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  • 1.
    Golling, Stefan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Östlund, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    A study on homogenization methods for steels with varying content of ferrite, bainite and martensite2016In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 228, p. 88-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand of ultra high strength steel (UHSS) components increased in the last decade due to their high strength to weight ratio. The driving force in this development is the automotive industry and regulations concerning passenger safety and fuel consumption. The use of ultra high strength steel enables design of lighter car bodies with equal or better passenger safety compared to earlier car generations. The automotive industry and their suppliers need predictive tools in the development of components with tailored material properties. Components with tailored material properties are produced by hot stamping, in this process a blank is austenitized before it is formed and quenched in one step. By use of sequential heated or cooled tools, different mechanical properties distributed within the same component are achieved.In order to develop a constitutive model for components consisting of regions with varying phase content, a suitable method to describe the elasto-plastic part of the yield curve is needed. The focus of this work is on the description of the elasto-plastic constitutive model of an ultra high strength steel depending on the phase content in the material. Different volume fractions of ferrite, bainite and martensite are experimentally formed. In this study the capability of different homogenization methods on the prediction of the material response of a multi-phase steel depending on the volume fraction of formed phases is investigated. The modeling results are compared to experimental results.The prediction of the composite response using the micromechanical based double-inclusion model and pure phase measured data as well as experimentally obtained phase volume fractions of present phases showed good agreement throughout all samples tested in this study.

  • 2.
    Golling, Stefan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Östlund, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Implementation of homogenization scheme for hardening, localization and fracture of a steel with tailored material properties2013In: 4th International Conference Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-performance Steel CHS: June 9-12, Luleå, Sweden : Proceedings / [ed] Mats Oldenburg; Braham Prakash; Kurt Steinhoff, Auerbach: Verlag Wissenschaftliche Scripten , 2013, p. 75-82Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Golling, Stefan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Östlund, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Study on fracture in heat affected zones in the vicinity of spot welds in a steel with tailored material properties2015In: Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel 5th International Conference: May 31-June 3, Toronto, Canada : Proceedings / [ed] Kurt Steinhoff; Mats Oldenburg; Braham Prakash, Auerbach: Verlag Wissenschaftliche Scripten , 2015, p. 211-219Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for ultra-high strength steel (UHSS) increased in the last decade due to their favourable properties in the process of press hardening. Press hardening is a process where an austenitized blank of boron steel is formed and quenched in one production step to achieve superior mechanical properties compared to the blank in as-delivered condition. Driving force for the development of this technique is the automotive industry and regulations concerning passenger safety and fuel consumption. In this work fracture in spot welds and their proximity in low alloyed boron steel have been investigated using finite element simulation and digital speckle photography. This study is motivated by the use of spot welding as major joining method in automotive components. The investigation includes blanks with three different base microstructures, ferritic, bainitic and martensitic. These types of microstructures are commonly found in press hardened components with tailored material properties. All test samples are spot welded in a centred position with a coupon. The welding process introduces heat into the blank and affects the microstructure in the vicinity of the weld leading to varying mechanical properties. During tensile testing of the spot welded samples the mechanical response of the material has been recorded by digital speckle photography (DSP), extensometer and force measurement. The experimental method of DSP measurement allows to resolve displacement and strain fields in the specimen up until fracture. For finite element analysis the commercial available code LS-Dyna together with a user defined material model is used. The material model predicts the mechanical response of the bulk material, i.e. the composite, depending on the phase volume fractions of present phases.

  • 4.
    Marth, Stefan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Golling, Stefan
    Gestamp R&D, Box 828, 97 125 Luleå, Sweden.
    Östlund, Rickard
    Gestamp R&D, Box 828, 97 125 Luleå, Sweden.
    Barrero Pijoan, Anna
    Eurecat, Centre Tecnològic de Catalunya, Unit of Metallic and Ceramic Materials, Plaça de la Ciència 2, 08243 Manresa, Spain.
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Failure Modelling and Experimental Evaluation of a Press-Hardened Laboratory Scale Component with Multi-Phase Microstructure2019In: CHS² 2019 - 7th International Conference on Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High Performance Steel, 2019 / [ed] Mats Oldenburg, Jens Hardell, Daniel Casellas, 2019, Vol. 7, p. 39-50, article id B1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hot stamping of boron alloyed steel has become a standard in the automotive industry for safety relevant body in white components. This process allows the design of complex geometries with superior mechanical properties. Special tool design enables to manufacture components with special properties based on varying microstructures in designated areas. This is a challenge for finite element (FE) simulations of deformation and failure for multi-phase microstructure components.

    In the present work, a laboratory scale test component with multi-phase microstructure is studied from blank to fractured component. Using different tool temperatures and adding an air-cooling step before transfer to the press hardening tool, the microstructure of the component is varied. By this, components with four different multi-phase microstructures are produced. These components are tested under tensile deformation until fracture, where force, elongation and the strain field on the components surface are measured.

    The laboratory scale test component is evaluated using FE-modelling. The complete production process is modelled starting with the pre-cut austenitized blank, subsequent transfer, air-cooling, forming operation, and the final post-cooling. The resulting multi-phase micro structures are evaluated using manual optical microscope image analysis and compared with the simulated phase composition. Furthermore, the deformation and fracture of the manufactured component under tensional loading is studied using a mean-field homogenization scheme for the multi-phase composition combined with the OPTUS failure model. This finite element investigation is conducted taking the microstructure composition, shape and thickness deviations from the forming simulation into account.

    The present work shows the feasibility of modelling methods of the complete process chain for press-hardened components with multi-phase microstructures, from blank to fractured component.

  • 5.
    Marth, Stefan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Häggblad, Hans-åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Östlund, Rickard
    Post necking characterisation for sheet metal materials using full field measurement2016In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 238, p. 315-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    precise prediction of the post-necking behaviour of materials is needed to increase the precision of computer simulations with large deformations. Applications in which this need is encountered include crash, forming, and failure simulations. By using an optical full-field measurement of the localised deformation field, an effective and computationally fast method is presented to determine the relationship between true stress and true plastic strain, including post-necking behaviour. The presented stepwise modelling method is used to characterise heat-treated boron steel using thin sheet metal specimens. These results are validated with the results determined by a method based on inverse modelling. It can be concluded that the stepwise modelling method is considerably faster than the compared inverse modelling method. The method is also suitable for effectively determining element size dependency due to regularisation of the hardening behaviour needed for finite element analysis with strain localisation, e.g., for crash simulations

  • 6.
    Östlund, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Microstructure based modelling of ductile fracture in quench-hardenable boron steel2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduction of fuel consumption and emissions by vehicle weight minimization constitute a major driving force for the development of new materials and manufacturing processes in the automotive industry. Simultaneously formed and quenched boron steel components have higher strength to weight ratio than conventional mild steel components. Additionally, hot formed components can be tailored to have regions with lower strength and higher ductility, improving their crash performance. This is often realized via dierential in-die cooling rates, thus yielding a variable microstructure compositiongiving rise to distributed mechanical properties. Predicting the performance envelopes of these types of components poses some challenges in terms of constitutive modelling, due to the dierential material composition and mechanical properties. Moreover, fractureinitiation is often a limiting design factor. This thesis aims to contribute to the constitutive and ductile fracture modelling of quench-hardenable boron steels, with reference to microstructure composition and hence process history. Modelling techniques which in an approximate manner can estimate the eective material properties based on the properties of the constituents in combination with ductile fracture models are presented.Computational issues concerning numerical nite element modelling of material instabilities are also addressed, essentially via two dierent methods. Introducing a discretization dependent parameter in the constitutive description, or by kinematic enhancements with respect to the localization problem. Both aim to reduce mesh sensitivity and provide improved predictions of post-instability response with industrially relevant mesh sizes.Additionally, an experimental investigation on the ow and fracture properties of boron steel, with a comprehensive range of dierent microstructure compositions, is presented. A full-eld measurement technique enabled the direct evaluation of mechanical properties and fracture relevant data from tensile tests. These results have supported the establishment of models and enabled their calibration, and they provide further insight to the inuence of microstructure and processing conditions on the ductile fracture properties. Comparisons between simulations and experiments indicate that useful predictions of the overall hardening behaviour and fracture elongations can be obtained by the suggested microstructure based modelling approach.

  • 7.
    Östlund, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Modelling and characterisation of fracture properties of advanced high strength steels2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing demands for passenger safety, vehicle performance and fueleconomy is a continuous driving force for the increase in use of advancedhigh strength steels (AHSS) in the automotive industry. Thesesteels area characterised by improved formability and crash worthinesscompared to conventional steel grades. An important prerequisite of theapplication of new material grades is the characterization of its mechanicalproperties. Post-localization and fracture predictive technologiesgreatly facilitate the design of components which make optimal use ofthese steel grades. In this thesis, press hardened boron alloyed steelsubjected to differential thermo-mechanical processing is characterized.Fracture properties in relation to the different microstructures obtainedis studied. Furthermore a dual phase (DP) cold forming steel is chosenfor evaluation of ductility limit in shear loading. throughout thiswork a strategy for modelling post-localization response and predictingductility limit using shell elements larger then the typical width of thelocalized neck is used. The studied material is assumed to be in a stateof plane stress. Mesh dependency is alleviated by the introduction of aelement size dependent parameter into the constitutive description. Thisparameter acts as a hardening parameter, controlling the evolution ofthe yield surface depending on loading, strain history and shell elementsize. Model calibration relies on a full field measurement technique, DigitalSpeckle Photography (DSP), to record the plane deformation field oftensile specimens. Quantitative measurements of the severely localizeddeformation preceding crack initiation are feasible. With the proposedstrategy, mesh sensitivity in terms of post localization load responseand fracture elongation predictions is reduced significantly compared toresults obtained without the element size dependent parameter. It wasfound that high strain hardening favours strain localization of shear band type, and accelerates the formation of a localized neck. The hardeningcharacteristics is determinant to which deformation mode dissipates theminimum energy. For the DP steel, the Tresca yield surface more accuratelydescribes the yielding point compared to the von Mises planestress elipse. Furthermore, the exponential ductility function dependenton the stress triaxiality parameter agrees well with experimental fracturedata in the ductile loading regime for both DP and boron steel.In shear loading, the maximum shear (MS) stress criterion successfullydescribes the ductility limit. Due to the significantly different ductilityof the various microstructures obtainable by the thermo-mechanicalprocessing of boron alloyed steel, a modelling strategy is needed. It wasfound that in ductile loading, local equivalent fracture strain can be relatedto the hardness of that material point. An exponential decrease inductility with increased hardness describes experimental data collectedfor five different microstructures.

  • 8.
    Östlund, Rickard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Berglund, Daniel
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Failure analysis of a hat profile with tailored properties subjected to axial compression2013In: 4th International Conference Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-performance Steel CHS: June 9-12, Luleå, Sweden : Proceedings / [ed] Mats Oldenburg; Braham Prakash; Kurt Steinhoff, Auerbach: Verlag Wissenschaftliche Scripten , 2013, p. 23-30Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Östlund, Rickard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Golling, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Microstructure based modeling of ductile fracture initiation in press-hardened sheet metal structures2016In: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, ISSN 0045-7825, E-ISSN 1879-2138, Vol. 302, p. 90-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing of sheet metal components with spatially varying microstucture composition and mechanical properties using press-hardening technology is now an established practice in the automotive industry. To estimate the performance envelopes of such components, a multi-scale approach to ductile fracture prediction based on mean-field homogenization is proposed. Two non-interacting fracture criteria are formulated in terms of the local average stress field, referring to inter-phase and intra-phase fracture mechanisms. The overall ductility is governed by the weakest constituent or interface present in the multiphase material. Moreover, instabilities related to the strain localization problem at the macroscale are treated by embedding discontinuities in the element formulation. These are triggered by a localization criterion derived via bifurcation analysis of the homogenized material. Issues concerning numerical implementation include a forward Euler scheme for integrating the mean-field equations, suitable for explicit finite element analysis of heterogeneous materials. Tensile specimens with ten distinctly different microstructure compositions are evaluated, for which useful predictions of the overall force-displacement response and fracture elongations are demonstrated.

  • 10. Östlund, Rickard
    et al.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Microstructure-Based Modelling of Ductile Failure2015In: Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel 5th International Conference: May 31-June 3, Toronto, Canada : Proceedings / [ed] Kurt Steinhoff; Mats Oldenburg; Braham Prakash, Auerbach: Verlag Wissenschaftliche Scripten , 2015, p. 149-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is concerned with plasticity and ductile fracture modelling aspects of press hardened steels, where multiple phases of different yield strength, work hardening and ductility are present. Macroscopic constitutive properties are determined using a semi-analytical approach termed Mean Field Homogenization (MFH), based on the properties of individual phases and micro-topology. This is combined with a phenomenological ductile fracture initiation criterion formulated in stress space at the microscopic scale. Localization enhanced kinematics are introduced at the macro-scale when instability is signaled by a local bifurcation analysis of the homogenized material. Discontinuities in the strain field are introduced into a quadrilateral shell based on the weak discontinuity approach. Fracture properties and flow curves up to large strains are determined from single phase tensile experiments using digital image correlation. The predictions of the integrated MFH and fracture model is compared with experimental results on steel sheets with different thermal histories, in terms of fracture prediction and and overall mechanical properties

  • 11.
    Östlund, Rickard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Berglund, D.
    Gestamp R&D.
    Evaluation of localization and failure of boron alloyed steels with different microstructure compositions2014In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 214, no 3, p. 592-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the press hardening technology, where hot sheet blanks are simultaneously formed fixed and quenched, new methods with differential thermal treatment come to light. With controlled tool temperature variation, components with tailored properties can be produced. Automotive components combining high energy absorption and intrusion protection in a crash situation are feasible. In the present work the mechanical properties of three different material qualities, beginning with the same base sheet metal subjected to different thermal histories, are investigated. A strategy for modelling post-necking response and crack initiation using shell elements larger then the typical bandwidth of the localized neck is used. The model relies on a sequence of full field measurements throughout a tensile test; i.e. Digital Speckle Photography(DSP). The full field experimental method allows for evaluation of mechanical and failure properties at different analysis lengths, providing parameters for a model which accounts for shell element size. Additionally the model contains a strain based failure criteria as a function of stress triaxiality. Good correlations between a simulated tensile test and experimental results were found. A detailed metallographic study of the three grades was performed and is presented.

  • 12.
    Östlund, Rickard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Berglund, Daniel
    Gestamp Hardtech AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Failure model evaluation for varying microstructure based on material hardness2011In: Proceedings: 3rd International Conference Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High Performance Steel : June 13 - 17, 2011, Kassel, Germany / [ed] Mats Oldenburg, Auerbach: Verlag Wissenschaftliche Scripten , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Östlund, Rickard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Berglund, Daniel
    Gestamp R&D.
    Numerical failure analysis of steel sheets using a localization enhanced element and a stress based fracture criterion2015In: International Journal of Solids and Structures, ISSN 0020-7683, E-ISSN 1879-2146, Vol. 56, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strain localization and fracture initiation of elasto-plastic thin steel sheets is analyzed. A shell element enhanced by embedded discontinuities is developed to improve coarse-mesh accuracy in terms of fracture initiation prediction and to regularize the post-instability response. Discontinuities in the strain field are introduced when instability is signaled by a local bifurcation analysis. The enhancements are implemented for the Belytschko-Lin-Tsay shell element. This is combined with a stress based fracture criterion which relates the magnitude of the stress vector and the first invariant of the stress tensor. A robust experimental procedure based on full-field measurements enable direct calibration in stress space, and provides a flow curve up to large strains. Numerical examples involving tensile samples with different localization behavior are presented to demonstrate significant reduction of spurious mesh dependence. Moreover, the engineering feasibility of the direct use of a stress based fracture criterion in combination with the enhanced element is evaluated by comparison of measured and calculated fracture elongations.

1 - 13 of 13
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