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  • 1.
    Müller, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Building surface materials as sources of micropollutants in building runoff: A pilot study2019Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 680, s. 190-197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Control of diffuse pollution is critical for achieving good surface water quality status. In this context, pollutant contributions from building materials have received increased attention in recent decades. This study examined the releases of metals, nonylphenols and phthalates from ten common building surface materials (installed in triplicates) into rainwater runoff from six rain events. The highest releases of metals were from copper and zinc sheets (average concentrations of 3090 μg/L Cu and 7770 μg/L Zn respectively), while other metal materials, e.g., Corten weathering steel, exhibited lower releases. PVC roofing released high concentrations of nonylphenols and phthalates (average concentrations of up to 26 μg/L nonylphenols and 455 μg/L Diisononyl phthalate, DINP) which have not been investigated in the earlier studies. Pollutant releases varied between events, likely because of weather conditions and rainfall characteristics. Study findings should be valuable for environmentally responsible applications of the existing building materials and the development of new ones, as well as the investigations and risk assessment of specific pollutants in stormwater.

  • 2.
    Nyström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Removal of small particles from urban snow melt mixture by coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation2017Inngår i: 14th IWA/IAHR International Conference on Urban Drainage: Conference Proceedings, 2017, 2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This abstract presents a laboratory study of a coagulation/flocculation process on an urban snow melt mixture. Coagulation/flocculation is ubiquitous in water treatment, but has seen little use in the stormwater context. Using a jar-test procedure five different chemicals are evaluated as primary coagulants and their treatment performance on urban snow melt with respect to solids removal and metal content. Particle-size distribution measurements will indicate the process effect on different size fractions in the urban snow melt. Analysis for metal content will show the extent of metal reduction that occurs, either by separating out the particulate fraction or due to precipitation reactions.

  • 3.
    Nyström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Flocculation and membrane filtration of stormwater: laboratory experiments2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Haapala, Jenny
    Vatten Östersund, Water Engineering, Water Department Östersund, Östersund Municipality.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Westerlund, Camilla
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Inter-Event and Intra-Event Variations of Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the Storm Sewer System of the City of Östersund, Sweden2016Inngår i: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 142, nr 7, artikkel-id 6016003Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An episode of microbiological contamination of the drinking water supply of the City of Östersund, Sweden (63°10′45″N; 14°38′09″E) prompted a study of fecal pollution in four storm drainage catchments discharging in the vicinity of the water treatment plant intake, with the overall aim of determining the presence and variation of standard fecal indicator bacteria strains and total suspended solids (TSS) in stormwater from urban catchments with specific land uses and sizes varying from 5 to 40 ha. Four bacteria strains used as indicators of fecal pollution in Sweden were studied: total coliforms, enterococci, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens). In dry weather, indicator bacteria concentrations in storm sewers conveying baseflow did not exceed 100  colony forming units (CFU)/100  mL 100  colony forming units (CFU)/100  mL, but during wet weather, total coliform and enterococci concentrations increased 10 2 102 to 10 3 103 times, compared to those in baseflow, and considerably less in the case of E. coli and C. perfringens. Bacteria concentrations differed significantly among the sampling sites and in the majority of events observed in the four catchments; higher bacteria concentrations were observed during the early phases of runoff. Only in one catchment, positive correlations were observed between TSS and total coliforms, E. coli, and enterococci, suggesting similar sources; in the remaining catchments, no such correlations were observed. The collected indicator bacteria data represent a useful addition to the available data on indicator bacteria in stormwater in cold-climate regions.

  • 5.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Sundelin, Monica
    Hjortens Lab, Östersund.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Comparison of indicator bacteria concentrations obtained by automated and manual sampling of urban stormwater runoff2014Inngår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 225, nr 9, artikkel-id 2065Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative study of indicator bacteria concentrations obtained by laboratory analysis of grab samples of storm water, which were collected manually or by automatic samplers, was carried out in two urban catchments. Samples were analyzed for four types of indicator bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens and further documented by measurements of total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity. Analysis of complete data sets (N=198) indicated no statistically significant differences in the geometric means of all the constituent samples collected automatically or manually, but there were some small differences between the results produced by the two sampling methods applied. Total coliform concentrations were positively biased in samples collected by automatic samplers, but for the three remaining indicator bacteria (E. coli, enterococci, and C. perfringens), the opposite was true. Risk of sample cross-contamination in automatic samplers was assessed in the laboratory by sampling consecutively synthetic storm water with high and low concentrations of E. coli and enterococci. The first low-concentration samples preceded by high-concentration samples were cross-contaminated and the measured concentrations were positively biased. This cross-contamination was explained by storm-water residue in the sampling line. Such a residue remained in place even after line purging by compressed air, and its mass depended on the sampling line length (tested up to 5 m), as verified by measurements in the laboratory. The study findings should be helpful for improving field protocols for indicator bacteria sampling.

  • 6.
    Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Effect of temperature on the performance of laboratory-scale phosphorus-removing filter beds in on-site wastewater treatment2014Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 117, s. 360-366Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    P-sorbing filter beds appear to be viable options for treating wastewater to reduce P discharges and recover this non-renewable resource. However, greater knowledge of filters’ responses to temperature variations is required to assess their likely performance in full-scale applications and facilitate the transfer of laboratory results to the field. Thus, in the present study two filter materials (Top16 and Polonite) were characterized physicochemically and effects of temperature on their performance were investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Using a 22 factorial design and secondary wastewater eight filter columns were tested at temperatures of 4.3 °C and 16.5 °C. Temperature significantly (α = 0.05) and strongly affected the P binding capacity of both materials, as it was 1.2- and 1.5-fold higher at 16.5 °C than at 4.3 °C for Top16 and Polonite, respectively. This is probably due to the enhanced precipitation of calcium phosphates at higher temperature. Observed reductions in total organic carbon content in the wastewater were also positively correlated with temperature, while the pH and reduction of dissolved organic carbon remained unaffected. The physicochemical analyses indicated that several calcium phases dissolved from the filter materials, primarily gypsum and bassanite from Top16 and Portlandite from Polonite. No clear evidence of any crystalline calcium phosphates was observed in the used materials. The results clearly show that temperature strongly influences the retention of P in filters and its effects should be carefully considered before using candidate filters in full-scale applications.

  • 7.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Galfi, Helen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Westerlund, Camilla
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Measuring solid concentrations in urban stormwater and snowmelt: a new operational procedure2014Inngår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 16, nr 9, s. 2172-2183Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative study of five methods measuring suspended sediment or solid concentrations in water–sediment mixtures indicated that, depending on the method used, broadly varying results can be obtained. For water–sediment mixtures containing sand size particles, the standard TSS method produced negatively biased results, accounting for 0 to 90% of the present solids; the negative bias directly depended on the magnitude of the sand fraction in the water–sediment mixture. The main reason for the differences between the TSS and the rest of the methods laid in the handling of samples; in the former methods, whole samples were analysed, whereas the TSS analysis was performed on sub-samples withdrawn from the water sample, the withdrawal process tending to exclude large particles. The methods using whole water–solid samples, rather than aliquots withdrawn from such samples, produced accurate estimates of solid concentrations, with a fairly good precision. Two whole-sample methods were studied in detail, a slightly modified standard SSC-B method and the newly proposed operational procedure referred to as the Multiple Filter Procedure (MFP), using three filters arranged in a series with decreasing pore sizes (25, 1.6 and 0.45 µm). Both methods assessed accurately concentrations of solids in a broad range of concentrations (200–8000 mg L−1) and particle sizes (0.063–4.0 mm). The newly introduced MFP was in good agreement with the SSC procedure, the differences between the two procedures not exceeding the standard bias defined for the SSC-B method. The precision of both SSC and MFP was generally better than ±10%. Consequently, these methods should be used when the total mass of transported solids is of interest.

  • 8.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Haapala, Jenny
    Vatten Östersund.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Westerlund, Camilla
    Länsstyrelsen i Norrbotten.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Indicator bacteria variation in separate sewer systems in Östersund, Sweden: Preliminary results2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Faecal bacteria are a major pollution threat of water bodies designated for multipurpose use including drinking water sources or recreational purposes. Even though stormwater discharges may contribute significantly to microbiological pollution, they have not been fully investigated in the European context. We have studied the presence of indicator bacteria and total suspended solids (TSS) in stormwater discharged from four urban catchments, with areas between 5 and 40 ha, in Östersund, Sweden. The aim was to determine local variation of standard bacteria strains and TSS in Swedish urban catchments with specific land uses. Further, intra event variations were investigated. During dry weather, indicator bacteria concentrations in sewers conveying baseflow did not exceed 100 CFU/100 mL. During storm runoff, total coliform and int. enterococci concentrations increased 102 to 103 times, compared to those in baseflow. Compared to these two parameters, considerably lower concentrations were observed for E. coli and C. perfringens. Bacteria concentrations differed significantly among the sampling sites and partly, a first flush phenomenon was observed. Partly, significant correlations between TSS and indicator bacteria were observed. These were catchment specific and need a more detailed assessment. Further research will focus on seasonal variations and influential factors.

  • 9.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Influence of sampling methods on the measurements of urban stormwater quality constituents: Preliminary results2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice between automatic and manual sampling of urban stormwater quality has been addressed in the past as an issue of economic efficiency, field safety, and practicality. Nevertheless, there is experimental evidence that both types of sampling may yield statistically different stormwater quality data. While the past attention focused on differences in sampled solids, a new issue was addressed in this study, the potential impacts of sampling methods on concentrations of indicator bacteria. Towards this end, four indicator bacteria (coliforms, E. coli, enterococci and C. perfringens) were sampled in storm sewers of two urban catchments in Östersund, Sweden, using both automatic samplers and manual sampling. Such data were further supplemented by measurements of total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity, recognizing that bacteria are mostly transported in the attachment to solids. Preliminary results indicate that there may be large differences between indicator bacteria in automatic and manual samples, with E. coli measurements yielding the least differences, and turbidity readings were correlated well with all the indicator bacteria and particularly E. coli. These findings will be used in the continuation of this study for refining the existing experimental design and developing practical guidance for surveys of municipal storm sewers for faecal pollution.

  • 10.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Westerlund, Camilla
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Measuring solids concentrations in urban runoff: methods of analysis2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Various types of solids conveyed with rainfall and snowmelt runoff into receiving waters cause numerous environmental impacts, including reduced sunlight penetration, blanketing of fish spawning substrates, and transport of pollutants contributing to aquatic pollution. For the assessment of such impacts, it is important to measure solids concentrations in both runoff and snowmelt. In this study, accuracies of three analytical methods used to measure solids were assessed: (a) A TSS (total suspended solids) method, (b) Suspended sediment method (SSC-B), and (c) a multiple filter method (MFM). For rainfall runoff samples containing 90% of particles smaller than 5 μm, the MFM measurements produced concentrations significantly higher than those obtained with SSC-B and TSS methods, at a 95% confidence level. In the case of snowmelt runoff, the SSC-B and MFM methods yielded similar concentrations, which were 10-20% higher than those measured by the TSS method, and the coefficient of variation of repeated TSS readings was up to three times higher than that of the former methods. The results indicate the importance of choosing the “best” analytical method for assessing the operational and environmental impacts of solids conveyed by urban runoff and snowmelt.

  • 11.
    Westerlund, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Galfi, Helen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Particle pathways during urban snowmelt and mass balance of selected pollutants2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The pathways and mass balance of selected pollutants, released during the snowmelt process, were investigated for urban bulk snow placed in small, intermediate, and large-scale lysimeters. The results showed that low percentages of TSS (total suspended solids) and heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Pb) loads contained in snow were transported with snowmelt, the rest remained in situ with the particulate residue. The TSS loads transported with snowmelt were 3, 3.4, and 4.8% of the initial TSS mass in the small, intermediate and large lysimeters, respectively. Particulate heavy metal loads transported with snowmelt, during the whole melting process, were measured in the intermediate lysimeter for copper and zinc, and for lead in the large lysimeter. The measured mass loads in snowmelt leaving the intermediate lysimeter were 7.5 and 7.2% for copper and zinc, respectively, and 1.7% for lead leaving the large lysimeter. The remainder of the loads stayed in situ with the particulate residue. The loads transported with snowmelt were independent of the initial TSS and metal concentrations in bulk snow. These findings have implications for siting and operating snow disposal facilities; most of the initial TSS and particulate heavy metal loads can be retained on site, rather than released with snowmelt into the receiving environments.

  • 12.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Particle concentrations: analysis methods for urban runoff2010Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban runoff often contains high concentrations of particles. Pollutants that adsorbs to surfaces of particulate material will be transported to receiving waters or a sewage treatment plant. For the recipient, the particles in the runoff are a significant cause of water quality impairment. The particles are associated with impacts of surface waters such as increased turbidity, and effects on water-living organisms and fish. The particle concentration is one of the most common parameters to measure in urban runoff.The main objective was to investigate and compare the accuracy of analysis methods for measuring total particle concentration in urban runoff. The methods to be compared are total suspended solids (TSS), suspended sediment concentration (SSC-A, SSC-B and SSC-C), and one new method; multiple filter method (MFM). General differences between the analysis methods:Handling of sample: * SSC and MFM – analysis of entire sample * TSS –aliquot analysisFilter pore size: * TSS and SSC – 1.6 μm * MFM – 0.45 μmThe studies were performed with artificial and natural runoff samples. Three studies with artificial samples were performed a) high amount of small particles, b) high amount of large particles and c) different particle intervals. The study with natural runoff samples, were performed with rainfall runoff, undisturbed snow and snowmelt runoff. The result for artificial samples showed that SSC and MFM gave comparable result irrespective of particle concentration or size, approximately 100 % of the initial concentration. TSS which measures the suspended solids underestimates the particle concentration with 55-90 %. Measured concentrations for samples with particles larger than 0.063 mm were underestimated. The underestimation increased with increased particle size.For rainfall runoff samples a statistical analysis, ANOVA test, showed that MFM gave a significantly higher result than SSC-B and TSS at a confidence level of 95 %. These result implied that small particles of size 0.45 – 1.6 μm influence the results. The ANOVA test showed no significant difference between SSC-B and TSS. The results from this study show that the particle size distribution has importance for the result and the particle concentrations showed to have no influence.

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