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  • 1.
    Abrishambaf, Reza
    et al.
    Department of Engineering Technology Miami University Hamilton, OH.
    Bal, Mert
    Department of Engineering Technology Miami University Hamilton, OH.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Distributed Home Automation System Based on IEC 61499 Function Blocks and Wireless Sensor Networks2017In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, 1354-1359 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a distributed home automation system will be demonstrated. Traditional systems are based on a central controller where all the decisions are made. The proposed control architecture is a solution to overcome the problems such as the lack of flexibility and re-configurability that most of the conventional systems have. This has been achieved by employing a method based on the new IEC 61499 function block standard, which is proposed for distributed control systems. This paper also proposes a wireless sensor network as the system infrastructure in addition to the function blocks in order to implement the Internet-of-Things technology into the area of home automation as a solution for distributed monitoring and control. The proposed system has been implemented in both Cyber (nxtControl) and Physical (Contiki-OS) level to show the applicability of the solution.

  • 2.
    Abrishambaf, Reza
    et al.
    Department of Engineering Technology, Miami University, Hamilton, OH.
    Bal, Mert
    Department of Engineering Technology, Miami University, Hamilton, OH.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Distributed home automation system based on IEC61499 function blocks and wireless sensor networks2017In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, 1354-1359 p., 7915561Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a distributed home automation system will be demonstrated. Traditional systems are based on a central controller where all the decisions are made. The proposed control architecture is a solution to overcome the problems such as the lack of flexibility and re-configurability that most of the conventional systems have. This has been achieved by employing a method based on the new IEC 61499 function block standard, which is proposed for distributed control systems. This paper also proposes a wireless sensor network as the system infrastructure in addition to the function blocks in order to implement the Internet-of-Things technology into the area of home automation as a solution for distributed monitoring and control. The proposed system has been implemented in both Cyber (nxtControl) and Physical (Contiki-OS) level to show the applicability of the solution

  • 3.
    Alsafi, Yazen
    et al.
    University of Auckland, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    A deployment of an ontology-based reconfiguration agent for intelligent mechatronic systems2008In: ISIE08: 2008 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics : [Cambridge, UK, June 30 to July 2, 2008], Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2008, 1780-1785 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the extension of an ontology-based reconfiguration agent that uses ontological knowledge of the manufacturing environment for the purpose of reconfiguration without human intervention. The current mass customization era requires increased flexibility and agility in the manufacturing systems to adapt changes in manufacturing requirements and environments. Our configuration agent minimises the overheads of the current reconfiguration process by automating it. It infers facts about the manufacturing environment from the ontological knowledge model and then decides whether the current environment can support the given manufacturing requirements. This paper proposes an extension of the agent architecture enabling the integration between the high level planning with the distributed low level control compliant with the upcoming IEC 61499 function blocks standard

  • 4.
    Al-Safi, Yazen
    et al.
    University of Auckland, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    An ontology-based reconfiguration agent for intelligent mechatronic systems2007In: Holonic and multi-agent systems for manufacturing: third International Conference on Industrial Applications of Holonic and Multi-Agent Systems, HoloMAS 2007, Regensburg, Germany, September 3-5, 2007 ; proceedings / [ed] Vladimir Mařik ; Valeriy Vyatkin ; Armando Walter Colombo, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2007, 114-126 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses an ontology-based reconfiguration agent that uses ontological knowledge of the manufacturing environment for the purpose of reconfiguration without human intervention. The current mass customization era requires increased flexibility and agility in the manufacturing systems to adapt changes in manufacturing requirements and environments. Our configuration agent minimizes the overheads of the current reconfiguration process by automating it. It infers facts about the manufacturing environment from the ontological knowledge model and then decides whemer the current environment can support the given manufacturing requirements

  • 5.
    Alsafi, Yazen
    et al.
    University of Auckland, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Auckland Mail Centre.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Ontology-based reconfiguration agent for intelligent mechatronic systems in flexible manufacturing2010In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 26, no 4, 381-391 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a novel approach to achieving fast reconfiguration of modular manufacturing systems, based on an ontology-based reconfiguration agent. The agent uses ontological knowledge of the manufacturing environment for the purpose of reconfiguration without human intervention. The current mass customization era requires increased flexibility and agility in the manufacturing systems to adapt changes in manufacturing requirements and environments. Our configuration agent minimises the overheads of the current reconfiguration process by automating it. It infers facts about the manufacturing environment from the ontological knowledge model and then decides whether the current environment can support the given manufacturing requirements. This paper proposes the agent architecture enabling the integration between the high level planning with the distributed low level control compliant with the upcoming IEC 61499 function blocks standard

  • 6.
    Auinger, Franz
    et al.
    University for Applied Science Wels, Industrial Informatics.
    Brennan, Robert William
    University of Calgary, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineerin.
    Christensen, James H.
    Rockwell Automation Advanced Technologies, Mayfield Heights.
    Lastra, José Luis Martínez
    Tampere University of Technology, Institute of Production Engineering.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Requirements and solutions to software encapsulation and engineering in next generation manufacturing systems: OOONEIDA approach2005In: International journal of computer integrated manufacturing (Print), ISSN 0951-192X, E-ISSN 1362-3052, Vol. 18, no 7, 572-585 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the solutions enabling agile development, deployment and re-configuration of software-intensive automation systems both in discrete manufacturing and process technologies. As the key enabler for reaching the required level of flexibility of such systems, the paper discusses the issues of encapsulation, integration and re-use of the automation intellectual property (IP). The goals can be fulfilled by the use of a vendor-independent concept of a reusable portable and scalable software module (function block), as well as by a vendor-independent automation device model. This paper also discusses the requirements of the methodology for the application of such modules in the time- and cost-effective specification, design, validation, realization and deployment of intelligent mechatronic components in distributed industrial automation and control systems. A new global initiative OOONEIDA is presented, that targets these goals through the development of the automation object concept based on the recognized industrial standards IEC61131, IEC61499, IEC61804 and unified modelling language (UML); and through the creation of the technological infrastructure for a new, open-knowledge economy for automation components and automated industrial products. In particular, a web-based repository for standardized automation solutions will be developed to serve as an electronic-commerce facility in industrial automation businesses.

  • 7. Bahadornejad, M.
    et al.
    Nair, N.C.
    Zhabelova, G.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Modelling solid state transformer in IEC 618502011In: IECON 2011 - 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IEEE Communications Society, 2011, 2706-2710 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Baniya, Rupak
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Maksimainen, Mikko
    Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Pang, Cheng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Smart indoor lighting control: power, illuminance, and colour quality2014In: Proceedings: 2014 IEEE 23rd International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE) : Grand Cevahir Hotel and Convention Center Istambul, Turkey : 01 - 04 June, 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, 1745-1750 p., 6864878Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the correlation between color quality and energy efficiency of indoor lighting control. The color quality, in terms of visual performance and comfort, is quantified using three measurements: illuminance, Color Rendering Index, and Correlated Color Temperature. Several experiments have been conducted to evaluate the potential energy savings of using different portions of light spectrum to obtain the optimal color quality. In particular, Light-Emitting Diodes are used as the lighting sources of the experimental luminaire. Moreover, the above quantification method and experimental results have been incorporated into a previously developed simulation framework for Building Automation and Control Systems, and smart lighting is used to adjust the tradeoff between comfort and energy consumption based on the presence of occupants. The results can be used to evaluate the viability of advanced lighting automation.

  • 9.
    Belyakov, Stanislav Leonidovich
    et al.
    Southern Federal University, Department of Applied Information Science Taganrog.
    Savelyeva, Marina
    Southern Federal University, Department of Applied Information Science Taganrog.
    Yan, Jeffrey
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Adaptation of Material Flows in Mechanical Transportation Systems Based on Observation Experience2015In: IEEE TrustCom-BigDataSE-ISPA 2015: Helsinki, 20-22 Aug. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, 269-274 p., 7345659Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates adaptation of material flows in mechanical transportation systems to the appearance of local overloads. The adaptation mechanism is based on the deflection of the forecast of experts who oversee the behavior of flows in the network. We propose a modified version of case-based reasoning, which uses the concept of imagination of situations. Unlike known methods, imaginative description of cases increases the reliability of decision-making. We provide a modification of the algorithm for dynamically building routing tables in distributed controllers of a transportation network. Analytic evaluation of the adaptation method's effectiveness is provided. The paper is concluded with outline of the implementation mechanism using a network of distributed controllers

  • 10.
    Belyakov, Stanislav Leonidovich
    et al.
    Southern Federal University, Department of Applied Information Science Taganrog.
    Savelyeva, Marina
    Southern Federal University, Department of Applied Information Science Taganrog.
    Yan, Jeffrey
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Knowledge-based routing in mechanical transportation systems2014In: 12th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2014: Porto Alegre, Brazil, 27 - 30 July 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, 48-53 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the ways of constructing routing algorithms in mechanical transport systems based on knowledge. It is assumed that the experts observing system behavior applies his experience by designating subsystems with a specific behavior. To create routing tables, a model of fuzzy temporal hypergraph was used. We consider fixed and dynamic routing, given modifications of Dijkstra's algorithm for the case of fuzzy temporal hypergraphs

  • 11.
    Black, Geoff
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Intelligent component-based automation of baggage handling systems with IEC 614992010In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 7, no 2, 337-351 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Airport baggage handling is a field of automation systems that is currently dependent on centralized control systems and conventional automation programming techniques. In this and other areas of manufacturing and materials handling, these legacy automation technologies are increasingly limiting for the growing demand for systems that are reconfigurable, fault tolerant, and easy to maintain. IEC 61499 Function Blocks is an emerging architectural framework for the design of distributed industrial automation systems and their reusable components. A number of architectures have been suggested for multiagent and holonic control systems that incorporate function blocks. This paper presents a multiagent control approach for a baggage handling system (BHS) using IEC 61499 Function Blocks. In particular, it focuses on demonstrating a decentralized control system that is scalable, reconfigurable, and fault tolerant. The design follows the automation object approach, and produces a function block component representing a single section of conveyor. In accordance with holonic principles, this component is autonomous and collaborative, such that the structure and the behavior of a BHS can be entirely defined by the interconnection of these components within the function block design environment. Simulation is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the agent-based control system and a utility is presented for real-time viewing of these systems. Tests on a physical conveyor test system demonstrated deployment to embedded control hardware.

  • 12.
    Black, Geoff
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    On practical implementation of holonic control principles in baggage handling systems using IEC 614992007In: Holonic and multi-agent systems for manufacturing: third International Conference on Industrial Applications of Holonic and Multi-Agent Systems, HoloMAS 2007, Regensburg, Germany, September 3-5, 2007 ; proceedings / [ed] Vladimir Mařik ; Valeriy Vyatkin ; Armando Walter Colombo, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2007, 314-325 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IEC 61499 Functional Blocks is an upcoming architectural framework for the design of complete distributed industrial automation systems and their reusable components. This paper presents a multi-agent distributed control approach for a baggage handling system using IEC 61499 Functional Blocks. In particular, it focuses on demonstrating a distributed control system that is scalable, reconfigurable and fault tolerant. The design follows the Automation Object approach, which ends up in a functional block representing a single section of conveyor, such that the structure (and consequently the behaviour) of the conveyor network is entirely defined by the interconnection of these blocks within the IEC 61499 design environment. The use of distributed simulation to achieve predictive control is demonstrated as a part of the control system design.

  • 13.
    Blech, Jan Olaf
    et al.
    RMIT University, Melbourne.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Pereira, David
    ISEP, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Zoitl, Alois
    fortiss GmbH, Munich.
    A Comparison of Formal Verification Approaches for IEC 614992016In: 2016 IEEE 21st International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA): Berlin, 6-9 Sept. 2016, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, 7733636Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering and computer science have come up with a variety of techniques to increase the confidence in systems, increase reliability, facilitate certification, improve reuse and maintainability, improve interoperability and portability. Among them are various techniques based on formal models to enhance testing, validation and verification. In this paper, we are concentrating on formal verification both at runtime and design time of a system. Formal verification of a system property at design time is the process of mathematically proving that the property indeed holds. At runtime, one can check the validity of the property and report deviations by monitoring the system execution. Formal verification relies on semantic models, descriptions of the system and its properties. We report on ongoing verification work and present two different approaches for formal verification of IEC 61499-based programs. We provide two examples of ongoing work to exemplify the design and the runtime verification approaches

  • 14.
    Bouzon, Gustavo
    et al.
    Department of Automation and Systems, Federal University of Santa Catarina.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Hanisch, Hans Michael
    Department of Engineering Sciences, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg.
    Timing diagram specifications in modular modeling of industrial automation systems2005In: Proceedings of the 16th IFAC world congress: Prague, Czech Republic, July 3 - 8, 2005, Oxford: Elsevier, 2005, 80-85 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with further development of the timing-diagram based specification language destined for application in modular modeling of industrial automation systems. The results of this work are intended for application in formal verification of software intensive automation systems

  • 15.
    Budhia, Mickel
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Covic, Grant Anthony
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Powering flexible manufacturing systems with intelligent contact-less power transfer2008In: Proceedings, IEEE INDIN 2008: 6th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics : July 13-16, 2008, Daejeon Convention Center, Daejeon, Korea, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2008, 1160-1165 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) and reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS) have both recently evolved to meet increasing demands for flexible manufacturing. This paper investigates the possibility of contact-less power and wireless data transfer to increase the flexibility and safety of various FMS modules by eliminating the need for power or data connections. The paper discusses advantages and implementation aspects of the proposed inductive power transfer (IPT) system and feasibility tests are undertaken to ensure the compatibility of IPT and the FMS modules, which form part of a lab-size modular test bed. In order to increase the cost effectiveness of the design, each module will run for an eight hour shift using a battery which is then automatically recharged via IPT. An energy aware custom switch mode charger has been designed and tested. A greedy heuristic (IEC 61499 compliant) scheduler is implemented to optimize the production schedule based on the level of charge. Design requirements for the charger, energy monitor and scheduler are discussed followed by performance results. The IPT system has been specified however it is still to be incorporated in to the final system

  • 16.
    Buzhinsky, Igor P.
    et al.
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, St.-Petersburg.
    Pang, Cheng
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Formal Modeling of Testing Software for Cyber-Physical Automation Systems2015In: IEEE TrustCom-BigDataSE-ISPA 2015: Helsinki, 20-22 Aug. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, 301-306 p., 7345664Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a framework which uses formal models for testing control software for industrial automation systems. The formalism called Net Condition/Event Systems (NCES) is applied to model the program under test, along with the system under control (plant) and the testing environment. The benefits of using the framework include the opportunities to test systems with time delays without the need to wait, to test parameterized sets of systems with a single execution of a test suite, and to check test suites for correctness. The use of the framework is illustrated on a simple system consisting of a lab-scale plant and a control application for it

  • 17.
    Buzhinsky, Igor P.
    et al.
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, St.-Petersburg.
    Ulyantsev, Vladimir I.
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, St.-Petersburg.
    Veijalainen, Jari
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, St.-Petersburg.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Evolutionary approach to coverage testing of IEC 61499 function block applications2015In: IEEE 13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 2015: Cambridge, United Kingdom, 22-24 July 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, 1213-1218 p., 7281908Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the problem of coverage testing of industrial automation software represented in the IEC 61499 standard, one of the recent standards for distributed control system design. Contrary to model-based testing (MBT), the paper focuses on implementation coverage, not model coverage. An approach based on evolutionary algorithms is presented which generates coverage test suites for both basic and composite IEC 61499 function blocks. It employs two third-party tools, FBDK and EvoSuite. The evaluation of the approach was performed on a set of control applications for two lab-scale demonstration plants. Results show that the approach is applicable and shows good performance at least on basic function blocks. The generated tests suites helped to discover several unreachable system parts, which pinpointed errors in the systems under test

  • 18.
    Buzhinsky, Igor
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Automatic Inference of Finite-State Plant Models from Traces and Temporal Properties2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, no 4, 1521-1530 p., 7857798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Closed-loop model checking, a formal verification technique for industrial automation systems, increases the richness of specifications to be checked and reduces the state space to be verified compared to the open-loop case. To be applied, it needs the controller and the plant formal models to be coupled. There are approaches for controller synthesis, but little has been done regarding plant model construction. While manual plant modeling is time consuming and error-prone, discretizing a simulation model of the plant leads to state excess. This paper aims to solve the problem of automatic plant model construction from existing specification, which is represented in the form of plant behavior examples, or traces, and temporal properties. The proposed method, which is based on the translation of the problem to the Boolean satisfiability problem, is evaluated and shown to be applicable on several case study plant model synthesis tasks and on randomly generated problem instances.

  • 19.
    Buzhinsky, Igor
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Plant model inference for closed-loop verification of control systems: Initial explorations2017In: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, 736-739 p., 7819256Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Closed-loop model checking, a formal verification technique for industrial automation systems, increases the richness of specifications to be checked and often helps to reduce size of the state space to be verified compared with the open-loop case. To be applied, it needs two components - the controller and the plant models - to be coupled. While there are approaches for obtaining controller models from implementation, specification or behavior examples, little has been done regarding automation of plant model construction. This paper aims to solve the problem of automatic plant model construction from existing specification, which is represented in the form of plant behavior examples and temporal properties

  • 20. Cai, Xiujun
    et al.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Hanisch, Hans Michael
    Department of Engineering Sciences, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg.
    Design and implementation of a prototype control system according to IEC 614992003In: ETFA 2003: 2003 IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation. Proceedings, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2003, 269-276 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Chivilikhin, Daniil S.
    et al.
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg.
    Ivanov, Ilya
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg.
    Shalyto, Anatoly A
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Reconstruction of function block controllers based on test scenarios and verification2017In: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, 646-651 p., 7819240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the problem of reverse engineering a function block (FB) in situations when its source code is either not available or is too complex to understand. The proposed approach builds up on a recent method for reconstructing FBs based on testing and a search-based optimization algorithm. In our work the method is augmented with candidate solution verification using the NuSMV model checker. Verification is done in a closed-loop way using a manually constructed surrogate model of the plant and environment

  • 22.
    Chivilikhin, Daniil
    et al.
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, St. Petersburg.
    Shalyto, Anatoly
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, St. Petersburg.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Reconstruction of Function Block Logic Using Metaheuristic Algorithm2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, no 4, 1763-1771 p., 7936605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An approach for automatic reconstruction of automation logic from execution scenarios using a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed. IEC 61499 basic function blocks are chosen as implementation language and reconstruction of Execution Control Charts for basic function blocks is addressed. The synthesis method is based on a metaheuristic algorithm that combines ideas from ant colony optimization and evolutionary computation. Execution scenarios can be recorded from testing legacy software solutions. At this stage results are only limited to generation of basic function blocks having only Boolean input/output variables.

  • 23.
    Chivilikhin, Daniil
    et al.
    ITMO University.
    Shalyto, Anatoly
    ITMO University.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Reconstruction of function block logic using metaheuristic algorithm: Initial explorations2015In: IEEE 13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN'15): Cambridge, United Kingdom, 22-24 July 2015, Piscatasway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, 1239-1242 p., 7281912Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach for automatic reconstruction of automation logic from execution scenarios using a metaheuristic algorithm. The IEC 61499 basic function blocks is chosen as implementation language and reconstruction of Execution Control Charts for basic function blocks is addressed. The synthesis method is based on a metaheuristic algorithm most closely related to ant colony optimization and evolutionary computation. Execution scenarios can be recorded from testing legacy software solutions. At this stage results are only limited to generation of basic function blocks having only Boolean input/output variables

  • 24.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    University of Auckland, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza, Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Christensen, James H.
    Rockwell Automation Advanced Technologies, Mayfield Heights, Holobloc Inc., Cleveland Heigths.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Guan, Xinping
    Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Towards Self-Manageable and Adaptive Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems with Knowledge-Driven Autonomic Service Management2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, no 2, 725-736 p., 7523919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasingly important goal of industrial automation systems is to continuously optimize physical resource utilization such as materials. Distributed automation is seen as one enabling technology for achieving this goal, in which networking controller nodes collaborate in a peer to peer way to form a new paradigm, namely industrial cyber-physical systems (iCPS). In order to achieve rapid response to changes from both high level control systems and plant environment, the proposed self-manageable agent relies on the use of the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) that improves flexibility and interoperability. It is enhanced by the autonomic service management (ASM) to implement software modifications in a fully automatic manner, thus achieving self-manageable and adaptive industrial cyberphysical systems. The architecture design of the autonomic service manager is provided and integration with SOA based execution environment is illustrated. Preliminary tests on selfmanagement are completed using a case study of airport baggage handling system.

  • 25.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    University of Auckland.
    Automatically generated layered ontological models for semantic analysis of component-based control systems2013In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 9, no 4, 2124-2136 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEC 61499 standard is designed for distributed control and proposes new visual form of programming using block diagrams with embedded state machines and unlimited hierarchical nesting and distribution across networking devices. Such visual programs require new methods of automatic syntactic and semantic analysis. This paper proposes a new approach to semantic analysis using multiple-layered ontological knowledge representation and rule-based inference engine. Its working is demonstrated on example.

  • 26. Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    IEC 61499 ontology model for semantic analysis and code generation2011In: 9th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, 597-602 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEC 61499 standard is targeting the enhancement of the IEC 61131-3 PLC standard in distributed automation systems improving the reconfigurability, portability and reusability of automation software. This paper proposes a foundation to a novel approach for design the system based on IEC 61499 function blocks. This design process is including design recovery, configuration, semantic analysis and code generation using ontology models as the knowledge base. The IEC 61499 ontology model is provided as well as the semantic enrichment and corrections are described. The semantic analysis for IEC 61499 and the entire framework for code generation will be completed in the future.

  • 27.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Huang, Wanqi
    Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Enabling plug-and-play software components in industrial cyber-physical systems by adopting service-oriented architecture paradigm2016In: IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, 5253-5258 p., 7793834Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial cyber-physical systems provide a vision of collaborative industrial automation systems with maximized flexibility and interoperability. Service-oriented architecture is considered as the key to enabling collaboration in industrial cyber-physical systems. On the device level, software components are expected to act as services that can be published and accessed from other distributed nodes. In this paper, a plug-and-play service component approach is proposed based on web service description language (WSDL) and IEC 61499 function blocks. Those services are able to be discovered by adopting device profiles for web services (DPWS). Plug-and-play software services are demonstrated on a building automation system example and future works on automatic service orchestration are discussed

  • 28.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Huang, Wanqi
    Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Knowledge-driven service orchestration engine for flexible information acquisition in industrial cyber-physical systems2016In: IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, ISIE 2016, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, 1055-1060 p., 7745038Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems attract attentions from many domains including industrial automation recently. Cyber-physical production system or industrial cyber-physical system is considered as key to achieve collaborative automation systems. The service-oriented architecture is often linked with industrial cyber-physical systems to lift flexibility and interoperability. By adopting service-oriented architecture in industrial cyber-physical systems, a new way of information acquisition is enabled by dynamically composing services according to requests. In this paper, a knowledge-driven service orchestration engine is introduced for process requests from human or devices and collect information automatically by assembling services dynamically. The service composition process is described using a room lighting system example. Tools required by the service orchestration engine and future development plan are provided

  • 29.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    University of Auckland, Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Pang, Cheng
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Reconfigurable elements of execution semantics for industrial cyber-physical systems2016In: Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2015: Yokohama, Japan, 9-12 Nov. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, 2252-2257 p., 7392437Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing computing power and network capacity, distributed automation systems are facing new challenges of handling massive amounts of distributed nodes within tight real-time constraints. The industrial cyber-physical systems is considered as the key to solve these complexities. In distributed industrial automation systems, there exists several execution semantics. In this paper, all existing execution semantics are summarized as a set of rules which are described by reconfigurable elements. During the simulation and verification of industrial cyber-physical systems, those rules are helpful to provide a generic runtime environment which can perform various execution semantics. This reconfigurable execution environment is demonstrated using a case study of a room lighting system.

  • 30.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Pang, Cheng
    Googol Technology (Shenzhen) Ltd..
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Christensen, James H.
    Department of Research and Development, Holobloc Inc., Cleveland, OH.
    Guan, Xinping
    Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai.
    Discrete-Event-Based Deterministic Execution Semantics With Timestamps for Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems2017In: IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man & Cybernetics. Systems, ISSN 2168-2216, E-ISSN 1349-2543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) are becoming common in the industrial automation domain. In industrial CPS, distributed programmable logic controllers collaborate to control manufacturing plants. Design and analysis of such systems require a system model that covers control, computation, and communication with physical plant dynamics. This paper focuses on execution semantics for industrial CPS with the aim of providing a deterministic and platform-independent execution environment. A discrete-event-based execution semantics augmented with timestamp mechanism is proposed for IEC 61499 to provide deterministic behavior and guarantee compliance with real-time constraints for industrial CPS. The timestamped discrete-event-based execution semantics is implemented in an IEC 61499 runtime with service-enabled features. A case study of building automation system is used to prove the proposed semantics.

  • 31. Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    A case study on migration from IEC 61131 PLC to IEC 61499 function block control2009In: INDIN 2009: 7th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, 2009 : [24th-26th June, Cardiff, UK, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2009, 79-84 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEC 61499 architecture is a new standard proposed to replace current PLC technologies. This paper aims to develop a guide to migrate from IEC 61131 PLC technologies to IEC 61499 function blocks, especially for PLC programmers. Multiple PLC platforms are chosen as examples and transformed function block system is provided. Beyond migration rules, current limitation and cautions during migration are discussed on the final section of this paper.

  • 32.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    On migration from PLCs to IEC 61499:: Addressing the data handling issues2010In: INDIN 2010: proceedings : 8th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics : Osaka University Nakanoshima Center, Osaka, Japan, 13-16 July, 2010, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2010, 1142-1147 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEC 61499 Function Block architecture is considered as the next generation of programmable control technology. However, during migration from IEC 61131-3 centralized PLC to IEC 61499 distributed control, the data handling efficiency issue has arisen. This paper uses baggage handling system as case study to propose two different approaches for providing efficient data handling model. The comparison between the object-oriented and service-oriented models is provided as well as the limitations

  • 33. Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Ontology model for migration from IEC 61131-3 PLC to IEC 61499 function block2011In: DELTA 2011: 2011 Sixth IEEE International Symposium on Electronic Design, Test and Application : proceedings : 17-19 January 2011, Queenstown, New Zealand / [ed] Gourab Sen Gupta, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, 172-175 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Redesign distributed IEC 61131-3 PLC system in IEC 61499 function blocks2010In: ETFA 2010: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Techologies and Factory Automation : September 13-16, 2010 @ Bilbao, Spain, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss the problem of migration from the PLC control to the event-driven and component based architecture of IEC 61499 function blocks. We are using a conveyor system to illustrate three different migration methods: object-oriented in basic function block, object-oriented in composite function block and class-oriented in basic function block. The advantages and limitations are summarized and guideline for migration is provided.

  • 35.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Redesign distributed PLC control systems using IEC 61499 function blocks2012In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 9, no 2, 390-401 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEC 61499 Function Block architecture is considered as the next generation of programmable control technology promoting distributed control in automation. In this paper, the redesign methodologies from the PLC control to the event-driven architecture of IEC 61499 function blocks are proposed. A general set of translation steps and mapping rules for redesigning applications from IEC 61131-3 PLC to IEC 61499 Function Blocks is provided. Three different redesign approaches are proposed: object-oriented conversion approach, object-oriented reuse approach, and class-oriented approach. These approaches are to be applied for different design styles of the source PLC code. The data handling efficiency of all approaches is investigated. An airport baggage handling system is chosen as the case study for the redesign process. The rules and limitations are summarized and guidelines for the redesign process are provided.

  • 36.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Transformation from PLC to distributed control using ontology mapping2012In: 10th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), IEEE Communications Society, 2012, 436-441 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new methodology of transformation from IEC 61131-3 PLCs to IEC 61499 function blocks is proposed in this paper. The aim of this process is to recreate IEC 61131-3 programs in the IEC 61499 format automatically. The original PLC cyclical execution is fulfilled in the IEC 61499 function blocks. Definitions of IEC 61131-3 and IEC 61499 ontology model are provided. Also the ontology mapping between those two standards is also achieved by using the SQWRL. A small airport baggage handling system implemented in the IEC 61131-3 PLC is converted to the IEC 61499 function block as a demonstration

  • 37.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    University of Auckland, Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Chen, Cailian
    Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Guan, Xinping
    Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Modeling distributed automation systems in cyber-physical view2015In: 10th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications: ICIEA 2015, Auckland. New Zealand; 15 - 17 June 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, 984-989 p., 7334251Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing complexity of automation processes, distributed automation systems are required to meet real-time constraints of control and communication for processes. On the other hand, cyber-physical system is committed for solving complexities of networked embedded systems. In the cyber-physical view, distributed systems are combination of control, computation and communication. One key research topic is to solve design complexities of industrial cyber-physical systems by applying modeling techniques. In this paper, an IEC 61499-based modeling language is propsed for industrial cyber-physical systems. Furthermore, how these modeling techniques could be beneficial for industrial cyber-physical systems are investigated. Finally, an industrial cyber-physical system design tool is implemented by applying the proposed IEC 61499-based modeling language

  • 38.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Christensen, James H.
    Holobloc Inc., Cleveland.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    Department of Computer Science, University of Penza, Penza, Russia.
    Response to “Comments on Bridging Service-Oriented Architecture and IEC 61499 for Flexibility and Interoperability”2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, no 4, 1497-1502 p., 7931583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service-oriented architecture is increasingly applied in industrial cyber-physical systems to provide better flexibility and interoperability between various systems and devices. In the previous work (IEEE Trans. On Industrial Informatics, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp 771 – 781, June 2015), a service-based execution environment for IEC 61499 is proposed to enhance flexibility and interoperability in distributed automation systems. In this paper we discuss questions raised by some readers, for example performance overhead of the proposed method. Also other clarifications are made in order to address possible confusions expressed in the received comments

  • 39. Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Dubinin, V.
    Ontology-based design recovery and migration between IEC 61499 - compliant tools2011In: IECON 2011 - 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IEEE Communications Society, 2011, 4332-4337 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new method of semantic design recovery of automation applications, with source code used to generate ontological semantic model of IEC 61499 application. The model can be used for automatic semantic analysis of the system and automatic code generation for various IEC 61499 tools. This method creates a foundation for correct-by-design development tools and automatic migration between different tools. The semantic enrichment and analysis are fulfilled via ontology reasoning and query. This complete design loop is implemented in a software tool including code capture engine, semantic analyzer and code generation engine with the pre-defined IEC 61499 ontology model. The method is demonstrated on a simple control system case study.

  • 40.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    University of Auckland, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pang, Cheng
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Christensen, James H.
    Rockwell Automation Advanced Technologies, Mayfield Heights, Holobloc Inc., Cleveland Heigths.
    Time-stamped event based execution semantics for industrial cyber-physical systems2015In: IEEE 13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 2015: Cambridge, United Kingdom, 22-24 July 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, 1263-1268 p., 7281916Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems show their impacts in many areas including industrial automation. Design and analysis of cyber-physical automation systems requires an integral model that takes into account tight coordination of control, communication and physical plants dynamics, thus creating a new research domain, namely industrial cyber-physical systems. This paper proposes a new execution semantics for the IEC 61499 standard that is based on the concepts of discrete-event systems augmented with timestamping of events to guarantee real-time constraints for industrial cyber-physical systems. The proposed execution semantics is implemented in an IEC 61499 execution environment and a case study on building automation systems is used to verify the results.

  • 41.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Migration From PLC to IEC 61499 Using Semantic Web Technologies2014In: IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man & Cybernetics. Systems, ISSN 2168-2216, Vol. 44, no 3, 277-291 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new methodology of migration from IEC 61131-3 PLCs to IEC 61499 function blocks. The aim of this migration process is to recreate IEC 61131-3 applications in IEC 61499 implementations with equivalent execution behavior. The formal model of the IEC 61131-3 standard for migration and cyclical execution model is defined. This method also creates a foundation for correct-by-design development tools and automatic migration between the IEC 61131-3 and IEC 61499 standard. Formal migration rules based on ontology mappings, restoring execution model including tasks and programs scheduling and variables mapping with different access levels, are provided. A transformation engine for importing PLC code, mapping from PLC ontology model to function block model and code generation is implemented based on the ontological knowledge base and semantic query-enhanced web rule language. The migration approach is demonstrated on a simple airport baggage handling system.

  • 42.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Peltola, Jukka
    Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pang, Cheng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Service-Oriented Distributed Control Software Design for Process Automation Systems2014In: Conference Proceedings / IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, ISSN 1062-922X, 3637-3642 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving software development efficiency and reusability of existing programs is an important topic for industrial automation. Recently, modern software paradigms have been introduced into the automation domain such as object-oriented programming using the IEC 61131-3 standard and component-based design based on the IEC 61499 standard. In this paper, another software paradigm – service-oriented architecture is applied to the software design for automation programs. The proposed SOA pattern is based on a multi-layered structure with enhanced reusability and flexibility. A case study of water heating system is implemented to prove the concept of SOA paradigm.

  • 43.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    A Configurable Cloud-Based Testing Infrastructure for Interoperable Distributed Automation Systems2015In: IECON 2014: 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Dallas, TX, USA , Oct. 29 2014-Nov. 1 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, 2492-2498 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interoperability between various automation systems is considered as one of the major character of future automation systems. Service-oriented Architecture is a possible interoperability enabler between legacy and future automation systems. In order to prove the interoperability between those systems, a verification framework is essential. This paper proposes a configurable cloud-based validation environment for interoperability tests between various distributed automation systems. The testing framework is implemented in a multi-layer structure which provides automated closed-loop testing from the protocol level to the system level. The testing infrastructure is also capable for simulating automation systems as well as wireless sensor networks in the cloud. Test cases could be automatically generated and executed by the framework.

  • 44.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    A component-based design pattern for improving reusability of automation programs2013In: 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013, IEEE Communications Society, 2013, 4328-4333 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a component-based design pattern for distributed automation programs. This design pattern aims to improve reusability of programs and reduce redevelopment time. Component-based design issues in both IEC 61131-3 and IEC 61499 platforms are analyzed. Then the design pattern is proposed in a form of a set of rules. The pattern combines properties of service-oriented architecture (SOA) with multi-layered organization and engineering benefits of component organization. This design pattern is applied to both IEC 61131-3 and IEC 61499 on example of a real airport baggage handling automation system. The result proves that the design pattern brings convenience for developers of automation programs and improves reusability of software components.

  • 45.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Christensen, James
    The Application of Service-Oriented Architectures in Distributed Automation Systems2014In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, 252-257 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity and scale of automation industry applications have increased substantially in recent years, posing new challenges to fulfill growing requirements for reusability, interoperability, flexibility and reconfigurability. The adoption of service-oriented architectures (SOAs) could be a feasible solution to meeting these challenges. Based on a comparison between the conceptual frameworks of SOAs versus modern standards for distributed automation, a methodology is proposed for the application of SOAs in the distributed automation domain. The implementation of the Service-Oriented Architecture based PLC execution environment is demonstrated on a case study.

  • 46.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Christensen, James H.
    Holobloc Inc.
    Essential elements for programming of distributed automation and control systems2013In: Proceedings of 2013 IEEE 18th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2013): Cagliari, Italy, 10-13 September 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, 6647942Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed control systems are widely deployed to all areas in industrial automation. However, a systematic approach to the design and programming of distributed automation and control systems is not clearly defined. This paper analyzes the differences between two control system architectures defined in IEC Standards - IEC 61131-3 for centralized control with programmable controllers (PLCs) vs. IEC 61499 for the use of function blocks (FBs) in distributed automation and control - in an attempt to identify the essential elements - the sine qua non - for such programming. Through this analysis, two indispensable elements - software modularity and the use of communication services - are identified. Guidelines are given for the use of these elements in both PLC and FB systems, and the application of these guidelines is illustrated in a case study of airport baggage handling systems

  • 47.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Dubinin, Victor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Christensen, James
    Enhancing Distributed Automation Systems with Efficiency and Reliability by Applying Autonomic Service Management2014In: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, 1-8 p., 7005123Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improvement of flexibility and interoperability is a usual concern of industrial automation systems developers. Service-oriented architecture is one approach promising improvement of flexibility and interoperability in existing distributed automation systems. However, the intelligent self-managing features cannot be fully achieved by just applying the service-oriented architecture. In order to improve efficiency and reliability of distributed automation systems, the service-oriented architecture is extended in this paper by autonomic service management. The design of the autonomic service manager is provided and some key features such as self-configuration, self-healing and self-optimization are demonstrated. The design of a flexible and interoperable execution environment is also illustrated. Some preliminary tests are completed with a case study.

  • 48.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Dubinin, Victor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Christensen, James
    Function Block Implementation of Service Oriented Architecture: Case Study2014In: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, IEEE Communications Society, 2014, 112-117 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), initially developed for general purpose computing, is becoming increasingly popular in industrial automation, especially due to the growing importance of distributed measurement and control systems, Internet of Things and wireless sensor network infrastructures. There are two serious gaps in the current implementations of SOA for automation: the lack of a proper standard form for representing the logical relation between services at the system level, and, in particular, lack for a proper visual representation format enabling intuitive understanding and reconfiguration of services during the system lifecycle. In this paper, it is shown how these gaps can be filled using the IEC 61499 function block architecture in the most intuitive and natural way. The ideas are illustrated on example of systems, composed form intelligent mechatronic devices. Such features, as software reuse, flexibility, reconfigurability and scalability are demonstrated. The paper shows complementarity of the SOA and IEC 61499.

  • 49.
    Degefa, Merkebu Z.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Alahäivälä, Antti
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Kilkki, Olli
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Humayun, Muhammad
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Seilonen, Ilkka
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Lehtonen, Matti
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    MAS-Based Modeling of Active Distribution Network: The Simulation of Emerging Behaviors2016In: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, ISSN 1949-3053, E-ISSN 1949-3061, Vol. 7, no 6, 2615-2623 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agent-based modeling of active distribution network helps to understand the dynamics and to design the control strategies for overall system efficiency. There is, however, a lack of generic and multipurpose agent definitions in existing studies. In this paper, a multi-agent system-based modeling of an active distribution network is presented using cooperative agents. A method to solve a network-wise objective of state estimation is explained with the proposed model. The network component agents are defined to be cooperative to meet the overall objectives and greedy to fulfil individual objectives such as energy cost minimization. A token-ring protocol is deployed for the agent communication among themselves, as well as with market and network operator agents. Furthermore, a MATLAB/Simulink model of active distribution network is used to simulate the emerging stochastic loading scenario, while the autonomous prosumer agents optimize their total energy cost responding to market price variations.

  • 50.
    Demin, Evgenii
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza, Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Automation services orchestration with function blocks: Web-service implementation and performance evaluation2016In: Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi-Agent Manufacturing: [International Workshop on Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi-agent Manufacturing, SOHOMA 2015, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 5-6 November 2015 / [ed] Theodor Borangiu ; Damien Trentesaux; André Thomas; Duncan McFarlane, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2016, 213-221 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents service-oriented implementation of distributed automation systems and the results of a practical performance measurement of Web-services deployed on different platforms. In the experiments we used a technique that allows one to separate the characteristics of the Web-service, such as the delays introduced by the medium of communication. It is shown that the technology development and deployment of Web-services significantly affect their performance

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