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  • 1.
    Bodin, Ulf
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Load-tolerant differentiation with active queue management2000In: Computer communication review, ISSN 0146-4833, E-ISSN 1943-5819, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 4-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current work in the IETF aims at providing service differentiation on the Internet. One proposal is to provide loss differentiation by assigning levels of drop procedence to IP packets. In this paper, we evaluate the active queue management (AQM) mechanisms RED In and Out (RIO) and Weighted RED (WRED) in providing levels of drop precedence under different loads. For low drop precedence traffic, FIO and WRED can be configured to offer sheltering (i.e., low drop precedence traffic is protected from losses caused by higher drop precedence traffic). However, if traffic control fails or is inaccurate, such configurations can cause starvation of traffic at high drop precedence levels. Configuring WRED to instead offer relative differentiation can eliminate the risk of starvation. However, WRED cannot, without reconfiguration, both offer sheltering when low drop precedence traffic is properly controlled and avoid starvation at overload of low drop precedence traffic. To achieve this, we propose a new AQM mechanism, WRED with Thresholds (WRT). The benefit of WRT is that, without reconfiguration, it offers sheltering when low drop precedence traffic is properly controlled and relative differentiation otherwise. We present simulations showing that WRT has these properties.

  • 2.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Brodnik, Andrej
    Carlsson, Svante
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Small forwarding tables for fast routing lookups1997In: Computer communication review, ISSN 0146-4833, E-ISSN 1943-5819, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For some time, the networking community has assumed that it is impossible to do IP routing lookups in software fast enough to support gigabit speeds. IP routing lookups must find the routing entry with the longest matching prefix, a task that has been thought to require hardware support at lookup frequencies of millions per second.We present a forwarding table data structure designed for quick routing lookups. Forwarding tables are small enough to fit in the cache of a conventional general purpose processor. With the table in cache, a 200 MHz Pentium Pro or a 333 MHz Alpha 21164 can perform a few million lookups per second. This means that it is feasible to do a full routing lookup for each IP packet at gigabit speeds without special hardware.The forwarding tables are very small, a large routing table with 40,000 routing entries can be compacted to a forwarding table of 150-160 Kbytes. A lookup typically requires less than 100 instructions on an Alpha, using eight memory references accessing a total of 14 bytes.

  • 3.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Brodnik, Andrej
    Carlsson, Svante
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Small forwarding tables for fast routing lookups1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For some time, the Internet community has believed that it is impossible to do IP routing lookups in software fast enough to support gigabit speeds. IP routing lookups must find the routing entry with the longest matching prefix, a task that has been thought to require hardware support at lookup frequencies of millions per second. We present a forwarding table data structure designed for quick routing lookups. Forwarding tables are small enough to fit in the cache of a conventional general purpose processor. With the table in cache, a 200 MHz Pentium Pro or a 333 MHz Alpha 21164 can perform a few million lookups per second. This means that it is feasible to do a full routing lookup for each IP packet at gigabit speeds without special hardware. The forwarding tables are very small, a large routing table with 40,000 routing entries can be compacted to a forwarding table of 150--160 Kbytes. A lookup typically requires less than 100 instructions on an Alpha, using eight memory references accessing a total of 14 bytes.

  • 4.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Engan, Mathias
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Nordgren, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Low-loss TCP/IP header compression for wireless networks1997In: Wireless networks, ISSN 1022-0038, E-ISSN 1572-8196, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 375-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless is becoming a popular way to connect mobile computers to the Internet and other networks. The bandwidth of wireless links will probably always be limited due to properties of the physical medium and regulatory limits on the use of frequencies for radio communication. Therefore, it is necessary for network protocols to utilize the available bandwidth efficiently. Headers of IP packets are growing and the bandwidth required for transmitting headers is increasing. With the coming of IPv6 the address size increases from 4 to 16 bytes and the basic IP header increases from 20 to 40 bytes. Moreover, most mobility schemes tunnel packets addressed to mobile hosts by adding an extra IP header or extra routing information, typically increasing the size of TCP/IPv4 headers to 60 bytes and TCP/IPv6 headers to 100 bytes. In this paper, we provide new header compression schemes for UDP/IP and TCP/IP protocols. We show how to reduce the size of UDP/IP headers by an order of magnitude, down to four to five bytes. Our method works over simplex links, lossy links, multi-access links, and supports multicast communication. We also show how to generalize the most commonly used method for header compression for TCP/IPv4, developed by Jacobson, to IPv6 and multiple IP headers. The resulting scheme unfortunately reduces TCP throughput over lossy links due to unfavorable interaction with TCP's congestion control mechanisms. However, by adding two simple mechanisms the potential gain from header compression can be realized over lossy wireless networks as well as point-to-point modem links.

  • 5.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Engan, Mathias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Nordgren, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology. Swedish Institute of Copmuter Science, Kista, Sweden.
    Low-loss TCP/IP header compression for wireless networks1996In: Proceedings of the annual international conference on mobile computing and networking ; 2nd: MOBICOM'96, IEEE Communications Society, 1996, p. 1-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless is becoming a popular way to connect mobile computers to the Internet and other networks. The bandwidth of wireless links will probably always be limited due to properties of the physical medium and regulatory limits on the use of frequencies for radio communication. Therefore, it is necessary for network protocols to utilize the available bandwidth efficiently. Headers of IP packets are growing and the bandwidth required for transmitting headers is increasing. With the coming of IPv6 the address size increases from 4 to 16 bytes and the basic IP header increases from 20 to 40 bytes. Moreover, most mobility schemes tunnel packets addressed to mobile hosts by adding an extra IP header or extra routing information, typically increasing the size of TCP/IPv4 headers to 60 bytes and TCP/IPv6 headers to 100 bytes. In this paper, we provide new header compression schemes for UDP/IP and TCP/IP protocols. We show how to reduce the size of UDP/IP headers by an order of magnitude, down t...

  • 6.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Köhler, Torsten
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Advance reservations for predictive service1995In: Network and Operating Systems Support for Digital Audio and Video: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Network and Operating System Support for Digital Audio and Video / [ed] Thomas D C Little; Riccardo Gusella, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 1995, p. 1-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We extend a measurement-based admission control algorithm suggested for predictive service to provide advance reservations for guaranteed and predictive service while keeping the attractive features of predictive service. The admission decision for advance reservations is based on information about flows that overlap in time. For flows that have not yet started, the requested values are used, and for those that have already started measurements are used. This allows us to estimate the network load accurately for the near future. To provide advance reservations we ask users to include durations in their requests. We provide simulation results to show that predictive service with advance reservations provides utilization levels significantly higher than those for guaranteed service.

  • 7.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Köhler, Torsten
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Advance reservations for predictive service in the Internet1997In: Multimedia Systems, ISSN 0942-4962, E-ISSN 1432-1882, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 177-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We extend a measurement-based admission control algorithm suggested for predictive service to provideadvance reservations for guaranteed and predictive service.while retaining the attractive features of predictive service.The admission decision for advance reservations is based oninformation about flows that overlap in time. For flows thathave not yet started, the requested values are used, and forthose that have already started measurements are used. Thisallows us to estimate the network load accurately for thenear future. To provide advance reservations we ask usersto include durations in their requests. We present simulationresults to show that predictive service with advance reservations provides utilization levels significantly higher thanthose for guaranteed service, and comparable to those forpredicted service without advance reservations. Those utilization levels are reached without any preemption of otheradmitted flows. Finally, we discuss how to setup advancereservations over multiple hops in the Internet using resourcereservation setup protocols.

  • 8.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Nordgren, B.
    Telia Research.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    RFC 2507: IP header compression1999Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology. Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden.
    Issues in the design of a new network protocol1996In: Multimedia Telecommunications and Applications: Third International COST 237 Workshop Barcelona, Spain, November 25-27, 1996 Proceedings / [ed] Giorgio Ventre, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 1996, p. 169-182Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe some of the issues in the design of a new packet switched network protocol. Adaptation to various network technologies along the dimensions of speed, error model, robustness, etc., is a goal for this new protocol. We look at the adaption in size of the packet header to the speed and robustness of the underlying network to allow efficient communication on low-speed wireless networks, for example. We also explore issues in resource reservation and multicast for real-time multimedia, the notion of a network "flow", a hybrid of datagrams and virtual circuits, and suggest common solutions for both mobile and multicast routing. The authors are engaged in the design of a network protocol, NP++, whose goal is flexibility over a wide dynamic range of speeds and varying kinds of hardware switching elements.

  • 10.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Pink, Stephen
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden.
    Soft state header compression for wireless networks1996Report (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Grönvall, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    Westerlund, Assar
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    The design of a multicast-based distributed file system1999In: Proceedings of the 3rd Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation: New Orleans, Louisiana, February, 1999, Berkeley, CA: USENIX - The Advanced Computing Systems Association, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    JetFile is a distributed file system designed to support shared file access in a heterogenous environment such as the Internet. It uses multicast communication and optimistic strategies for synchronization and distribution. JetFile relies on "peer-to-peer" communication over multicast channels. Most of the traditional file server responsibilities have been decentralized. In particular, the more heavyweight operations such as serving file data and attributes are, in our system, the responsibility of the clients. Some functions such as serializing file updates are still centralized in JetFile. Since serialization is a relatively lightweight operation in our system, serialization is expected to have only minor impact on scalability. We have implemented parts of the JetFile design and have measured its performance over a local-area network and an emulated wide-area network. Our measurements indicate that, using a standard benchmark, JetFile performance is comparable to that of local-disk based file systems. This means it is considerably faster than commonly used distributed file systems such as NFS and AFS.

  • 12. Larzon, Lars-Åke
    et al.
    Degermark, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Efficient use of wireless bandwidth for multimedia applications1999In: 1999 IEEE International Workshop on Mobile Multimedia Communications (MoMuC'99), San Diego, California, USA, November 15 - 17, 1999, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 1999, p. 187-193Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two rapidly evolving and merging technologies are the Internet and wireless data communications. Another trend is the increased use of real-time multimedia applications for audio and video communication. The most popular transport protocol among these delay sensitive applications is UDP (user datagram protocol), which is a lightweight protocol that provides multiplexing among user processes and has low protocol processing overhead. UDP's checksum policy is to protect either an entire packet including UDP and IP headers or nothing in the packet at all. This conforms badly with applications that prefers errors in the payload to the loss of whole packets. Many real-time applications fall into this category. We present a new protocol, UDP Lite, that provides the kind of protection often needed by these real time applications especially when they are run over wireless networks. UDP Lite increases the flexibility of UDP by providing an optionally partial checksum. Each packet can be optionally divided into a sensitive and an insensitive part by the sender. Errors in the sensitive part will cause packets to be discarded by the UDP Lite receiver, while errors in the insensitive part are ignored by UDP Lite. We show how UDP Lite uses a wireless network more efficiently for two different scenarios. By combining UDP Lite with compressed RTP, the gain can be even higher. Simulations show that the error rate of the network can increase by almost an order of magnitude without increasing the packet loss ratio. This enables cheaper network solutions for applications such as IP telephony

  • 13.
    Larzon, Lars-Åke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Degermark, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Dept of CS&EE, University of Arizona.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Dept of CS&EE, University of Arizona.
    Requirements on the TCP/IP protocol stack for real-time communication in wireless environments2001In: Quality of Service in Multiservice IP Networks: International Workshop, QoS-IP 2001 Rome, Italy, January 24-26, 2001 Proceedings / [ed] Marco Ajmone Marsan, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2001, p. 273-283Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A strong trend in the Internet is to provide wireless Internet access to handheld devices. Radio spectrum is a scarce and expensive resource, and a wide-area cellular system that provides satisfying quality for a data service based on the traditional TCP/IP protocol stack will be expensive. This becomes especially problematic for real-time communication based on UDP. To design an economically viable system, dierent approaches are available. New protocols can be designed that take wireless systems into account. The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is an example of such a protocol. Alternatively, the existing TCP/IP protocols can be modified to better support cellular systems. The development of WAP is tempting since it does not have to modify the TCP/IP Protocol stack. However, to provide future proong, it is a better idea to base the protocol architecture for wireless on TCP/IP since this will be the dominant Internet protocol stack for years to come. This paper discusses requirements on various layers in the TCP/IP protocol stack to better support real-time data services. One key component is a transport layer designed to use limited bandwidth more efficiently for real-time services. Changes are required to other layers as well, but these can be deployed where needed without disturbing the rest of the Internet. By applying these changes, it becomes possible to provide cost efficient, real-time services based on IP in cellular systems.

  • 14.
    Larzon, Lars-Åke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Degermark, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    UDP lite for real time multimedia applications1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce UDF Lite - a lightweight version of UDP with increased flexibility in the form of a partial checksum. It allows senders to specify packets as partially insensitive to errors. The coverage of the checksum is specified by the sending application on a per-packet basis. Because of its close relationship to UDP, UDP Lite is easily integrated into an existing UDP implementation. UDP is a simple best-effort transport protocol that adds multiplexing and an optional checksum to IP. Unlike TCP, UDP does not provide reliability, in-oflder delivery or congestion control, which has made it especially popular among delay-sensitive real-time applications. Audio/video applications often prefer damaged packets over lost packets. One way for an application to allow delivery of damaged packets is to disable the UDP checksum. This would mean, however, that important application-specific headers might pass unverified. Also, in the next version of IP, Ipv6, the UDP checksum is mandatory since there is no header checksum in Ipv6. These applications could benefit from using UDP Lite instead of UDP. By reflecting the UDP Lite policy with a partial checksum onto the link layer, the gain can be even higher

  • 15.
    Schelén, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Norrgård, Joakim
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Performance of QoS agents for provisioning network resources1999In: 1999 Seventh International Workshop on Quality of Service: IWQoS '99, London, England, May 31 - June 4, 1999, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 1999, p. 17-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have designed an agent-based architecture for quantitative service provisioning in differentiated services capable networks. For each link-state routing domain in the network there is a topology-aware QoS agent (also known as a bandwidth broker) responsible for admission control. The architecture provides resource reservations for aggregated virtual leased lines between network domains. In this paper, we present performance measurements for resource provisioning in a prototype QoS agent. This includes an evaluation of two data structures for advance reservations and accompanying algorithms. We also compare the cost for on-demand route computations with pre-computation of routes. The objective in this paper is to evaluate the performance of end-to-end admission control within a single link-state routing domain. In a domain with 15 routers, 28 transition networks and 64 stub networks, our prototype performs approximately 25000 end-to-end admission decisions per second. The results show that an ordinary PC can be used for running a QoS agent that performs path-sensitive admission control and maintains per link resource reservations in a link-state routing domain.

  • 16.
    Schelén, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Aggregating resource reservations over multiple routing domains1998In: Sixth International Workshop on Quality of Service: IWQoS 98 Napa, California, USA, May 18 - 20, 1998, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 1998, p. 29-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presents an agent-based architecture for resource reservations. For each domain in the network, there is an agent that is responsible for admission control. The architecture provides scalable per-link resource reservations in agents and low per-packet overhead in routers. The key ideas are the following. First, reservations from different sources to the same destination are aggregated as their paths merge toward the destination. Second, an agent in charge of resources at the final destination can generalize reservations for specific end-points so that they are valid for any end-point in the destination domain, thereby allowing more aggregation. Third, agents can do bulk reservations in advance with neighboring agents, thereby allowing aggregation over time. Fourth, agents are responsible for setting up policing points at edge routers for checking commitments. Agents can minimize the per-packet policing overhead in routers by varying the granularity of policing over time

  • 17.
    Schelén, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    An agent-based architecture for advance reservations1997In: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 1997, p. 451-459Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose an architecture where clients can make advance reservations through agents. For each routing domain in the network there will be an agent responsible for admission control on behalf of the routers in the domain. Requests involving several routing domains are forwarded for admission control with agents along the path for the requested service. Agents maintain hard reservation state using a reliable protocol for agent intercommunication. Agents start allocating resources for advance reservations in the routers by setting up forwarding state shortly before resources are needed for packet forwarding. Resources are made available for advance reservations by means of rejecting further immediate requests and ultimately by preempting some immediate reservations. We have shown that the risk of preemption can be kept very low. Thus, agents can set up packet classifiers and schedulers in their routers, allowing routers to get on with their main task, packet forwarding.

  • 18.
    Schelén, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Resource reservation agents in the Internet1998In: 8th International Workshop on Network and Operating Systems Support for Digital Audio and Video: New Hall, Cambridge ; 8 - 10 July, 1998, Cambridge, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Schelén, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Resource sharing in advance reservation agents1998In: Journal of High Speed Networks, ISSN 0926-6801, E-ISSN 1875-8940, Vol. 7, no 3-4, p. 213-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an architecture where clients can make end-to-end resource reservations through agents. For each domain in the network, there is an agent responsible for immediate and advance admission control. Reservations from different sources to the same destination domain are aggregated as their paths merge toward the destination. We show that network resources can be shared between immediate and advance reservations without being pre-partitioned. Admission control for immediate reservations use information about resources to be allocated for advance reservations in the near future. An important parameter in the admission control algorithm is the so called lookahead time, i.e., the point at which we actually start making resources available for approaching advance reservations by rejecting immediate requests. In our model, preemption of immediate reservations is made in cases where the admission control cannot make resources available through rejection of immediate requests. The risk of preemption can be varied by changing the lookahead time. We explore, with simulations, the effects of providing advance reservations with this model. The results show the cost in terms of resource utilization, rejection probability and preemption probability.

  • 20.
    Schelén, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Sharing resources through advance reservation agents1997In: Proceedings, IFIP Fifth International Workshop on Quality of Service: IWQoS'97, 1997Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose an architecture where clients can make advance reservations through agents responsible for advance admission control. The agents allocate resources in the routers just before they are needed for packet forwarding. In this paper we show that network resources can be shared between immediate and advance reservations without being pre-partitioned. The admission control schemes for immediate and advance reservations still operate with little interaction. Admission control decisions for immediate reservations use information about resources to be allocated for advance reservations in the near future. An important parameter in the admission control algorithm is the so called lookahead time, i.e., the point at which we actually start making resources available for approaching advance reservations by rejecting immediate requests. In our model, preemption of immediate reservations is made in cases where the admission control cannot make resources available through rejection of immediate requests. The risk of preemption can be varied by changing the lookahead time when making immediate admission control. We explore, with simulations, the effects of providing advance reservations according to this model. The results show the cost in terms of resource utilization, rejection probability and preemption probability.

  • 21. Tan, Cheng Lin
    et al.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    MobiCast: a multicast scheme for wireless networks2000In: Journal on spesial topics in mobile networks and applications, ISSN 1383-469X, E-ISSN 1572-8153, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 259-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a multicast scheme known as MobiCast that is suitable for mobile hosts in an internetwork environment with small wireless cells. Our scheme adopts a hierarchical mobility management approach to isolate the mobility of the mobile hosts from the main multicast delivery tree. Each foreign domain has a domain foreign agent. We have simulated our scheme using the Network Simulator and the measurements show that our multicast scheme is effective in minimizing disruptions to a multicast session due to the handoffs of the mobile group member, as well as reducing packet loss when a mobile host crosses cell boundaries during a multicast session

  • 22.
    Tang, Chen Lin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lye, Kin Mun
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    A fast handoff scheme for wireless networks1999In: Proceedings of the Second ACM International Workshop on Wireless Mobile Multimedia: in conjunction with ACM/IEEE MobiCom '99 ; August 20, 1999, Seattle, Washington, USA, New York: ACM Digital Library, 1999, p. 83-90Conference paper (Refereed)
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