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  • 1.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Simmons, Christian
    Simmons akustik och utveckling.
    Öqvist, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Correlation between sound insulation and occupants’ perception: Proposal of alternative single number rating of impact sound, part II2017In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682x, Vol. 123, p. 143-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A previous Swedish research project indicated the potential need for evaluating impact sound insulation from 20 Hz in buildings with lightweight constructions. This is a discrepancy compared to the commonly used frequency intervals starting from 50 or 100 Hz. The statistical significance of this groundbreaking suggestion was however not satisfactorily strong since the result was based upon a limited number of building objects.

    The scope of the present paper is to secure the previous study by adding additional objects to the underlying database, thereby increasing the confidence of the results. The methodology is to perform impact sound insulation measurements in apartment buildings of various construction types and to perform questionnaire surveys among the residents. The measured sound insulation is compared to the subjective rating by the occupants in order to find the parameter giving the highest correlation with respect to frequency range and weighting.

    The highest correlation was found when the impact sound insulation was evaluated from 25 Hz using a flat frequency-weighting factor. Frequencies below 50 Hz are of great importance when evaluating impact sound insulation in lightweight constructions

  • 2.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Simmons, Christian
    Simmons akustik och utveckling.
    Öqvist, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Evaluation of impact sound insulation from 20 Hz2017In: / [ed] Gibbs B., International Institute of Acoustics and Vibration , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reduce costly downtime, adequate condition monitoring of the automatic transmission components in heavy duty construction equipment is necessary. The transmission in such equipment enables to change the gear ratio automatically. Further, the bearings in an automatic transmission provide low friction support to its rotating parts and act as an interface separating stationary from rotating components. Wear or other bearing faults may lead to an increase in energy consumption as well as failure of other related components in the automatic transmission, and thus costly downtime. In this study, different sensor data (particularly vibration) was collected on the automatic transmission during controlled test cycles in an automatic transmission test rig to enable adequate condition monitoring.

    An analysis of the measured vibration data was carried out using signal processing methods. The results indicate that predictive maintenance information related to the automatic transmission bearings may be extracted from vibrations measured on an automatic transmission. This information may be used for early fault detection, thus improving uptime and availability of heavy duty construction equipment.

  • 3.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Öqvist, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Simmons, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology.
    An empirical study of the spatial uncertainty of reverberation time measurement below 50 Hz2016In: InterNoise 2016: 45th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Towards a Quieter Future / [ed] von Estorff O., Kropp W., Schulte-Fortkamp B, German Acoustical Society , 2016, p. 3661-3665Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relevance of performing reverberation time measurements at very low frequencies became an issue in Sweden when the national standard recommended that impact sound insulation should be evaluated from 20 Hz for sound classes above the minimum requirement. Even though the standard states that L'n,T is not to be normalized with respect of reverberation time for frequencies below 50 Hz, it could be argued to include such a correction term to handle any possible variation in the absorption properties of the room. But this can be done only if the reverberation time can be accomplished with reasonable accuracy. The present paper presents an empirical study where reverberation time has been measured from 20 Hz in two different bedrooms with more than 100 microphone positions in each in order to determine the spatial variation. A comparison is made between the uncertainty as a function of frequency and it is indicated that the standard deviation is larger for the lowest frequencies, below 50 Hz, compared to higher. From an engineering point of view, this can be compensated by adding additional positions to the already existing ISO measurement procedure

  • 4.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Öqvist, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Simmons, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology. Simmons akustik och utveckling, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Uncertainty of in situ low frequency reverberation time measurements from 20 Hz: An empirical study2016In: Noise Control Engineering Journal, ISSN 0736-2501, E-ISSN 2168-8710, Vol. 64, no 6, p. 706-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring reverberation time is normally one of the steps within the procedure of determining sound insulation in dwellings where 100 or 50 Hz usually serves as the lower frequency limit. However, even lower frequencies have become a matter of interest as research in the field recently indicated that the range 20-50 Hz seems to be of great importance when it comes to the perception of impact sound in lightweight buildings. A major issue in this context is then whether it is appropriate to measure and evaluate reverberation time at such low frequencies. This paper presents an empirical study of reverberation time measurements made in two rooms using more than 100 microphone positions in each. The measurement uncertainty with respect to microphone position and combinations of positions are compared for the frequency bands from 16 to 1600 Hz. Furthermore, it is analyzed how many microphone positions are needed in order to, with a reasonable probability, end up with an uncertainty in the related standardized impact sound level insulation L′n,T within ±1 dB

  • 5.
    Öqvist, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics. Tyréns AB.
    Measurement and perception of sound insulation from 20 Hz between dwellings2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Population growth and urbanization are projected by the United Nations to add 2,5 billionpeople to the world’s urban population by 2050. We need to construct buildings in anunprecedented scale to meet global housing demand. Sustainable development is critical.Compared to traditional heavy constructions, lightweight wooden constructions are moreenvironmentally friendly and will play a key role in meeting future demands. However, thereare two major problems with lightweight constructions that need to be addressed: 1) Limitedlow frequency sound insulation and 2) Variations in sound insulation.Annoyance from walking sound tend to be higher in lightweight than in heavy constructionseven with the same measured sound insulation. The Swedish research program AkuLiteindicated that the correlation between measured sound insulation and annoyance wassignificantly improved by extending current evaluation methods from 50 Hz down to 20 Hz.Secondly, large variations in sound insulation between nominally identical lightweightconstructions are common, which leads to larger safety margins. By identifying and quantifyingunderlying causes, production costs can be minimized and the performance can be improved.The aim of the thesis is to develop a new evaluation method for impact sound insulation thatbetter correspond to rated annoyance, and to identify and control underlying causes forvariations in sound insulation. The thesis contains six papers.In Paper I and II, sound insulation measurements were carried out in a large number ofnominally identical rooms of two different industrially prefabricated lightweight woodenconstructions. The purpose was to assess and quantify the variations in impact and airbornesound insulation. In Paper I, 30 nominally identical apartments of a volume based system wasevaluated. The apartments on the highest floor achieved significantly better sound insulationdue to the extra weight on lower floors affecting the elastic connections between stories. InPaper II, 18 rooms of a cross-laminated timber system of plate elements were evaluated.Additionally, several potential parameters related to measurement uncertainty wereinvestigated.Paper III deals with measurement uncertainty. An empirical study of reverberation timemeasurements showed that current methods need to be improved, if sound insulationrequirements are to be extended to 20 Hz.Paper IV and V verified that the frequency range 20-50 Hz is important for walking soundannoyance, and that alternative frequency adaptation terms can improve the correlation betweenmeasured impact sound insulation and annoyance ratings. In Paper IV, the methodology was toperform extensive field measurements in apartment buildings of various construction types andto perform questionnaire surveys among the residents. In Paper V, the methodology was toevaluate annoyance based on binaural recordings of walking sound in a two-part listening test.In Paper VI, 70 measurements in a lightweight wooden system were evaluated to quantify thetotal variations in impact and airborne sound insulation from 20 and 50 Hz, respectively. It wasconcluded that the proposed metrics of impact sound insulation were primarily determined bythe impact sound level 20-40 Hz and that the measurement methods must be evaluatedthoroughly to avoid excessive safety margins.

    A new evaluation method for impact sound insulation from 25 Hz, that correspond to the ratedannoyance for both heavy and lightweight constructions is proposed. By using the proposedmethod and attending the specific causes for variations, the lightweight industry will be able todevelop improved multi-story dwellings with higher perceived acoustic quality.

  • 6.
    Öqvist, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Variations in sound insulation in lightweight timber constructions2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis deals with the topic of variations and uncertainties in building acoustic parameters for lightweight timber constructions. A higher safety margin to the legal requirements is needed to compensate for acoustical uncertainties, which leads to higher costs. Building costs can be reduced if the variations can be identified and controlled. The project was limited to industrially prefabricated timber frame based volumes and massive timber based plate elements. This thesis is based on the work reported in three papers (A, B and C). In paper A, the variations in impact and airborne sound insulation were assessed and quantified in 30 nominally identical volume built apartments in a four-storey building. Large variations were found and the underlying causes were investigated. A statistically significant difference between floor numbers was found as the highest floor achieved better sound insulation. This difference was assumed to be caused by the higher static load on lower floors affecting the elastic layer used to structurally connect the apartments. In paper B, three room volumes were followed and measured at different stages of completion throughout the construction process. The objective was to test if acoustical deviations in the field can be identified at earlier construction stages. An ISO tapping machine was used to excite the floors and the response was measured at 20 positions. The airborne and impact sound insulation were measured in the finished building. Deviations were found, but these could not be traced to earlier stages of completion. In Paper C, the variations in sound insulation of a cross-laminated timber (CLT) building system was investigated. The construction was based on prefabricated wall and floor plate elements which were mounted at the building site. A number of acoustical uncertainties related to the measurement procedure were also investigated. The measurement uncertainty was small in comparison to the total variations. The degree of prefabrication for the CLT system was lower compared to the volume system, which indicated a greater scope for poor workmanship. All papers indicate a higher sound insulation on the upper floors in a building. It is therefore important to carefully design the elastic layer between floor numbers. The measurement uncertainty has been continuously considered in this thesis. In order to properly identify and quantify variations, the measurement uncertainty should be minimised. Advantages and drawbacks with different measurement methods and directions for future research are discussed in the concluding chapters.

  • 7.
    Öqvist, Rikard
    et al.
    Tyréns AB, Umeå.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Johnsson, Roger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Listening test of walking noise from 20 Hz in dwellings2017In: INTER-NOISE 2017: 46th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Taming Noise and Moving Quiet, Institute of Noise Control Engineering , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Walking noise annoyance from the neighbor above tend to be higher in lightweight than in heavy constructions, even with exactly the same measured impact sound level. The Swedish research program AkuLite indicated that the correlation between measured impact sound insulation and annoyance was significantly improved by extending current ISO evaluation methods from 50 Hz down to 20 Hz. Consequently, there is a need to develop new metrics of impact sound insulation that better correspond to the perceived sound quality. The objective of this study was to verify whether frequencies between 20-50 Hz are important for walking noise annoyance and to evaluate which impact sound level metric that best correlates with walking noise annoyance. The methodology was to evaluate annoyance based on binaural recordings of walking noise in a two-part listening test. The stimuli were reproduced using a combination of headphones and subwoofer. Two living rooms were evaluated, one lightweight wooden construction and one heavy concrete construction. Both rooms achieved similar weighted impact sound level when evaluated from 50 Hz, but the rated annoyance differed significantly. The need to consider frequencies down to 20 Hz in lightweight constructions was verified. The best correlation between measured impact sound level and subjective response was achieved when the evaluation range was extended down to 20 or 25 Hz using a flat frequency weighting factor.

  • 8.
    Öqvist, Rikard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics. Tyréns AB.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Johnsson, Roger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Walking sound annoyance vs. impact sound insulation from 20 Hz2018In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682X, E-ISSN 1872-910X, Vol. 135, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to develop single number quantities (SNQ) of impact sound insulation that correlate better with walking sound annoyance. Previous research has indicated that impact sound insulation should be evaluated from 20 Hz in lightweight constructions, using modified spectrum adaptation terms. The purpose of our study was to verify whether frequencies between 20 and 50 Hz are important for perceived walking sound annoyance and to verify whether the proposed spectrum adaptation terms improve correlation with perceived walking sound annoyance. Binaural recordings of walking sound in one heavy and one lightweight construction were evaluated in a two-part listening test. The need to include frequencies from 20 Hz when evaluating lightweight constructions was verified. Both tested constructions achieved similar performance in terms of LnT,w and LnT,w + CI,50-2500, while a significant mismatch in the rated annoyance was observed. The correlation between SNQ and subjective response was considerably improved, when the impact sound insulation was evaluated from 20 or 25 Hz using a flat frequency-weighting factor.

  • 9.
    Öqvist, Rikard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    On the uncertainty of building acoustic measurements: Case study of a cross-laminated timber construction2012In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682X, E-ISSN 1872-910X, Vol. 73, no 9, p. 904-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If variations and uncertainty in building acoustic measurements can be controlled, construction costs can potentially be reduced since the building will not have to be acoustically over-designed. Field measurements of impact and airborne sound insulation were carried out for an industrially prefabricated cross-laminated timber (CLT) system of plate elements. The results from 18 rooms, forming three groups with respect to size, were compared to a similar study dealing with a prefabricated Volume Based Building (VBB) system. Large variations were found at frequencies below 100 Hz which is crucial for the low frequency adaptation terms connected to the weighted sound insulation indices. The measurement uncertainty was investigated by analysing the repeatability, measurement direction and the time dependence of the sound source. The variations due to the measurement procedure were found to be small compared to the total variations. It was also indicated that the variations in sound insulation are smaller with a prefabricated system compared to on-site production, since less work is required at the building site

  • 10. Öqvist, Rikard
    et al.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    The growth of vibro-acoustical properties of volume based timber buildings during the construction phase2010In: Proceedings of 20th International Congress on Acoustics, ICA 2010: 23-27 August 2010, Sydney, Australia, Melbourne: Australian Acoustical Society , 2010, Vol. 4, p. 2700-2707Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variations in sound insulation are a problem for lightweight constructions, since it demands a high safety margin to the legal requirements on acoustical performance, if the variations are large. The building costs can be lowered if these variations can be characterised and identified. This paper describes an investigation of how the vibro-acoustical properties of nominally identical dwellings change during the construction phases. The objective is to find out whether acoustical deviations in the field can be traced to the earlier stages of construction. It also gives an indication of how the variations grow during the process. Throughout the investigation, all measurements were made on the same building elements. The building technique under study is a lightweight timber system consisting of industrially produced prefabricated volumes. Acceleration level measurements have been performed in the factory on building elements at different stages of completion; plates attached to beams, floor with gypsum board covering, the whole volume without floor parquet and the finished volume. An ISO tapping machine was used as excitation source and accelerometers were placed along the edges of the floors and across the surface. Field measurements were performed in the finished building. In addition to the analysis of acceleration level, airborne and impact sound insulation were measured in situ. Acoustical deviations were found for frequencies above 400 Hz, but these could not be traced back to the earlier construction stages.

  • 11. Öqvist, Rikard
    et al.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Variations in sound insulation in cross laminated timber housing construction2011In: Proceedings of Forum Acusticum: 27 June-01 July, Aalborg, Denmark, European Acoustics Association (EAA), 2011, p. 1649-1654Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    If variations and uncertainty in building acoustic measurements can be controlled, construction costs can potentially be reduced since the building will not have to be acoustically over-dimensioned. Field measurements of impact and airborne sound insulation were carried out for an industrially prefabricated cross-laminated timber (CLT) system of plate elements. The results from 18 rooms, forming three groups with respect to size, were compared to a similar study dealing with a volume based building system. Large variations were found at frequencies below 100 Hz which is crucial for the low frequency adaptation terms connected to the weighted sound insulation indices. The measurement uncertainty was controlled by analysing the repeatability, measurement direction and the time dependence of the sound source. The variations due to the measurement procedure were found to be small compared to the total variations. It was also indicated that the variations in sound insulation seem to decrease with the amount of workmanship required at the building site

  • 12. Öqvist, Rikard
    et al.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Variations in sound insulation in multi-storey lightweight timber constructions2009In: 38th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2009: INTER-NOISE 2009 ; Ottawa, Canada, 23 - 26 August 2009 / [ed] J. Stuart Bolton, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, p. 315-323Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By using industrialized building, pre-installed modules can be delivered to the construction site where they are easily mounted. This method has many advantages compared to on-site manufacturing. In general, the variability of sound insulation is large in lightweight constructions. The reasons behind this variability are not known and therefore the construction is over-dimensioned to make sure the requirements are met. If the causes of this variability can be found and controlled, the production cost will be reduced and the sound quality improved. This is possible, since much of the construction takes place under controlled circumstances. Field measurements of 31 apartments in a four-storey building have been made. Both airborne and impact sound insulation were measured. The apartments on the highest floor achieved significantly better sound insulation. This is an indication that preload is a factor which contributes to high flanking transmission. The structural coupling between modules will therefore be studied in depth. This paper will present the results from the measurements and propose further research.

  • 13. Öqvist, Rikard
    et al.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Variations in sound insulation in nominally identical prefabricated lightweight timber constructions2010In: Building Acoustics, ISSN 1351-010X, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 91-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variations in sound insulation necessitate higher safety margins to the legal requirements, which results in higher production costs. Increased knowledge about variations leads to lowered costs and better sound quality. In-situ measurements of 30 nominally identical apartments of a lightweight timber construction were performed, to assess and quantify the variations in airborne sound reduction and impact sound pressure level. The construction is an industrially prefabricated system of complete volumes. Different sound insulation was found between floor numbers as the apartments on the highest floor achieved significantly better sound insulation. This difference was assumed to be due to the extra weight on lower floors affecting the elastic connections used to structurally connect the apartments. The variation between apartments on the same floor was therefore evaluated using the Root Mean Square Error, resulting in a standard deviation of 0,9 dB and 1,4 dB for the airborne and impact sound insulation, respectively. The measurement variance was subtracted from the total variance. The remaining, unexplainable, variation of 0,8 dB in airborne sound insulation can be attributed to workmanship.

  • 14.
    Öqvist, Rikard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tunemalm, Lennart
    Tunemalm Akustik AB.
    Tunemalm, Björn
    Tunemalm Akustik AB.
    Studio Acusticum i Piteå - en mångsidig konserthall2008In: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 3, p. 43-46Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15. Öqvist, Rikard
    et al.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tunemalm, Björn
    Tunemalm Akustik AB.
    An objective investigation of the acoustics in three newly built concert halls2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the north of Sweden, three new concert halls have been built in the last few years. The three halls are; Studio Acusticum in Piteå (2007), Kulturens hus in Luleå (2007) and Norrlandsoperan in Umeå (2002). The Acoustics of the halls have been designed by Tunemalm Akustik. There are noticeable differences between the halls. Studio Acusticum is a multipurpose concert hall where the variable acoustics is realized by a height adjustable ceiling and absorbing curtains. Variable volume is an unusual solution, which permits good acoustics without many of the drawbacks normally associated with multipurpose halls. Kulturens hus is also a multipurpose hall, but here the variable acoustics is realized by variable absorption. The walls can be changed from reflective to absorptive by a system of motor driven panels. The acoustic properties of the ceiling can also be changed. To attain very short reverberation times, absorptive curtains can be lowered on the stage and side walls. Norrlandsoperan does not have any means of varying the acoustics during concerts. It is thus a "true" concert hall, built to fulfill the requirements of symphonic music. Good acoustics is thus achieved on the cost of versatility. During the winter of 07/08, a thorough investigation of the acoustics in these halls has been made. The investigation showed that each hall has its own distinct character, making them more or less suitable for different music. The measurements were made in accordance with ISO3382:1997, which describes the acoustic parameters used for objective concert hall evaluation. One of these parameters, Lateral Fraction (LF), was found to have reproducibility issues.

  • 16. Öqvist, Rikard
    et al.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tunemalm, Björn
    Tunemalm Akustik AB.
    Studio Acusticum: a concert hall with variable volume2008In: Auditorium Acoustics 2008, St. Albans: Institute of Acoustics , 2008, Vol. 30, p. 158-162Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the town of Piteå in the north of Sweden a new multipurpose concert hall, Studio Acusticum, was inaugurated in 2007. The acoustics of the hall is designed by Tunemalm Akustik with some help from Luleå University of Technology. Since Piteå is a town with a strong tradition of using wood for buildings, the construction consists mostly of wood. Surface treatment of the wooden elements permits good reflective properties. What makes this hall special is that the variable acoustics is accomplished by a height adjustable ceiling which can be raised or lowered 5 m, thereby effectively changing the reverberation volume by 30 %. There are also absorptive curtains which can be lowered to achieve short reverberation times for electronically amplified music. When compared to other multipurpose halls, this solution provides good acoustics for all uses without the need to compromise. A change in volume affects the reverberation time equally on all frequencies which gives better results than added absorption. Also, measurements have shown that reverberation time and clarity are the only parameters that change when the ceiling is lowered. Loudness, Lateral fraction and IACC are not affected by the change in ceiling height. This paper will give a thorough presentation of Studio Acusticum and its acoustical properties.

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