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  • 1.
    Ahmadi, R.
    et al.
    Iran Mineral Processing Research Centre (IMPRC), Karaj.
    Hashemzadehfini, M.
    Iran Mineral Processing Research Centre (IMPRC), Karaj.
    Parian, Mehdi Amiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Rapid determination of Bond rod-mill work index by modeling the grinding kinetics2013In: Advanced Powder Technology, ISSN 0921-8831, E-ISSN 1568-5527, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 441-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generally, Bond work index is a common method for selecting comminution equipment as well as estimation of grinding efficiency and calculating required power. In the current research, a simple, fast and accurate procedure is introduced to find the rod-mill work index based on the conventional Bond work index. The grinding experiments were carried out on four typical samples of iron, copper, manganese and lead–zinc ore with three test-sieves in specified time periods and aimed to shortening the procedure. Furthermore, the grinding kinetics and mass balance equations were applied to model the standard Bond rod-mill work index. For comparing the standard Bond rod-mill work index and the new modeled method, work index (Wi) and produced fine particles in a cycle (Gi) for the four samples determined. The performed paired Student’s t-test results indicated that the Standard Deviation for Gi and Wi obtained by the shortened method are respectively 0.50 and 0.58 in respect of traditional Bond method.

  • 2.
    Chelgani, Saeed Chehreh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Parian, Mehdi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Semsari, Parisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Ghorbani, Yousef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    A comparative study on the effects of dry and wet grinding on mineral flotation separation: a review2019In: Journal of Materials Research and Technology, ISSN 2238-7854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water scarcity dictates to limit the use of water in ore processing plants particularly in arid regions. Since wet grinding is the most common method for particle size reduction and mineral liberation, there is a lack of understanding about the effects of dry grinding on downstream separation processes such as flotation. This manuscript compiles various effects of dry grinding on flotation and compares them with wet grinding. Dry grinding consumes higher energy and produces wider particle size distributions compared with wet grinding. It significantly decreases the rate of media consumption and liner wear; thus, the contamination of pulp for flotation separation is lower after dry grinding. Surface roughness, particle agglomeration, and surface oxidation are higher in dry grinding than wet grinding, which all these effects on the flotation process. Moreover, dry ground samples in the pulp phase correlate with higher Eh and dissolved oxygen concentration. Therefore, dry grinding can alter the floatability of minerals. This review thoroughly assesses various approaches for flotation separation of different minerals, which have been drily ground, and provides perspectives for further future investigations.

  • 3.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Parian, Mehdi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Lund, Cecilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Using Mineral rather than Elemental Grades in Mineral Resource Estimate: Motivation and Techniques2015In: Mineral Resources in a Sustainable World / [ed] A.S. Andre-Mayer; M. Cathelineau; P. Muchez; E. Pirard; S. Sindern, 2015, p. 1423-1425Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mineral resource estimates of metallic ores use traditionally elemental grades when describing the quality of the deposit. This information is very defective as it does not take into account how much of metal is recoverable. When considering the processing properties of an ore, i.e. geometallurgy, more comprehensive picture could be received if the resource model would report mineral grades rather than elemental grades. This is because minerals define the value and possible processing options of the deposit. Techniques commonly used for an analysis of mineral composition, i.e. modal analysis, are either tedious or poor in quality. This paper shows with few examples how reliable modal analysis can be done by combining diagnostic analysis methods with element to mineral conversion.

  • 4.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Parian, Mehdi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Mwanga, Abdul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Mineralogical Mass Balancing of Industrial Circuits by Combining XRF and XRD Analyses2013In: Proceedings Conference in Minerals Engineering 2013 / [ed] Jan Rosenkranz; Tommy Karlkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2013, p. 105-116Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mineralogical information forms a vital basis for designing, diagnosing and optimizing mineral processing circuits. Often modal mineralogical mass balance (i.e. mass balance on mineral grades) is adequate; i.e. liberation data is not required. In analysing mineral grades in process samples automated mineralogy (SEM based image analysis) is mostly used. As this method is tedious, slow, and costly, and has some limitation, an alternative technique was developed by combining quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) and chemical assays by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). A case study on magnetic separation test is presented. Method has potential for an automatized off-line technique for providing mineralogical mass balance in majority of mineral processing plants.

  • 5.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lund, Cecilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Minz, Friederike
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Mwanga, Abdul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Parian, Mehdi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Building a Geometallurgical Model in Iron Ores using a Mineralogical Approach with Liberation Data2013In: Geomet13: The Second AusIMM International Geometallurgy Conference 2013 / [ed] Simon Dominy, Parkville, Victoria: The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2013, p. 317-324Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A geometallurgical model is currently built in two different ways. The first and the most common way relies on geometallurgical testing, where a large number of samples are analysed for metallurgical response using small-scale laboratory tests, eg Davis tube testing. The second, mineralogical approach focuses on collecting mineralogical information over the orebody and building the metallurgical model based on mineralogy. At Luleå University of Technology,Sweden, the latter method has been adopted and taken further in four ongoing PhD studies. The geological model gives modal composition by the help of element-to-mineral conversion and Rietveld X-ray diffraction. Texturally, the orebody is divided into different archetypes, and liberation measurements for each of them are carried out in processing fineness using IncaMineral, a SEM-based technique. The grindability and liberation spectrum of any given geological unit (sample, ore block, domain) are extrapolated from the archetypes. The process model is taken into a liberation level by mass balancing selected metallurgical tests using the particle tracking technique. The approach is general and can be applied to any type of ores. Examples of ongoing studies on iron and massive sulfide ores are given.

  • 6.
    Larsson, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Parian, Mehdi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Jonsén, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Preliminary validation of a stirred media mill model2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wet fine grinding is an important process in the minerals industry. Modelling of wet grinding in stirred media mills is challenging since it requires the simultaneous modelling of grinding media consisting of a huge number of small grinding bodies, moving internal stirrer, and the pulp fluid. All of them in interaction with each other. In the present study, wet grinding in a stirred media mill is studied using coupled incompressible computational fluid dynamics (ICFD) and discrete element method (DEM) and finite element method (FEM) simulations. The DEM is used to model the grinding media, and the pulp fluid flow is modelled using the ICFD. Moreover, the FEM is used to model the structure of the mill body and is in combination with DEM used to estimate the wear rate in the system. The present implementation of the coupled ICFD-DEM-FEM preserves the robustness and efficiency of both methods, and it gives the possibility to use large time steps for the fluid with very low computation times.

  • 7.
    Mwanga, Abdul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Parian, Mehdi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Comminution modeling using mineralogical properties of iron ores2017In: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 111, p. 182-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comminution modeling aims to predict the size and liberation distribution of mineral particles and the required comminution energy. The current state-of-the-art comminution models provide a calculation of neither particle size distribution, grinding energy and throughput dependency with neither a broad understanding of how the mineral grade varies by size nor the liberation distribution of the product. The underlying breakage mechanisms affect the liberation of mineral grains and are dependent on modal mineralogy and mineral texture (micro structure). It has also been a challenge to model comminution systems to predict the optimal energy and size for better mineral liberation because of the variability of the mineral particle properties i.e. grains arrangement and composition. A detailed mineralogical study was carried out in order to broaden the understanding of the nature and distribution of comminuted particles in a ball mill product. Focusing on iron ore samples the study showed how the particle breakage rate decreases when the particles reach the grain size of the main mineral component. Below that size, comminution does not increase mineral liberation and therefore in most of the cases passing over that boundary is only a waste of energy. The study involving iron ores from Malmberget and Kiruna, Northern Sweden, showed that certain shortcuts can be applied to empirically model the mineral liberation distribution of the particles in a ball mill based on the mineral grade-by-size pattern from a geometallurgical program. In Malmberget and Kiruna the mineral grade-by-size pattern is depending on the mineral distribution and grain size of gangue as well as magnetite or hematite minerals. A significant difference between mineral breakage of the same grade and gangue minerals can be observed due to texture differences.

  • 8.
    Parian, Mehdi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Development of a geometallurgical framework for iron ores - A mineralogical approach to particle-based modeling2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands for efficient utilization of ore bodies and proper risk management in the mining industry have resulted in a new cross-disciplinary subject called geometallurgy. Geometallurgy connects geological, mineral processing and subsequent downstream processing information together to provide a comprehensive model to be used in production planning and management. A geometallurgical program is an industrial application of geometallurgy. Various approaches that are employed in geometallurgical programs include the traditional way, which uses chemical elements, the proxy method, which applies small-scale tests, and the mineralogical approach using mineralogy or the combination of those. The mineralogical approach provides the most comprehensive and versatile way to treat geometallurgical data. Therefore it was selected as a basis for this study.

    For the mineralogical approach, quantitative mineralogical information is needed both for the deposit and the process. The geological model must describe the minerals present, give their chemical composition, report their mass proportions (modal composition) in the ore body and describe the ore texture. The process model must be capable of using mineralogical information provided by the geological model to forecast the metallurgical performance of different geological volumes and periods. A literature survey showed that areas, where more development is needed for using the mineralogical approach, are: 1) quick and inexpensive techniques for reliable modal analysis of the ore samples; 2) ore textural characterization of the ore to forecast the liberation distribution of the ore when crushed and ground; 3) unit operation models based on particle properties (at mineral liberation level) and 4) a system capable of handling all this information and transferring it to production model. This study focuses on developing tools in these areas.

    A number of methods for obtaining mineral grades were evaluated with a focus on geometallurgical applicability, precision, and trueness. A new technique developed called combined method uses both quantitative X-ray powder diffraction with Rietveld refinement and the Element-to-Mineral Conversion method. The method not only delivers the required turnover for geometallurgy but also overcomes the shortcomings if X-ray powder diffraction or Element-to-Mineral Conversion were used alone.

    Characterization of ore texture before and after breakage provides valuable insights about the fracture pattern in comminution, the population of particles for specific ore texture and their relation to parent ore texture. In the context of the mineralogical approach to geometallurgy, predicting the particle population from ore texture is a critical step to establish an interface between geology and mineral processing. A new method called Association Indicator Matrix developed to assess breakage pattern of ore texture and analyze mineral association. The results of ore texture and particle analysis were used to generate particle population from ore texture by applying particle size distribution and breakage frequencies. The outcome matches well with experimental data specifically for magnetite ore texture.

    In geometallurgy, process models can be classified based on in which level the ore, i.e. the feed stream to the processing plant and each unit operation, is defined and what information subsequent streams carry. The most comprehensive level of mineral processing models is the particle-based one which includes practically all necessary information on streams for modeling unit operations. Within this study, a particle-based unit operation model was built for wet low-intensity magnetic separation, and existing size classification and grinding models were evaluated to be used in particle level. A property-based model of magnetic beneficiation plant was created based on one of the LKAB operating plants in mineral and particle level and the results were compared. Two different feeds to the plant were used. The results revealed that in the particle level, the process model is more sensitive to changes in feed property than any other levels. Particle level is more capable for process optimization for different geometallurgical domains.

  • 9.
    Parian, Mehdi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Development of the mineralogical path for geometallurgical modeling of iron ores2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands for more effective utilization of ore bodies and proper risk management in the mining industry have resulted in a new cross discipline called geometallurgy. Geometallurgy connects geological, mineral processing and subsequent downstream processing information together to provide a comprehensive model to be used in production planning and management. A geometallurgical program is the industrial application of geometallurgy. It provides a way to map the variation in the ore body, to handling the data and giving metallurgical forecast on spatial level.Three different approaches are used in geometallurgical programs. These include the traditional way, which uses chemical elements, the proxy method, which applies geometallurgical tests, and the mineralogical approach using mineralogy. The mineralogical approach provides the most comprehensive and versatile way to treat geometallurgical data. Therefore it was selected as a basis for this study. For the mineralogical method, quantitative mineralogical information is needed both on deposit and for the process. The geological model must describe the minerals present, give their chemical composition, report their mass proportions (modal composition) in the ore body and describe the texture. The process model must be capable of using mineralogical information provided by the geological model to forecast the metallurgical performance of different geological volumes (samples, ore blocks, geometallurgical domains or blends prepared for the plant) and periods (from minutes via hourly and daily scale to week, monthly and annual production). A literature survey showed that areas, where more development is needed for using the mineralogical approach, are: 1) quick and inexpensive techniques for reliable modal analysis of the ore samples; 2) textural classification of the ore capable to forecast the liberation distribution of the ore when crushed and ground; 3) unit operation models based on particle properties (at mineral liberation level) and 4) a system capable to handle all this information and transfer it to production model. This study focuses on solving the first and the third problem. A number of methods for obtaining mineral grades were evaluated with a focus on geometallurgical applicability, precision and trueness. The method survey included scanning electron microscopy based automated mineralogy, quantitative X-ray powder diffraction with Rietveld refinement, and element-to-mineral conversion. A new technique called combined method uses both quantitative X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement and the element-to-mineral conversion method. The method not only delivers the required turnover for geometallurgy, but also overcomes the shortcomings if X-ray powder diffraction or element-to-mineral conversion when used alone. Furthermore, various methods of obtaining modal mineralogy were compared and a model for evaluating precision and closeness of the methods was developed.Different levels of processing models can be classified in geometallurgy based on in which level the ore, i.e. the feed stream to the processing plant, is defined and what information subsequent streams carry. For mineral processing models the following five levels can be distinguished: particle size only level, elemental level, element by particle size level, mineral level, mineral by particle size level and mineral liberation (particle) level. The most comprehensive level of mineral processing models is the particle-based one which includes all necessary information for modeling unit operations. Within this study, as the first step, a unit operation model is built on particle level for wet low-intensity magnetic separation. The experimental data was gathered through a survey of the KA3 iron ore concentrator plant of Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara AB (LKAB) in Kiruna. The first wet magnetic separator of the process was used as the basis for the model development since the degree of liberation is important at this stage. Corresponding feed, concentrate and tailings streams were mass balanced on a mineral by size and liberation level. The mass balanced data showed that the behavior of individual particles in the magnetic separation is depending on their size and composition. The model, which has a size dependent by-pass parameter and a separation parameter dependent of the magnetic volume of the particle, is capable of forecasting the behavior of particles in magnetic separation. Modeling and simulation show the benefits that particle-based simulation provides compared to lower level process models which take into account only elemental or mineral grades.

  • 10.
    Parian, Mehdi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Particle-based Process Models in Mineral Processing2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Parian, Mehdi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Combining chemical analysis (XRF) and quantitative X-ray diffraction (Rietveld) in modal analysis of iron ores for geometallurgical purposes in Northern Sweden2013In: Mineral deposit research for a high-tech world: Proceedings of the 12th Biennial SGA Meeting, 12-15 August 2013, Uppsala, Sweden / [ed] Erik Jonsson, Uppsala: Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mineralogical information forms an essential basis in geometallurgy. Minimum information required in a mineralogical approach of a geometallurgical program is: modal mineralogy (mineral quantities) and mineral textures. Based on this information it is possible to link geological model with production model. Modal analysis is currently mostly done with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) based image analysis, often called as automated mineralogy. As this method is tedious, slow, and costly, and has some limitation, an alternative technique was developed by combining quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) and chemical assays by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). In iron ores in Northern Sweden combined method gives a quantity of about ten minerals with adequate accuracy.

  • 12.
    Parian, Mehdi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Reconciling modal mineralogy and chemical compositions of a sample2016In: Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland: Special Volume, 2016, p. 181-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the grade of valuable elements and its variation is not sufficient for geometallurgy. Minerals define not only the value of the deposit, but also the method of extraction and concentration. However, mineralogy is quite rarely used as the key information in geometallurgy and it is even more exceptional in mineral resource estimation.One of the reasons is the lack of fast, low-cost but still reliable modal analysis. The other is that the results from various methods of modal mineralogy such as automated mineralogy and quantitative XRD are not consistent with chemical assay. In other words, the chemical composition back calculated from modal analysis does not match with the true chemical assay. Element-to-mineral conversion is the known method to get modal mineralogy that matches with the chemical composition of samples. However, in complicated mineralogy or the lack of enough chemical components assayed, it fails to provide accurate results. Reconciling the results of a modal analysis with chemical assays can improve the agreement between chemical assays and back-calculated chemical composition. This is achievable by doing minor adjustments to modal mineralogy. The method used here is called combined method and it principally uses Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to minimize differences (residuals) between chemical assays and back-calculated chemical composition of a sample. The advantage of the method over other combined methods is that it does not use weighting factors. Additionally, the adjustments are minor unlike other methods that can cause mineral grades to drift away significantly. These features make it possible to apply the method for a large number of samples unsupervised.

  • 13.
    Parian, Mehdi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Möckel, Robert
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden – Rossendorf, Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology, Halsbruecker Straße 34, 09599 Freiberg.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Analysis of mineral grades for geometallurgy: Combined element-to-mineral conversion and quantitative X-ray diffraction2015In: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 82, p. 25-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the grade of valuable elements and its variation is not sufficient for geometallurgy. Minerals define not only the value of the deposit, but also the method of extraction and concentration. A number of methods for obtaining mineral grades were evaluated with a focus on geometallurgical applicability, precision and trueness. For a geometallurgical program, the number of samples to be analyzed is large, therefore a method for obtaining mineral grades needs to be cost-efficient, relatively fast, and reliable. Automated mineralogy based on scanning electron microscopy is generally regarded as the most reliable method for analyzing mineral grades. However, the method is time demanding and expensive. Quantitative X-ray diffraction has a relatively high detection limit, 0.5%, while the method is not suitable for some base and precious metal ores, it still provides significant details on gangue mineral grades. The application of the element-to-mineral conversion has been limited to the simple mineralogy because the number of elements analyzed limits the number of calculable mineral grades. This study investigates a new method for the estimation of mineral grades applicable for geometallurgy by combining both the element-to-mineral conversion method and quantitative X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement. The proposed method not only delivers the required turnover for geometallurgy, but also overcomes the shortcomings if quantitative X-ray diffraction or element-to-mineral is used alone

  • 14.
    Parian, Mehdi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Developing a particle-based process model for unit operations of mineral processing: WLIMS2016In: International Journal of Mineral Processing, ISSN 0301-7516, E-ISSN 1879-3525, Vol. 154, p. 53-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Process models in mineral processing can be classified based on the level of information required from the ore, i.e. the feed stream to the processing plant. Mineral processing models usually require information on total solid flow rate, mineralogical composition and particle size information. The most comprehensive level of mineral processing models is the particle-based one (liberation level), which gives particle-by-particle information on their mineralogical composition, size, density, shape i.e. all necessary information on the processed material for simulating unit operations. In flowsheet simulation, the major benefit of a particle-based model over other models is that it can be directly linked to any other particle-based unit models in the process simulation. This study aims to develop a unit operation model for a wet low intensity magnetic separator on particle property level. The experimental data was gathered in a plant survey of the KA3 iron ore concentrator of Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara AB in Kiruna. Corresponding feed, concentrate and tailings streams of the primary magnetic separator were sampled, assayed and mass balanced on mineral liberation level. The mass-balanced data showed that the behavior of individual particles in the magnetic separation is depending on their size and composition. The developed model involves a size and composition dependent entrapment parameter and a separation function that depends on the magnetic volume of the particle and the nature of gangue mineral. The model is capable of forecasting the behavior of particles in magnetic separation with the necessary accuracy. This study highlights the benefits that particle-based models in simulation offer whereas lower level process models fail to provide.

  • 15.
    Parian, Mehdi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Process simulations in mineralogy-based geometallurgy of iron ores2018In: Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy Section C - Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, ISSN 0371-9553, E-ISSN 1743-2855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mineral processing simulation models can be classified based on the level that feed stream to the plant and unit models are described. The levels of modelling in this context are: bulk, mineral or element by size, and particle. Particle level modelling and simulation utilises liberation data in the feed stream and is more sensitive to the variations in ore quality, specifically ore texture. In this paper, simulations for two texturally different magnetite ores are demonstrated at different modelling levels. The model parameters were calibrated for current run-of-mine ore and then in the simulation applied directly to the other ore. For the second ore, the simulation results vary between the different levels. This is because, at the bulk level, the model assumes minerals do not change their behaviour if ore texture or grinding fineness are changed. At the mineral by size level, the assumption is that minerals behave identically in each size fraction even if the ore texture changes. At the particle level, the assumption is that similar particles behave in the same way. The particle level approach gives results that are more realistic and it can be used in optimisation, thus finding the most optimal processing way for different geometallurgical domains.

  • 16.
    Parian, Mehdi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Using modal composition instead of elemental grades in mineral resource estimate – high quality modal analysis by combining X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Parian, Mehdi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Mwanga, Abdul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Keliber Oy, Kaustinen.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Ore texture breakage characterization and fragmentation into multiphase particles2018In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 327, p. 57-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ore texture and the progeny particles after a breakage in the comminution have been a subject of interest in mineral liberation studies and are the missing link between geology and mineral processing in the concept of geometallurgy. A new method called Association Indicator Matrix (AIM) established based on co-occurrence matrix was introduced to quantify the mineral association of ore texture and its progeny particles. The Association Indicator Matrix can be used as a criterion for classifying ore texture as well as analyzing breakage behavior of ore texture. Within the study, the outcome of breakage analysis with Association Indicator Matrix was used to forecast particle population of iron ore texture after crushing. The particle size of forecasted particles was taken from experimental and frequency of breakage in phases was defined based on Association Indicator and liberation of minerals. Comparison of liberation distribution of iron oxide minerals from experimental and forecasted population shows a satisfactory agreement.

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