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  • 1.
    Chivilikhin, Daniil
    et al.
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, St. Petersburg.
    Shalyto, Anatoly
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, St. Petersburg.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Reconstruction of Function Block Logic Using Metaheuristic Algorithm2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, no 4, 1763-1771 p., 7936605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An approach for automatic reconstruction of automation logic from execution scenarios using a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed. IEC 61499 basic function blocks are chosen as implementation language and reconstruction of Execution Control Charts for basic function blocks is addressed. The synthesis method is based on a metaheuristic algorithm that combines ideas from ant colony optimization and evolutionary computation. Execution scenarios can be recorded from testing legacy software solutions. At this stage results are only limited to generation of basic function blocks having only Boolean input/output variables.

  • 2.
    Chivilikhin, Daniil
    et al.
    ITMO University.
    Shalyto, Anatoly
    ITMO University.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Reconstruction of function block logic using metaheuristic algorithm: Initial explorations2015In: IEEE 13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN'15): Cambridge, United Kingdom, 22-24 July 2015, Piscatasway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, 1239-1242 p., 7281912Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach for automatic reconstruction of automation logic from execution scenarios using a metaheuristic algorithm. The IEC 61499 basic function blocks is chosen as implementation language and reconstruction of Execution Control Charts for basic function blocks is addressed. The synthesis method is based on a metaheuristic algorithm most closely related to ant colony optimization and evolutionary computation. Execution scenarios can be recorded from testing legacy software solutions. At this stage results are only limited to generation of basic function blocks having only Boolean input/output variables

  • 3.
    Demin, Evgenii
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza, Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Automation services orchestration with function blocks: Web-service implementation and performance evaluation2016In: Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi-Agent Manufacturing: [International Workshop on Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi-agent Manufacturing, SOHOMA 2015, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 5-6 November 2015 / [ed] Theodor Borangiu ; Damien Trentesaux; André Thomas; Duncan McFarlane, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2016, 213-221 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents service-oriented implementation of distributed automation systems and the results of a practical performance measurement of Web-services deployed on different platforms. In the experiments we used a technique that allows one to separate the characteristics of the Web-service, such as the delays introduced by the medium of communication. It is shown that the technology development and deployment of Web-services significantly affect their performance

  • 4.
    Demin, Evgenii
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Dubinin, Victor
    Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    IEC 61499 distributed control enhanced with cloud-based web-services2015In: 2015 IEEE 10th Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA): Auckland, 15-17 June 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, 972-977 p., 7334249Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a framework for employing cloud- deployable web services in the design of distributed control systems in industrial automation. The paper demonstrates how a part of the control logic can be developed as a web service and deployed in the cloud to improve reusability and flexibility. In order to demonstrate the use of the framework we consider an example of Pick-and-Place Manipulator, which was originally designed as IEC 61499 function block application with a distributed control consisting of a high level and a low-level control logic. Firstly the high level control and its functionality is converted to a web services and deployed to a cloud. Secondly the application is modified such that the low level control interacts with these newly developed web services. The paper also presents an interface between low level control and web service using dynamic linked library that bridges communication between the two components It concludes with the simulation results of the of Pick-and-Place Manipulator implemented using the proposed framework.

  • 5.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Orchestration of Arrowhead services using IEC 61499: Distributed Automation Case Study2016In: Proceedings of 2016 IEEE 20th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2016), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, 7733650Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel approach to automationof flexible manufacturing systems with mechatronic intelligenceand distributed control. The mechatronic intelligence layer isimplemented using a combination of wireless sensor/actuatornetworks with service-oriented architecture, where services arelocated at the device level, as well as in local and global Cloudsfollowing the Arrowhead framework.The machine/floor level coordination is implemented using thedistributed automation architecture of IEC 61499, which is alsoused as a graphical tool for orchestration of services.The paper discusses the enablers developed in-order to combineIEC 61499 and Arrowhead and the use is illustrated ona laboratory scale flexible factory example. By integration ofIndustrial IoT with IEC 61499, we envision that large gains interms of engineering effort and system operation performancecan be made.

  • 6.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    et al.
    Penza State University.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    Penza State University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Penza State University.
    Formal verification of cyber-physical automation systems modelled with timed block diagrams2016In: IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, ISIE 2016, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, 316-321 p., 7744910Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a new modelling approach is presented to be used for formal-verification of block-diagram executable specifications of distributed industrial cyber-physical systems following the IEC 61499 standard. The approach allows usage of timers and arithmetic operations in the controller code. SMV model-checker is used as the target tool. The function block modelswith multiple communicating plant-controller closed-loops are transformed to the SMV modelling language using a dedicated model-generator tool. The paper first deals with SMV modelling of the IEC 61499 specific timer function block types. In particular, modelling of hierarchical function block systems with timers located at different levels of hierarchy is addressed. The paper then presents plant abstraction techniques so that the complexity of cyber-physical systems models is reduced. The abstraction uses discrete-timed state machine model implemented in UPPAAL. Delays in the plant model are interpreted as model time constraints. The approach is illustrated with an example of formal verification of a modular mechatronic automated system. The achieved results extend the abilities in validation of real cyber-physical automation systems. The paper also demonstrates how this result helps in counterexample guided simulation in Ciros 3D simulation environment, which improves practical usability of formal verification

  • 7.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Formal Modelling of Distributed Automation CPS with CP-Agnostic Software2017In: Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi-Agent Manufacturing: Proceedings of SOHOMA 2016 / [ed] Theodor Borangiu, Damien Trentesaux, André Thomas, Paulo Leitão, José Barata Oliveira, Springer International Publishing , 2017, 35-46 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the application of formal modelling to cyber-physical systems for the purpose of formal verification of cyber-physical agnosticism properties of decentralised automation software. Service-oriented cyber-physical systems are modelled using the IEC 61499 function block architecture. Then, the IEC 61499 model is represented in terms of SMV formal language, which is verified using the nuXmv model checker. The timestamped events mechanism is implemented in IEC 61499 using the existing syntax of the standard. The impact of jitter on the behaviour of physical system is demonstrated in both simulation within IEC 61499 execution environment and in counter-examples extracted from nuXmv. The methodology presented in this paper creates the premise for automatic verification of the cyber-physical agnosticism of systems

  • 8.
    Kleyko, Denis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pang, Zhibo
    ABB AB, Corporate research.
    On Methodology of Implementing Distributed Function Block Applications using TinyOS WSN nodes2014In: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, 7005107Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a feasibility study of implementing parts of a distributed function block application as TinyOS modules running on Wireless Sensors as a part of Wireless Sensor Network. The paper first briefly describes underlying technologies and gives motivation for implementation of function blocks in TinyOS. The paper then presents implementation details about TinyOS realization of the one of the function block, which is a part of bigger distributed control application with the help of distributed function block application.

  • 9.
    Masselot, Michael
    et al.
    National Institute of Applied Sciences of Lyon.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Towards a formal model of protection functions for power distribution networks2016In: ECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, 5302-5309 p., 7794150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The protection system is a crucial part of the power grid. It protects people, equipment, and property. Reliability of such mission critical systems is of an extreme importance. Protection systems have strict requirements to reliability including dependability, security and timeliness. Although it undertakes rigorous testing and commissioning, it fails in some circumstances causing faults in the network, resulting in loss of power. It is hard to catch these hidden and undetectable errors in the design and installation. Since protection function is essentially a piece of code, formal methods can be used for rigorous testing of the software and provide definitive proof of the system properties. This paper proposes a formal model (to use in formal verification techniques) for protection systems. The paper develops closed loop model of the electrical network with its protection system. The model is developed in IEC 61499 language for the further generation of its formal model in SMV language. The model is validated via simulation and comparison with a comprehensive model of the electrical network in Matlab Simulink. In future work, the generated SMV model will be used to formally verify reliability requirements of the protection system.

  • 10.
    Pang, Cheng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Shalyto, Anatoly
    ITMO University.
    A Portability Study of IEC 61499: Semantics and Tools2014In: 12th IEEE Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN 2014): Porto Alegre, Brazil, 27 - 30 July 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, 440-445 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The second edition of the IEC 61499 standard aims to clarify the interpretation ambiguities of function block’s execution semantics. This resolves the pivotal issue of realizing portable and interoperable implementations of the IEC 61499 reference architecture. As the IEC 61499 standard is about entering its technology takeoff phase, these clarifications are timely and important. It is hence expected that more innovators of automation software tools, runtime environments, and control hardware will start adopting this technology. To assist such adoption, this paper presents a study of existing IEC 61499 tools’ portability issues. In particular, the features of currently active IEC 61499 tools, such as FBDK, ISaGRAF, 4DIAC, and nxtStudio are outlined. Their incompatibility issues due to different execution semantics are exemplified. Moreover, it is also illustrated in this paper how these issues can be addressed by complying with the updated norms.

  • 11.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Bhadra, S.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Closed-loop formal verification framework with non-determinism, configurable by meta-modelling2011In: Proceedings of the 37th IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON 2011), Melbourne, VIC: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, 3770-3775 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formal verification of embedded control systems using closed-loop plant-controller models is getting increasingly popular. In this paper we propose a new method reducing complexity of model-checking on account of infusing non-determinism into certain parts of the plant model during formal verification process guided by a software tool. Net Condition/Event Systems (NCES) formalism is used for modular design of closed-loop models which are verified by ViVe and SESA model-checkers. Its performance is compared to modelling with finite state verified with SMV and UPPAAL and is proven to be superior.

  • 12.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Dubinin, Victor
    Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza, Penza State University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Cloud-Based Framework for Practical Model-Checking of Industrial Automation Applications2015In: Technological Innovation for Cloud-Based Engineering Systems: 6th IFIP WG 5.5/SOCOLNET Doctoral Conference on Computing, Electrical and Industrial Systems, DoCEIS 2015, Costa de Caparica, Portugal, April 13-15, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Luis M. Camarinha-Matos ; Thais A. Baldissera ; Giovanni Di Orio; Francisco Marques, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, 73-81 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we address practical aspects of applying the model-checking method for industrial automation systems verification. Several measures are proposed to cope with the high computational complexity of model-checking. To improve scalability of the method, cloud-based verification tools infrastructure is used. Besides, closed-loop plant controller modelling and synchronization of transitions in the SMV (input language for symbolic model checking) model aim at complexity reduction. The state explosion problem is additionally dealt with by using an abstraction of the model of the plant with net-condition event systems, which is then translated to SMV. In addition, bounded model-checking is applied, which helps to achieve results in cases when the state space is too high. The paper concludes with comparison of performance for different complexity reduction methods

  • 13.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza.
    Pang, Cheng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Neutralizing Semantic Ambiguities of Function Block Architecture by Modeling with ASM2015In: Perspectives of System Informatics: 9th International Ershov Informatics Conference, PSI 2014, St. Petersburg, Russia, June 24-27, 2014. Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Andrei Voronkov ; Irina Virbitskaite, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, 76-91 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Function Blocks Architecture of the IEC 61499 standard is an executable component model for distributed embedded control systems combining block-diagrams and state machines. The standard aims at the portability of control applications that is however hampered by ambiguities in its execution semantics descriptions. In recent years several execution models have been implemented in different software tools that generate mutually incompatible code.This paper proposes a general approach to neutralizing these semantic ambiguities by formal description of the IEC 61499 in abstract state machines (ASM). The model embodies all known execution semantics of function blocks. The ASM model is further translated to the input format of the SMV model-checker which is used to verify formally properties of applications. In this way the proposed verification framework enables the portability checking of component-based control applications across different implementation platforms compliant with the IEC 61499 standard.The paper first discusses different existing execution semantics of function blocks and the portability issues across different IEC 61499 tools. Then a modular formal model of function blocks’ operational semantics in ASM is introduced and exemplified in the paper by the cyclic execution semantics case for a composite function block. Subsequently, the SMV model is generated and model-checking is illustrated for a simple test case.

  • 14.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Formal Modelling and Verification of IEC61499 Function Blocks with Abstract State Machines and SMV: Execution Semantics2015In: Dependable Software Engineering: Theories, Tools, and Applications : First International Symposium, SETTA 2015, Nanjing, China, November 4-6, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Xuandong Li; Zhiming Liu; Wang Yi, New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, 300-315 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IEC 61499 Standard for Function Blocks Architecture is an executable component model for distributed embedded control system design that combines block-diagrams and state machines. This paper proposes approach to formal modelling of IEC61499 function block execution semantics for popular model checking environment of SMV using Abstract State Machines. An operational semantics of IEC 61499 application with two-stage synchronous execution model is presented using this framework. This paper first introduces the importance of model checking function block applications in different execution semantics. It highlights the uses of formal verification, such as, verifying portability (behavior) of component based control applications across different implementation platforms compliant with the IEC 61499 standard. The formal model is applied on an example IEC 61499 application. The paper compares the verification results of this IEC 61499 application with two-stage synchronous execution model and the same application with cyclic execution model presented in the earlier work. With this comparison, we verify the portability of the IEC61499 applications across different platforms.

  • 15.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza, Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Formal Verification of IEC61499 Function Blocks with Abstract State Machines and SMV -- Modelling2015In: IEEE TrustCom-BigDataSE-ISPA 2015: Helsinki, 20-22 Aug. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, Vol. 3, 313-320 p., 7345666Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IEC 61499 Standard for Function Blocks Architecture is an executable component model for distributed embedded control system design that combines block diagrams and state machines. This paper proposes rules for formal modelling of IEC61499 function blocks for popular model checking environment of SMV using Abstract State Machines as an intermediate model. This paper first proposes a formal description of the IEC 61499 in abstract state machines (ASM). The formal description for main artifact of the standard (function block) is presented in the paper. The ASM model is further translated to the input format of the SMV model checker which is used to formally verify properties of applications developed in IEC 61499 standard. In this way the proposed verification framework enables the formal verification of the IEC 61499 control systems. The paper also highlights the other uses of verification such as portability of IEC 61499 based control applications across different implementation platforms compliant with the IEC 61499 standard. The formal model is applied on an example IEC 61499 controller, and the SMV model for the Basic Function block is explained in detail.

  • 16.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    McMillin, Bruce
    Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla.
    Implementation of FREEDM Smart Grid distributed load balancing using IEC 61499 function blocks2013In: Proceedings of Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013: 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE, IEEE Communications Society, 2013, 8154-8159 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents implementation of one of the Distributed Grid Intelligence (DGI) applications: Load Balancing, using the IEC61499 architecture. This enables system level design of distributed load balancing application with a direct pathway to deployment to hardware. The use of IEC 61499 improves scalability, re-configurability and maintainability of automation software. The application was deployed to commercial programmable automation devices and embedded controller (ARM based TS-7800). The application was verified using co-simulation approach: control and power system simulated using Matlab on PC networked with the number of distributed hardware running load balance algorithm. The use of IEC 61499 facilitates deployment of hardware independent function block model to the variety of compliant hardware.

  • 17.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pang, Cheng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Counterexample-guided simulation framework for formal verification of flexible automation systems2015In: IEEE 13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 2015: Cambridge, United Kingdom, 22-24 July 2015, Piscataway, Nj: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, 1192-1197 p., 7281905Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a framework for formal verification of industrial automation software in an intuitive way. The IEC 61499 function block architecture is assumed to be the input language, and the Intelligent Mechatronic Components (IMC) architecture is assumed as an underlying design pattern for the applications, which implies autonomous control logic in each IMC and their compositions to systems in a plug-and-play way. Then the system is automatically verified using model checking and the counter examples for the failed model checking properties are played back step-by-step and state-by-state in the simulation model that most industrial automation control systems would have built as the basis for initial testing. Net Condition Event Systems formalism (a modular extension of Petri net) is used to model the decentralized control logic and discrete-state dynamics of the plant. The model is then subjected to model checking using the ViVe/SESA tool chain. The method's application is illustrated using a simple pick and place manipulator. A closed loop model of Plant and Controller is used. Controller is extensively verified for safety, liveliness and functional properties of the robot. We then show how a counter example for deadlock detected by the model checker is played back in the simulation model for visualizing how exactly the system deadlocked.

  • 18.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pang, Cheng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Yan, Jeffrey
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland.
    On composition of mechatronic components enabled by interoperability and portability provisions of IEC 61499: a case study2013In: Proceedings of 2013 IEEE 18th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2013): Cagliari, Italy, 10-13 September 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, 4- p., 6648136Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interoperability is one of the most important features expected from distributed automation architectures. Achieving interoperability involves addressing issues related to synchronization of behavior, communication protocols, and data presentation formats. In this paper a case study on deployment of an automation application to a network of control devices with three different hardware/software platforms is presented to exploit benefits of the IEC 61499 architecture. Firstly, an overall control application with essentially distributed logic was created. This control application was then validated using closed-loop simulation and finally deployed to a network of control devices

  • 19.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Sorouri, Majid
    University of Auckland.
    Formal verification of intelligent mechatronic systems with decentralized control logic2012In: Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2012): Krakow, Poland, 17 - 21 September 2012; [including workshops], Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces an approach to automatic verification of mechatronic systems designed as plug-and-play of Intelligent Mechatronic Components (IMC). The control logic of the system is composed from autonomous controllers of the IMCs and is automatically verified using model-checking. Net Condition Event Systems formalism (a modular extension of Petri net) is used to model the decentralized control logic and discrete-state dynamics of the plant. A re-configurable pick and place robot is used as an illustrative example. At first a three cylinder pick and place robot is used to design our new master-slave architecture for controller design and then the NCES models are re-used without much modification in a new 6 cylinder pick and place robot. The control model is then subjected to model checking using the ViVe/SESA model checker. A multi closed loop model of Plant and Controller is used and controller is extensively verified for safety, liveliness and functional properties of the robot. Computational Tree Logic (CTL) is used to specify these properties.

  • 20.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    McMillin, Bruce
    Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Department of Computer Science, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla.
    Towards formal verification of smart grid distributed intelligence: FREEDM case2016In: Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2015: Yokohama, Japan, 9-12 Nov. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, 3974-3979 p., 7392719Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a model-checking framework for the purpose of design and implementation of robust smart grid applications based on distributed intelligence. The paper first introduces distributed grid intelligence approach to smart grid automation and related challenges of their verification. We then introduce the case study example and how model-checking can be applied to the presented system implemented in IEC 61499 standard. In the end we present the initial results of our model-checking application to smart grid applications. The paper will conclude with some issues faced during the research and corrective steps to address these issues in future.

  • 21.
    Sinha, Roopak
    et al.
    Auckland University of Technology, School of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pang, Cheng
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Dowdeswell, Barry
    School of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology.
    Requirements engineering of industrial automation systems: Adapting the CESAR requirements meta model for safety-critical smart grid software2016In: Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2015: Yokohama, Japan, 9-12 Nov. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, 2172-2177 p., 7392423Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements engineering is the first stage in the development of any system. For safety-critical industrial systems like smart-grids, we must ensure that requirements are properly elicited, defined, analyzed and managed. This paper adapts the requirements framework developed in the CESAR European project, called the CESAR requirements meta-model, to support all aspects of requirements engineering for safety-critical systems. This enables the formalization of requirements in order to automate and assist in many aspects of later stages in the system development life cycle. Using a smart grid system from the FREEDM project, we illustrate that the adapted requirements engineering framework is comprehensive and rich for large safety-critical systems. We find that the use of the IEC 61499 function block standard provides an appropriate system modelling and implementation framework, which complements the strengths of the proposed requirements engineering framework. Traceability links between requirements and components of an IEC 61499 system model can help with automatic test case generation and formal analysis of requirements.

  • 22.
    Sorouri, Majid
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Salcic, Zoran
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Software Composition and Distributed Operation Scheduling in Modular Automated Machines2015In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 11, no 4, 865-878 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new software composition method for automated machines that exploits their mechatronic modularity. It is demonstrated that desired behavior of a certain class of machines can be composed of behaviors of its mechatronic components, including fully decentralized scheduling and operation control. This aims at increased performance of software design and maintenance, as well as systems' flexibility and reconfigurability. The IEC 61499 Function Blocks' (FBs) architecture is used as an implementation platform that enables system-level simulation and transparency of deployment. A configurable pick-and-place (PnP) manipulator with decentralized control synthesized using the proposed approach is chosen as an illustrative example

  • 23.
    Sorouri, Majid
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Patil, Sandeep
    The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Distributed control patterns for intelligent mechatronic systems2012In: 2012 IEEE 10th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN 2012: Beijing, China, 25 - 27 July 2012, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012, 259-264 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a step-by-step approach for developing modular and reusable logic controllers of mechatronic systems. Following that, it presents the results of employing three distributed control methods, including master-slave, peer-to-peer and independent controllers on a pick-and-place robot as a simple showcase of implementing a distributed control system on industrial applications, using the emerged IEC 61499 standard. Moreover, it addresses possibilities and challenges of using each approach.

  • 24.
    Zhabelova, G.
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Patil, Sandeep
    University of Auckland.
    Yang, C-W
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Smart Grid applications with IEC 61499 reference architecture2013In: Proceedings of the 11th IEEE Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN 2013): Bochum; Germany; 29 July 2013 through 31 July 2013, IEEE Communications Society, 2013, 458-463 p., 6622928Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents implementation of the Distributed Grid Intelligence (DGI) applications such as Intelligent Fault Management and Load Balancing using IEC61499 reference architecture. This enables system level design of distributed applications with a direct pathway to deployment to hardware. The use of IEC 61499 improves scalability, re-configurability and maintainability of automation software. Both applications were verified using co-simulation approach: control and power system simulated on PCs, and power system simulation on a PC networked with the number of distributed hardware running control algorithm. Both DGI applications were deployed to commercial programmable automation devices and embedded controllers. The use of IEC 61499 facilitates deployment of hardware independent function block model to the variety of compliant hardware. The paper also discusses distributed SCADA concept with IEC61499 implemented with the so-called Composite Automation Type (CAT) function blocks which combine functional and visual components. These blocks are used to implement human-machine interface of the FREEDM Smart Grid demonstrator reacting on plugging and unplugging of energy resources

  • 25.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pang, Cheng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Yan, Jeffrey
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Shalyto, Anatoly
    ITMO University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Cyber-physical components for heterogeneous modeling, validation and implementation of smart grid intelligence2014In: 12th IEEE Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN 2014): Porto Alegre, Brazil, 27 - 30 July 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, 411-417 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a practical framework to bring the cyber-physical block diagram models, such as Ptolemy, to the practice of industrial automation. Cyber-Physical Component (CPC) architecture is suggested. CPC aims at the improvement of design, verification and validation practices in automation of Smart Grid. IEC 61499 standard is used as a basis for this architecture. This architecture addresses several design software and system engineering challenges: right equilibrium between abstract representation and “executability” and round-trip engineering. An CPC exhibit such properties as portability, interoperability and configurability thanks to the reliance on open standards. The use of time stamp based execution paradigm adds determinism and predictability at the run-time.

1 - 25 of 25
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