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  • 1.
    Bergström, Erik
    et al.
    School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Skövde.
    Lundgren, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Revisiting information security risk management challenges: a practice perspective2019In: Information and Computer Security, ISSN 2056-4961, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 358-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The study aims to revisit six previously defined challenges in information security risk management to provide insights into new challenges based on current practices.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on an empirical study consisting of in-depth interviews with representatives from public sector organisations. The data were analysed by applying a practice-based view, i.e. the lens of knowing (or knowings). The results were validated by an expert panel.

    Findings – Managerial and organisational concerns that go beyond a technical perspective have been . found, which affect the ongoing social build-up of knowledge in everyday information security work.

    Research limitations/implications – The study has delimitation as it consists of data from four public sector organisations, i.e. statistical analyses have not been in focus, while implying a better understanding of what and why certain actions are practised in their security work.

    Practical implications – The new challenges that have been identified offer a refined set of actionable advice to practitioners, which, for example, can support cost-efficient decisions and avoid unnecessary security trade-offs.

    Originality/value – Information security is increasingly relevant for organisations, yet little is still known about how related risks are handled in practice. Recent studies have indicated a gap between the espoused and the actual actions. Insights from actual, situated enactment of practice can advise on process adaption and suggest more fit approaches.

  • 2.
    Chronéer, Diana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Habibipour, Abdolrasoul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Urban Living Labs: Towards an Integrated Understanding of Their Key Components2019In: Technology Innovation Management Review, ISSN 1927-0321, E-ISSN 1927-0321, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 50-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s ongoing urbanization and escalating climate change, there is an increasing demand on cities to be innovative and inclusive to handle these emerging issues. As an answer to these challenges, and in order to generate and adopt sustainable innovations and nature-based solutions in the urban areas, the concept of urban living labs has emerged. However, to date, there is confusion concerning the concept of the urban living lab and its key components. Some interpret the urban living lab as an approach, others as a single project, and some as a specific place – and some just do not know. In order to unravel this complexity and better understand this concept, we sought to identify the key components of an urban living lab by discussing the perspective of city representatives in the context of an urban living lab project. To achieve this goal, we reviewed previous literature on this topic and carried out two workshops with city representatives, followed by an open-ended questionnaire. In this article, we identify and discuss seven key components of an urban living lab: governance and management structure; financing models; urban context; nature-based solutions; partners and users (including citizens); approach; and ICT and infrastructure. We also offer an empirically derived definition of the urban living lab concept.

  • 3.
    Elragal, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Hassanien, Hossam El-Din
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Augmenting Advanced Analytics into Enterprise Systems: A Focus on Post-Implementation Activities2019In: Systems, E-ISSN 2079-8954, Vol. 7, no 2, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analytics-empowered enterprise system looks to many organizations to be a far-fetched target, owing to the vast amounts of factors that need to be controlled across the implementation lifecycle activities, especially during usage and maintenance phases. On the other hand, advanced analytics techniques such as machine learning and data mining have been strongly present in academic as well as industrial arenas through robust classification and prediction. Correspondingly, this paper is set out to address a methodological approach that works on tackling post-live implementation activities, focusing on employing advanced analytics techniques to detect (business process) problems, find and recommend a solution to them, and confirm the solution. The objective is to make enterprise systems self-moderated by reducing the reliance on vendor support. The paper will profile an advanced analytics engine architecture fitted on top of an enterprise system to demonstrate the approach. Employing an advanced analytics engine has the potential to support post-implementation activities. Our research is innovative in two ways: (1) it enables enterprise systems to become self-moderated and increase their availability; and (2) the IT artifact i.e., the analytics engine, has the potential to solve other problems and be used by other systems, e.g., HRIS. This paper is beneficial to businesses implementing enterprise systems. It highlights how enterprise systems could be safeguarded from retirement caused by post-implementation problems.

  • 4.
    Habibipour, Abdolrasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Padyab, Ali Mohammad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Social, Ethical and Ecological Issues in Wearable Technologies2019In: Twenty-fifth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Cancun, 2019, 2019, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid growth of Internet of Things (IoT) has given rise to a plethora of wearable devices integrated into daily life, however achieving end-user’s long-term adoption is still an issue. The purpose of this paper is to investigate social, ethical and ecological issues related to wearable technologies from end-users’ perspectives. We undertook a systematic literature review as well as two rounds of interviews with domain experts as well as end-users of IoT wearable devices to find relevant issues related to social, ethical and ecological. After synthesizing the results, eighteen issues found to be relevant to the wearable technologies. These issues have important implications for reducing the negative barriers that challenge the adoption of wearable technologies. The originality of this study lies with its non-technological focus that provides insights into issues that are rooted into individuals’ concerns.

  • 5.
    Holmström, Anton
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Barsk, Anton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Informationssäkerhet i kommunala förvaltningar: kultur, medvetenhet och ansvar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information is handled, stored and used by all types of organisations in conjunctionwith the digitization. Information is an important business driver in the businessprocesses of most organisations therefore the protection of the information is crucial.Information security is not solely a technical question and therfore is affectedby the organisational culture, employees security awareness and the role of managementand individuals. The study uses a qualitative method for data collectionwith an abductive approach. In the study, we perform interviews with 9 differentemployees within different municipal administrations to examine how they workwith information security. In the analysis we investigate the correlation betweentheory and the existing situation. In the discussion we highlight the importance ofmanagement participation and the effects they have on information security, securityawareness and organisational culture. We also discuss the importance of theinvolvement of individuals in information security and how it affects its effectivness.The study shows the municiapals shortcomings within information security and theimportance of individuals and managements responsibility for an effective and secureorganisation.

  • 6.
    Källström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development. Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Håkansson, Lars
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Lin, Jing
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Vibration-based Condition Monitoring of Heavy Duty Machine Driveline Parts: Torque Converter, Gearbox, Axles and Bearings2019In: International Journal of Prognostics and Health Management, ISSN 2153-2648, E-ISSN 2153-2648, Vol. 10, article id 014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As more features are added to the heavy duty construction equipment, its complexity increases and early fault detection of certain components becomes more challenging due to too many fault codes generated when a failure occurs. Hence, the need to complement the present onboard diagnostic methods with more sophisticated diagnostic methods for adequate condition monitoring of the heavy duty construction equipment in order to improve uptime. Major components of the driveline (such as the gearbox, torque converter, bearings and axles) are such components. Failure of these major components of the driveline may results in the machine standing still until a repair is scheduled. In this paper, vibration based condition monitoring methods are presented with the purpose to provide a diagnostic framework possible to implement onboard for monitoring of critical driveline parts in order to reduce service cost and improve uptime. For the development of this diagnostic framework, sensor data from the gearbox, torque converter, bearings and axles are considered. Further, the feature extraction of the data collected has been carried out using adequate signal processing methods, which includes, Adaptive Line Enhancer, Order Power Spectrum respectively. In addition, Bayesian learning was utilized for adaptively learning of the extracted features for deviation detection. Bayesian learning is a powerful prediction method as it combines the prior information with knowlegde measured to make update. The results indicate that the vibration properties of the gearbox, torque converter, bearings and axle are relevant for early fault detection of the driveline. Furthermore, vibration provide information about the internal features of these components for detecting deviations from normal behavior.

    In this way, the developed methods may be implemented onboard for the continuous monitoring of these critical driveline parts of the heavy duty construction equipment so that if their health starts to degrade a service and/or repair may be scheduled well in advance of a potential failure and in that way the downtime of a machine may be reduced and costly replacements and repairs avoided.

  • 7.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Petter, Kyösti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, ProcessIT Innovations R&D Centre.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Toward Predictive Maintenance of Walls in Hard Rock Underground Facilities: IoT-Enabled Rock Bolts2019In: Enterprise Interoperability VIII.  vol 9. Springer, Cham / [ed] Popplewell K., Thoben KD., Knothe T., Poler R., Cham: Springer, 2019, Vol. 8, p. 319-329Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the first one-and-a-half cycles, out of four planned, in an action research effort concerned with predictive maintenance of walls and ceilings in tunnels of hard rock underground facilities by using Internet-of-Things-enabled Rock Bolts (IoTeRB). The IoTeRB concept is developed together with a consortium of companies ranging from rock bolt manufacturers, sensor specialists, researchers, and cloud-service providers to data analysts. Thus, the action research effort is a multi-disciplinary endeavor. The result of the paper is an action plan for the second cycle concerning technology and business development which, according to the design criterion, will move the IoTeRB toward commercialization.

  • 8.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Lejon, Erik
    Gestamp Hardtech AB.
    Kyösti, Petter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Mecella, Massimo
    University of Sapienza.
    Heutelbeck, Dominic
    FTK.
    Hemmje, Matthias
    FTK.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Data Ductus AB.
    Towards intelligent and sustainable production systems with a zero-defect manufacturing approach in an Industry4.0 context2019In: Procedia CIRP, vol 81 / [ed] Edited by Peter Butala, Edvard Govekar, Rok Vrabič, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 81, p. 880-885Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses intelligent and sustainable production achieved through combination and integration of online predictive maintenance, monitoring of process parameters and continuous quality control of both input materials and output from the process. This enables production systems, within both manufacturing and process industries, to move towards zero-defect manufacturing. Such a zero-defect manufacturing approach allows for earlier identification of problems or issues, which will or already negatively affect the output. The paper outlines the first part of the second cycle of an action research effort at Gestamp HardTech AB in Sweden, whose objective is to keep its position as a world-leading provider of press-hardened vehicle parts. In order to fully implement the zero-defect manufacturing approach, 4-6 action research cycles are expected to be needed in order to iteratively refine the approach. During the first cycle, various methods and solutions for some of the individual issues/problems have been conceptualized, realized and initially tested. The selected design criteria for the action research efforts were: simplicity, low cost, robustness, high-quality output and future-proofing. The result from the research in the second cycle so far is an action plan for the technical change and a set of challenges/problems which need additional investigation.

  • 9.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Viklund, Petra
    Luleå kommun.
    Fredrik, Tideman
    Luleå kommun.
    Berndt, Hällgren
    Luleå kommun.
    Jonny, Elvelin
    W3IT Norrbotten AB.
    Oh, no – not another policy! Oh, yes - an OT-policy!2019In: Procedia CIRP, vol 81 / [ed] Peter Butala, Edvard Govekar, Rok Vrabič, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 81, p. 582-587Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the need for a policy document in organizations concerned with Operational Technologies (OT) within their production and operational environments, and secondly how such an OT policy was developed and crafted by a Swedish municipality and its water production and wastewater management department. The first initial design criteria was to clearly distinguish the IT environment from the OT environment and the second design criteria was to achieve an improved, affordable and maintainable cybersecurity level for the OT environment. The results of the paper are an initial OT policy and an action plan for the necessary technical and organizational change in the OT environment.

  • 10.
    Lugnet, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems. Luleå University of Technology.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Innovation supports for small-scale development in rural regions: A Create, Build, Test & Learn approach2019In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small and medium sized firms’ businesses in rural regions typically address a home market and the delivery of niched products. This makes them exposed to business downturns, innovation is thus one way to survive and prosper. Small-scale product development is typically very hands-on, a sort of trial and error process. This experimental way is in favour for the implementation of innovation processes, but one challenge is the limited resources that firms can, or are willing to, spend on innovative work. A challenge is that procedures for organisational learning are lacking in the straightforward approach. The article describes the background and rationale for supporting small-scale manufacturing by introducing a support toolbox for early product development work. The support toolbox’s rationale is built upon learning cycles and communicative prototyping which may enhance innovation process capabilities.

  • 11.
    Lundgren, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Bergström, Erik
    University of Skövde.
    Dynamic Interplay in the Information Security Risk Management Process2019In: International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, ISSN 1466-8297, E-ISSN 1741-5241, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 212-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the formal processes so often assumed in information security risk management and its activities are investigated. For instance, information classification, risk analysis, and security controls are often presented in a predominantly instrumental progression. This approach, however, has received scholarly criticism, as it omits social and organizational aspects, creating a gap between formal and actual processes. This study argues that there is an incomplete understanding of how the activities within these processes actually interplay in practice. For this study, senior information security managers from four major Swedish government agencies were interviewed. As a result, twelve characteristics are presented that reflect an interplay between activities and that have implications for research, as well as for developers of standards and guidelines. The study’s conclusions suggest that the information security risk management process should be seen more as an emerging process, where each activity interplays dynamically in response to new requirements and organizational and social challenges.

  • 12.
    McPhee, Chris
    et al.
    Carleton University, Technol Innovat Management, Ottawa, ON, Canada.Queens University, Biol, Kingston, ON, Canada.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Habibipour, Abdolrasoul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Runardotter, Mari
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Chronéer, Diana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Editorial: Living Labs2019In: Technology Innovation Management Review, ISSN 1927-0321, E-ISSN 1927-0321, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 3-5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Michel, Hannes
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Visualizing audit log events at the Swedish Police Authority to facilitate its use in the judicial system2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the Swedish Police Authority, physical users’ actions within all systems that manage sensitive information, are registered and sent to an audit log. The audit log contains log entries that consist of information regarding the events that occur by the performing user. This means that the audit log continuously manages massive amounts of data which is collected, processed and stored. For the police authority, the audit log may be useful for proving a digital trail of something that has occurred.

    An audit log is based upon the collected data from a security log. Security logs can collect datafrom most of the available systems and applications. It provides the availability for the organizationto implement network surveillance over the digital assets where logs are collected in real-time whichenables the possibility to detect any intrusion over the network. Furthermore, additional assets thatlog events are generated from are security software, firewalls, operating systems, workstations,networking equipment, and applications.

    The actors in a court of law usually don’t possess the technical knowledge required to interpret alog events since they can contain variable names, unparsed data or undefined values. Thisemphasizes the need for a user-friendly artifact of the audit log events that facilitates its use.

    Researching a way of displaying the current data format and displaying it in an improvedpresentable manner would be beneficial as an academic research by producing a generalizablemodel. In addition, it would prove useful for the internal investigations of the police authority sinceit was formed by their needs.

  • 14.
    Padyab, Ali Mohammad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Päivärinta, Tero
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Awareness of Indirect Information Disclosure on Social Network Sites2019In: Social Media + Society, ISSN 2056-3051, E-ISSN 2056-3051, Vol. 5, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research investigates user awareness and attitudes toward potential inferences of information posted on social network sites (SNSs). The study reports how user attitudes change after exposure to inferences made based upon information they have disclosed on an SNS, namely, on Facebook. To demonstrate this, two sub-studies involving three focus group sessions were conducted with Facebook users. In the first sub-study, the users received a general introduction to information that can be inferred from posts by using a prototypical privacy-enhancement tool called DataBait. Then, the second sub-study allowed the users to witness the potential inferences of their own Facebook photos and posts by using the DataBait tool. Next, qualitative content analysis was conducted to analyze the results, and these showed that the participants’ attitudes toward privacy on SNSs changed from affective to cognitive when they became aware of potential inferences from actual information posted on their own Facebook accounts. The results imply that end users require more cognitive awareness regarding their genres of disclosure and the effect of their disclosures on their privacy. Moreover, as privacy awareness is contextual, there is a need for more research and development of online tools that will allow users to manage and educate themselves.

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