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  • 1.
    Frisk, Nikolina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Sain, Mohini
    University of Toronto.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Novel Applications of Nanocellulose: Lightweight Sandwich Composites for Transportation2015In: Reference module in materials science and materials engineering / [ed] Saleem Hashmi, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter is focusing on improvement of the mechanical properties of bio-polyurethane (PU) foam by reinforcing the pre-resin with cellulose nanofibers (CNF). The prepared foam performance was evaluated by manufacturing lightweight sandwich panels using vacuum infusion process with CNF-reinforced bio-PU foam core. Cellulose fiber network (kraft paper) was used as a skin and epoxy resin was used as adhesive resin. The sandwich was tested and compared to a non-reinforced PU foam core sandwich in terms of compressive, flexural, and structural properties. The results showed that the CNF-reinforced foam resulted in sandwich panel with improved mechanical properties, and to foam with smaller cell size and lower open cell content. Moreover, the results were evaluated in a material selection process by means of minimizing merit indices. A trend in the behavior of compressive properties of the foam and flexural properties of the sandwich panels could be established. Overall, the results indicated that the mechanical properties of bio-PU foam was improved by reinforcing the pre-resin with small amounts of wet carrot CNF.

    Ultimately, this work shows a positive trend suggesting CNF-reinforced bio-PU foam has a great potential for use in commercialized products or structural components in future constructions.

  • 2.
    Zhou, Xiaojian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Sethi, Jatin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Geng, Shiyu
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Frisk, Nikolina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Sain, Mohini
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Dispersion and reinforcing effect of carrot nanofibers on biopolyurethane foams2016In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 110, p. 526-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, carrot nanofibers (CNF) were used to enhance the performance of biobased castor oil polyol polyurethane nanocomposite foams. A method of dispersing CNF in the polyol was developed and the foam characteristics and CNF reinforcing effect were studied. Co-solvent-assisted mixing resulted in well-dispersed CNF in the polyol, and foams with 0.25, 0.5 and 1 phr CNF content were prepared. The reinforced nanocomposite foams displayed a narrow cell size distribution and the compressive strength and modulus were significantly elevated and the best compressive strength and modulus were reached with 0.5 phr CNF. Similarly, the modulus of the solid material was also significantly increased based on theoretical calculations. When comparing the foam performance, compressive strength and stiffness as a function of the density, the nanocomposite foams performs as commercial rigid PU foam with a closed cell structure. These results are very promising and we believe that these foams are excellent core materials for lightweight sandwich composites.

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