.D. project. The thesis commences with a theoretical background about titanium, its crystal structures, microstructure, and AM. The chapter about AM is divided into three sub-chapters, explaining the two different AM sub-groups directed energy deposition (DED) and powder bed fusion (PBF). Then the chapter finalizes with explaining the benefits and drawbacks with AM. Once these subjects been explained there is a chapter explaining AM built Ti-6Al-4V. The theme of this chapter is the differences in the microstructure of AM built and conventional built Ti-6Al-4V, where phenomena like chessboard pattern and layers bands are discussed, followed by a comparative section of the mechanical properties. The chapter about AM built Ti-6Al-4V is followed by a chapter about texture where the two texture techniques electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and neutron (TOF) diffraction are explained. The literature review then continues with the chapters neutron tomography, hydrogen embrittlement, and fatigue crack growth. Then there is a chapter about the materials and experimental methods that have been used to perform all the experiments, then a summary of all the papers and conclusions. After the conclusions, the thesis finalizes with a chapter about possible future work and an outlook into the future of AM. In the end, the papers I to IV are appended.  

  • 4.
    Neikter, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Microstructure and Texture of Additive Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM) for metals is a manufacturing process that has increased a lot in popularity last few years as it has experienced significant improvements since its beginning, both when it comes to accuracy and deposition rates. There are many different AM processes where the energy sources and deposition methods varies. But the common denominator is their layer wise manufacturing process, melting layer on layer. AM has a great design freedom compared to conventional manufacturing, making it possible to design new structures with decreased weight and increased performance.  A drawback is slow manufacturing speeds, making it more expensive. But when it comes to low lot sizes and complex structures AM is very competitive. So, for the aerospace and space industry AM is a good option as manufacturing cost is less of an issue and where saving weight is of great concern, both environmentally and economically.  There are however many topics left to research before additive manufactured titanium can be widely adopted for critical components, such as microstructure and texture development and its correlation to mechanical properties. The aim of this work has been to investigate the microstructure and texture of various AM processes. Microstructural features such as prior β grains, grain boundary α (GB-α), α laths, α colonies have been characterized along with hardness measurements for 5 different AM processes. Some of these AM processes have also been investigated in the SKAT instrument in Dubna, Russia, to obtain their texture. These textures have then been compared with one another and correlated to previous microstructural investigations and mechanical properties. This is important knowledge as the microstructure and the texture sets the basis for the mechanical properties. In case there is a high texture, the material can have anisotropic mechanical behavior, which could be either wanted or unwanted for different applications.  

    Some the findings are that α phase was found to increase in the prior β grain boundary for the AM processes with low cooling rates, while it was discontinuous and even non-present for the AM processes with high cooling rates. The prior β size are larger for the directed energy deposition (DED) processes than for the powder bed fusion (PBF) processes. Parallel bands were present for the DED process while being non-present for the PBF processes. Concerning the texture, it was found that LMwD had a higher texture than EBM and SLM. Texture inhomogeneity was also found for the LMwD process., where two parts of the same sample was investigated and the material closer to the surface had higher texture. 

  • 5.
    Neikter, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lycksam, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Pederson, Robert
    University West, Div. Welding Material .
    Antti, Marta-Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Microstructure and Defects in Additive Manufactured Titanium: a Comparison Between Microtomography and Optical Microscopy2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work has been to compare two different analysing methods;x-ray microtomography and light optical microscopy, when it comes to defects and microstructure of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V. The results showthat both techniqueshave theirpros and cons:microtomography is the preferred choicefor defect detectionby analysing the full 3D sample volume, while light optical microscopy is better for analysing finer details in 2D.

  • 6.
    Neikter, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Pederson, Robert
    Department of Engineering Science, University West.
    Antti, Marta-Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Åkerfeldt, Pia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Larsson, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Jonsén, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Puyoo, Geraldine
    GKN-Aerospace Engine Systems.
    Defect characterization of electron beam melted Ti-6Al-4V and Alloy 718 with X-ray microtomography2018In: Aeronautics and Aerospace Open Access Journal, ISSN 2576-4500, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 139-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron beam melting (EBM) is emerging as a promising manufacturing process where metallic components are manufactured from three-dimensional (3D) computer aided design models by melting layers onto layers. There are several advantages with this manufacturing process such as near net shaping, reduced lead times and the possibility to decrease weight by topology optimization, aspects that are of interest for the aerospace industry. In this work two alloys, Ti-6Al-4V and Alloy 718, widely used within the aerospace industry were investigated with X-ray microtomography (XMT), to characterize defects such as lack of fusion (LOF) and inclusions. It was furthermore possible to view the macrostructure with XMT, which was compared to macrostructure images obtained by light optical microscopy (LOM). XMT proved to be a useful tool for defect characterization and both LOF and un-melted powder could be found in the two investigated samples. In the EBM built Ti-6Al-4V sample high density inclusions, believed to be composed of tungsten, were found. One of the high-density inclusions was found to be hollow, which indicate that the inclusion stems from the powder manufacturing process and not related with the EBM process. By performing defect analyses with the XMT software it was also possible to quantify the amount of LOF and un-melted powder in vol%. From the XMT-data meshes were produced so that finite element method (FEM) simulations could be performed. From these FEM simulations the significant impact of defects on the material properties was evident, as the defects led to high stress concentrations. It could moreover, with FEM, be shown that the as-built surface roughness of EBM material is of importance as high surface roughness led to increased stress concentrations.

  • 7.
    Neikter, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Huang, A.
    Monash Centre for Additive Manufacturing, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Wu, X.
    Monash Centre for Additive Manufacturing, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Microstructural characterization of binary microstructure pattern in selective laser-melted Ti-6Al-4V2019In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 104, no 1-4, p. 1381-1391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing process that offers efficient manufacturing of complex parts with good mechanical properties. For SLM, process parameters and post-processing are of importance as they affect the microstructure and consequently the mechanical properties. A feature in the microstructure, which is formed in SLM due to the fast cooling rate, is a binary microstructure pattern (BMP). The BMP is found in the horizontal plane and is formed with various laser scan angles between adjacent layers. The easiest distinguishable strategy is 90°, which renders a shape similar to a chessboard. In this work, the BMP phenomenon was investigated in detail and a microstructural characterization was performed on the fine microstructure zone (FMZ) that separates the coarse microstructure zones (CMZ), by using light optical and scanning electron microscopes (SEM) that were equipped with electron backscattered (EBSD) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) detectors. Moreover, the effect of the process parameter hatch distance on the BMP was investigated and the overlapping between neighboring scan tracks in SLM was found to influence the size of the BMP, while the thickness of the FMZ remained constant. Different post-SLM heat treatments were performed and it was shown that the BMP retained unless the heat treatment temperature reached above the β transus temperature. EBSD and β grain reconstruction were performed as well to reveal the columnar β grain orientations. The result showed that each CMZ and FMZ originates from a respective parent β grains.

  • 8.
    Neikter, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Pederson, Robert
    Division of Welding Technology, University West, Trollhättan .
    Åkerfeldt, Pia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Antti, Marta-Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Microstructure characterisation of Ti-6Al-4V from different additive manufacturing processes2017In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981, E-ISSN 1757-899X, Vol. 258, article id 012007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this work has been microstructure characterisation of Ti-6Al-4V manufactured by five different additive manufacturing (AM) processes. The microstructure features being characterised are the prior β size, grain boundary α and α lath thickness. It was found that material manufactured with powder bed fusion processes has smaller prior β grains than the material from directed energy deposition processes. The AM processes with fast cooling rate render in thinner α laths and also thinner, and in some cases discontinuous, grain boundary α. Furthermore, it has been observed that material manufactured with the directed energy deposition processes has parallel bands, except for one condition when the parameters were changed, while the powder bed fusion processes do not have any parallel bands.

  • 9.
    Neikter, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Woracek, Robin
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund, Sweden. Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAZ, Czech Republic.
    Maimaitiyili, T.
    Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen.
    Scheffzük, Ch
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Strobl, Markus
    Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland. Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAZ, Czech Republic.
    Antti, Marta-Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Åkerfeldt, Pia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Pederson, Robert
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Bjerkén, Christina
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Alpha texture variations in additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V investigated with neutron diffraction2018In: Additive Manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, Vol. 23, p. 225-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variation of texture in Ti-6Al-4V samples produced by three different additive manufacturing (AM) processes has been studied by neutron time-of-flight (TOF) diffraction. The investigated AM processes were electron beam melting (EBM), selective laser melting (SLM) and laser metal wire deposition (LMwD). Additionally, for the LMwD material separate measurements were done on samples from the top and bottom pieces in order to detect potential texture variations between areas close to and distant from the supporting substrate in the manufacturing process. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) was also performed on material parallel and perpendicular to the build direction to characterize the microstructure. Understanding the context of texture for AM processes is of significant relevance as texture can be linked to anisotropic mechanical behavior. It was found that LMwD had the strongest texture while the two powder bed fusion (PBF) processes EBM and SLM displayed comparatively weaker texture. The texture of EBM and SLM was of the same order of magnitude. These results correlate well with previous microstructural studies. Additionally, texture variations were found in the LMwD sample, where the part closest to the substrate featured stronger texture than the corresponding top part. The crystal direction of the α phase with the strongest texture component was [112¯3].

  • 10.
    Neikter, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Åkerfeldt, Pia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Pederson, Robert
    Division of Welding Technology, University West, Trollhättan 461 32, Sweden.
    Antti, Marta-Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Microstructural characterization and comparison of Ti-6Al-4V manufactured with different additive manufacturing processes2018In: Materials Characterization, ISSN 1044-5803, E-ISSN 1873-4189, Vol. 143, no SI, p. 68-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the microstructures of Ti-6Al-4V manufactured by different additive manufacturing (AM) processes have been characterized and compared. The microstructural features that were characterized are the α lath thickness, grain boundary α (GB-α) thickness, prior β grain size and α colony size. In addition, the microhardnesses were also measured and compared. The microstructure of shaped metal deposited (SMD) Ti-6Al-4V material showed the smallest variations in α lath size, whereas the material manufactured with laser metal wire deposition-0 (LMwD-0) showed the largest variation. The prior β grain size was found to be smaller in material manufactured with powder bed fusion (PBF) as compared with corresponding material manufactured with the directed energy deposition (DED) processes. Parallel bands were only observed in materials manufactured with DED processes while being non-present in material manufactured with PBF processes.

  • 11.
    Saeidi, Kamran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Neikter, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Olsen, J.
    Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University.
    Shen, Zhijian James
    Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University.
    Akhtar, Farid
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    316L stainless steel designed to withstand intermediate temperature2017In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 135, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Austenitic stainless steel 316L was fabricated for withstanding elevated temperature by selective laser melting (SLM). Tensile tests at 800 °C were carried out on laser melted 316L with two different strain rates of 0.05 S− 1 and 0.25 S− 1. The laser melted 316L showed tensile strength of approximately 400 MPa at 800 °C, which was superior to conventional 316L. Analysis of fracture surface showed that the 316L fractured in mixed mode, ductile and brittle fracture, with an elongation of 18% at 800 °C. In order to understand the mechanical response, laser melted 316L was thermally treated at 800 °C for microstructure and phase stability. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) of 316L treated at 800 °C disclosed a textured material with single austenitic phase. SEM and EBSD showed that the characteristic and inherent microstructure of laser melted 316L, consisting of elongated grains with high angle grain boundaries containing subgrains with a smaller misorientation, remained similar to as-built SLM 316L during hot tensile test at 800 °C. The stable austenite phase and its stable hierarchical microstructure at 800 °C led to the superior mechanical response of laser melted 316L.

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