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  • 1.
    Brown, Terrence
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    An Evaluation of Crowdsourcing as a Tool  for Marketing Activities2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in technology and social media have facilitated the rapid development of crowdsourcing as an innovative tool within the field of marketing. This has driven researchers to investigate more deeply the phenomenon of crowdsourcing as a marketing innovation. The overall purpose of this thesis is expressed as: To explore and describe the use of crowdsourcing within the field of marketing. More specifically, the primary purpose of the thesis is to understand better - How crowdsourcing can be used as a marketing tool. This thesis aims to illuminate the gap in the extant marketing literature by reviewing current academic knowledge surrounding crowdsourcing and marketing.  The use of the crowd as a marketing tool is growing primarily because of the advent of the Internet; however, as technology continues to advance the possibilities, challenges and side effects of crowdsourcing also change. These also need to be investigated continually. More specifically as digital marketing moves from a Web 2.0 environment to a Web 3.0 environment there will be new opportunities as well as pitfalls. As a result, new and relevant marketing problems exist at the nexus of crowdsourcing and marketing.

    The research problem is sub-divided into the following four research questions:

    • RQ1:  To what extent are crowdfunding platforms accessible to organizations as a marketing channel and, if so, what role can these platforms play?
    • RQ2:  How will the shift from Web 2.0 (and active-user input) to Web 3.0

    (and passive-data/sensor–based input) impact the new opportunities/product development process?

    • RQ3:  How can user-generated content help firms make strategic decisions about new business opportunities?
    • RQ4:  How is the evolution of crowdsourcing impacting information externalities and consumer privacy and how is this impacting marketing?

     This research is further divided into two sections. The first part investigates marketing activities specifically new opportunities/product development, advertising and promotion, and marketing research. The second section focuses on one of the possible repercussions of crowdsourcing in the marketing process. Most research on crowdsourcing focuses on the first section (i.e., the marketing activities) and how crowdsourcing is a positive marketing tool. Much less research aims its attention on the consequences and/or potential negative aspects of crowdsourcing.

    This thesis consists of two published papers and two studies. Each project handles one of research questions. The first two papers and the first study focus on three marketing activities (i.e., advertising, promotion and sales, new product and service development, and market research). The second study focuses on one of the possible consequences of the growth of crowdsourcing as a tool in the marketing process.

    While each paper and study has its own individual contributions, the overall contribution of this study is multi-fold. First, it develops a definition of crowdsourcing as: a tool or process by which the firm can increase or expand the resources to which it has access to by using the collective effort of a group of individuals or organizations. Second, as a result of these four research projects, crowdsourcing can further be seen as a situational, contextual and flexible tool that can be used in many different organizational contexts. The specific context for this thesis is marketing and as a result, crowdsourcing can play a wide variety of marketing roles.

  • 2.
    Brown, Terrence
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    An evolution of crowdsourcing: Implications for marketingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By using the collective effort of individual customers or groups of customers (i.e., crowdsourcing), the firm can expand the resources to which it has access. One of the primary reasons for the growth of crowdsourcing is the advances and widespread growth of information and communications technologies (ICT), especially Web technologies, have led to an explosion of possible crowdsourcing and co-creation opportunities.

    This research examines how this age of crowdsourcing has impacted privacy and the market for privacy. To crowdsource services at a high level often requires an exchange of personal data from the customer to the firm. This study builds three conceptual models that help describe the evolution of crowdsourcing personal information across three different timeframes. These three stages are based on the amount and the level of sophistication of the crowdsourcing processing of information externalities that result from market transactions between the consumer and the firm. Ultimately, through the crowdsourcing of personal and private information are advancing to the most advance stage whereby a digital twin of each consumer is created. This twin can be used in a predictive analytic process to forecast the thoughts, behaviors and future actions of each consumer.

    Most research on crowdsourcing focuses on the first section (i.e., the marketing activities) and how crowdsourcing is a positive marketing technique. Much less research aims its attention on the consequences and/or potential negative aspects of crowdsourcing. This second study connects to the overarching research question as it is a conceptual study that explores the consequences of crowdsourcing for market for privacy.

  • 3.
    Brown, Terrence
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Leveraging user-generated content for demand-side strategyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial context of this study is the hospitality industry, specifically the restaurant business. The hospitality industry has two essential characteristics that make this study valuable. Firstly, with the related travel and tourism industries, the three businesses make up the world's largest industry in the service sector. Secondly, consumers in these industries have been at the forefront of creating and using comment and reviews (i.e., user-generated content (UGC)) to make their purchasing decisions.

    Additionally, the demand-side view of strategy is under-researched, especially in the areas of tourism, travel, and hospitality when viewed against the predominant perspectives in strategic management (e.g., resource-based view, transaction-cost economics, positioning, and dynamic capabilities) are supply-side views.

    Using the tools available today it is possible to scrape and mine the websites, blogs, forums, communities and other places customers gather and use content analysis techniques to extract meaning from the content. Web 2.0 sources of qualitative data like blogs, forums, feedback (i.e., UGC) can offer better research material than offline traditional qualitative diaries. As a result, using crowdsourced, user-generated content may be a productive marketing research approach to investigate how demand-side strategic decision-making can be supported in the travel, tourism, and hospitality industries.

  • 4.
    Brown, Terrence
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Sensor-based entrepreneurship: A framework for developing new products and services2017In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 60, no 6, p. 819-830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the Internet of Things (IoT) begins to dominate the technology landscape, there will be new products and services that will become technically and financially feasible. Internet technologies and advancements in social interaction tools have led to an increase in the use of the crowd as a provider of business solutions. Yet, we have seen a mere fraction of the possibilities of crowdsourcing technologies. This is because most of the development, discussion, and research around crowdsourcing has focused on active-input crowdsourcing. However, the real transformative pressure will come from passive sources of data generated primarily by developing and growing sensor technologies. This next generation of crowdsourcing will be a game changer for entrepreneurial opportunities. As crowdsourcing systems proliferate, more input will be acquired from sensors, artificial intelligence, bots, and other devices. As a result of this explosion, the variety of product and service opportunities will swell as entrepreneurs become more aware of technologies merging—such as the combination of crowdsourcing, sensors, and big data into a new type of entrepreneurship: sensor-based entrepreneurship. The purpose of this research is to contribute by (1) clarifying the next generation of crowdsourcing and (2) developing and presenting a framework to help sensor-based entrepreneurs plan, develop, and map their new products and services.

  • 5.
    Brown, Terrence
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Abduljabbar, Meyser
    School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Englund, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Treen, Emily
    Beedie School of Businss, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Twenty-five years and counting: an analysis of the Journal of Strategic Marketing2018In: Journal of Strategic Marketing, ISSN 0965-254X, E-ISSN 1466-4488, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 125-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a content analysis of the Journal of Strategic Marketing (JSM) over 24 years from the journal’s inception in 1993 to 2017. No similar attempt on an analysis of JSM has been found. Analyses were completed to examine how the journal has developed and to uncover relevant information for editors, reviewers, researchers and future authors of JSM by analysing research themes, author and manuscript characteristics, and citation metrics. The findings reveal an increase in multi-authored articles, an increase in empirical research and in the internationalization of researchers. These and other factors illuminate sources and implications of the journal’s current state. The relevance of these findings is discussed as it pertains to the future success and publishing opportunities in the Journal of Strategic Marketing.

  • 6.
    Brown, Terrence
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Boon, Edward
    School of Business and Technology, Webster University Geneva, Bellevue.
    Pitt, Leyland F.
    Beedie School of Business, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Seeking funding in order to sell: Crowdfunding as a marketing tool2017In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 189-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Websites such as Indiegogo and Kickstarter have attracted much attention for their ability to enable organizations and individuals to raise funds from ordinary people who contribute for a number of reasons. This phenomenon is called crowdfunding. Crowdfunding permits organizations and individuals to obtain investments they otherwise might not receive from more traditional sources such as banks, angel investors, and stock markets. A number of now well-known startups had their origins in crowdfunding. More recently, established organizations have begun to use crowdfunding websites not only as a source of finance, but also as marketing platforms. In this way, they have been able to ensure a ready market for their new offerings, with full sales pipelines, and to use the platforms as vehicles to boost brand image and gain support for brand-related causes. This adaptation of crowdfunding for marketing purposes is not without its problems, however, and organizations would be well advised to consider not only the opportunities these platforms provide, but also their limitations and risks.

  • 7.
    Flostrand, Andrew
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Beedie School of Business, Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Eriksson, Theresa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Brown, Terrence
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Department of Industrial Economics, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Better together: Harnessing motivations for energy utility crowdsourcing activities2019In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 48, p. 57-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy utility firms operate under varying mandates throughout most of the world and typically must operate reliably with long planning cycles and requirements to meet bureaucratic scrutiny and regulatory toll gating to achieve both discrete plan approvals as well as their ongoing licenses to operate. One vehicle for gaining external insights and involving the stakeholders is crowdsourcing. Energy utility firms have a set of distinguishing characteristics (i.e. regulatory processes and stakeholder groups) that they must consider when implementing crowdsourcing activities to aid their planning and innovation strategies. To achieve constructive participation requires understanding and engaging the motivations of the population from which a firm wishes to draw input. We assert that customers’ interest, facilitated by digital age communication channels, can provide utility operators with an accessible, valuable resource to assist a wide range of planning and innovation activities. We use the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) lens, grounded by a set of in-depth interviews with utility industry professionals, to articulate motivations for members of the external customer community to provide value to the firms through crowdsourcing activities. We develop five propositions that collectively identify how energy firms should use SDT elements to design crowdsourcing activities. 

  • 8.
    Ramirez-Portilla, Andres
    et al.
    (Department of Industrial Economics and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Politecnico di Milano.
    Brown, Terrence
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Department of Industrial Economics and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Open Innovation in Specialized SMEs: The Case of Supercars2017In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1167-1195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence that adopting open innovation (OI) has on the innovativeness and performance of specialized small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This paper also examines the adoption of OI within a firm’s practices and models, and within the three dimensions of firm sustainability.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Survey data from 48 specialized SMEs manufacturing supercars were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling. SmartPLS software was used to conduct a path analysis and test the proposed framework.

    Findings

    The findings suggest that high adoption of OI models tends to increase firm innovativeness. Similarly, the adoption of OI practices has a positive effect on innovativeness but to a lesser extent than OI models. The moderation results of innovativeness further show that OI models and practices can benefit the performance of SMEs. Specifically, two dimensions of performance – environmental and social performance – were found to be greatly influenced by OI.

    Research limitations/implications

    Due to parsimony in the investigated model, this study only focuses on OI adoption as practices and models without considering its drivers or other contingency factors.

    Practical implications

    This paper could help practitioners in SMEs better understand the benefits of adopting OI to be more innovative but also more sustainable.

    Originality/value

    This study contributes to the literature on the role of OI practices and models regarding the dimensions of firm sustainability performance by being the first paper to investigate this relationship in the context of small and medium manufacturers of supercars

  • 9.
    Temiz, Serdar
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm.
    Brown, Terrence
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm.
    Challenges in Data-Driven Innovation Toward European Digital Single Market: An Abstract2018In: Back to the Future: Using Marketing Basics to Provide Customer Value : Proceedings of the 2017 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference / [ed] Nina Krey, Patricia Rossi, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 245-246Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In May 2015, the European Commission adopted a Digital Single Market Strategy (2015), which identifies Europe as a potential leader in the global digital economy. If EU fragmentation and barriers are removed, Digital Single Market (DSM) could contribute an additional €415 billion to European GDP. Further, the Digital Single Market could create opportunities for new start-ups, and business can develop and create value for the 500 million consumers.

    The European Digital Single Market (DSM) has three policy areas: (1) access to digital goods and services, (2) conditions for digital networks and innovative services, and (3) digital as a driver for growth (https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/digital-single-market). In all these areas, data-driven services are an essential part of DSM.

    This research focuses on political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental (PESTEL) factors. Consider: To do this, a quantitative approach was used to analyze the data collected from four different data sources to understand major factors having impact on DSM:Digital Economy and Society Index (Desi), EU barometer, Digital Agenda key indicators, and public consultation. Based on our data analysis, we have found several data-based challenges in creating a digital single market as below:

    1. (a)

      Inequality within EU

       
    2. (b)

      Legislative gap with respect to digital content and data

       
    3. (c)

      Trust in a digital single market (in regard to data)

       
    4. (d)

      Privacy and security of digital software and systems

       

    Defining and understanding these challenges are vital to overcome obstacles hindering Digital Single Market goals.

  • 10.
    Temiz, Serdar
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm.
    Brown, Terrence
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm.
    Open Data Innovation, What are the Main Issues/Challenges for Open Data Projects in Sweden: An Abstract2018In: Back to the Future: Using Marketing Basics to Provide Customer Value : Proceedings of the 2017 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference / [ed] Nina Krey, Patricia Rossi, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 217-218Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has greatly reduced the cost of collecting, distributing, and accessing information, services, and resources. In parallel to this advancement, open data in both the private and public sector has gained attention in recent years, although the concept of open data is not new. Advocates have been arguing for years that data gathered or created by a government institution and funded by public money should be ‘open’ or free of any restrictions.

    There are very limited studies on open data, with a particularly notable ‘lack of refereed, rigorous, and independent academic studies beyond a government and consultant ‘grey’ literature of mixed quality’ (Gauld, Goldfinch & Horsburgh, 2010, p 177; Ohemeng & Ofosu-Adarkwa, 2015, p 420). This study has two main objectives: it attempts to understand (1) how open data, especially government data, can create value for its stakeholders and (2) main issues/challenges within open data-driven projects, so that the expected potential of open data innovation be captured.

    Swedish Innovation Agency, Vinnova, had open data calls to fund open data projects. Sixteen project managers were interviewed who had worked with open data projects that are funded in 2012 and in 2013. The study used a grounded theory approach that begins its analysis by coding the qualitative data obtained via semi-structured interviews of 16 project managers who worked with Vinnova-funded open data projects, and then these codes are used as input for correspondence analysis.

    This research showed that, to understand impact of government funded projects, homogeneity among projects and organizations should be considered. Due to Vinnova’s heterogeneous selection of funded projects and organizations, not all public or private organizations showed similar correlation at the correspondence analysis. In addition to that, some organizations are registered as private organization but funded by public authorities where they represent a mix of public and private organizations character. Nevertheless, results revealed that, in general, public organizations are usually associated to no interest to business/business models, structure and standardization of datasets and visibility of datasets. Private organizations, on the other hand, are more associated to business models, content of data, demand for data and value of the data. This study underlines main concerns during open data projects in regard to creation of value from open data projects.

  • 11.
    Temiz, Serdar
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Economics and Management, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology.
    Brown, Terrence
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Open data project for e-government: case study of Stockholm open data project2017In: International Journal of Electronic Governance, ISSN 1742-7509, E-ISSN 1742-7517, Vol. 9, no 1/2, p. 55-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of research is to explore the open data phenomenon using the city as the level of analysis. We used Kassen's (2013) local level framework as a base but adopt it to Europe, expand and elaborate Kassen's discussion of local open data initiatives using the Stockholm open data platform. The Stockholm open data project is evaluated from three perspectives: legal, political and economic environments. Open data activities are further evaluated in terms of the main features of open data defined by the Open Knowledge Foundation (2015) including: availability and access, reuse and redistribution, and universal participation. The impact of opening the data is evaluated against the three common reasons described by Open Knowledge (2015): transparency, releasing social and commercial value, and participation and engagement. We found that projects promoting open data initiatives, are more similar to 'closed' platforms that provides APIs.

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