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  • 1.
    Strandkvist, Ida
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Pålsson, Kjell
    AB Indesko, Västerås, Sweden.
    Andersson, Anton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Minimizing Chromium Leaching from Low-Alloy Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) Slag by Adjusting the Basicity and Cooling Rate to Control Brownmillerite Formation2020Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 35-50, artikkel-id 35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Brownmillerite is connected to chromium leaching when present in steel slags. To prevent chromium leaching, brownmillerite in slag should be prevented. Two methods for decreasing brownmillerite content in low-alloy electric arc furnace (EAF) slag were investigated: decreasing the basicity and increasing the cooling rate. The methods were tried on both laboratory scale and in full-scale production. In the laboratory scale experiments, chromium leaching decreased as the basicity decreased until brownmillerite was no longer present, slower cooling resulted in increased chromium leaching, and faster cooling decreased chromium leaching. In full-scale production, basicity modified single batches, with a basicity below 2.2, generally leached less chromium than slag batches with higher basicity, thus verifying the correlation between basicity and chromium leaching seen in laboratory scale experiments. The cooling process in the full-scale experiments was achieved either by letting the slag cool by itself in the air or by water spraying. The water-sprayed slag, which cooled faster, had less chromium leaching than the air-cooled slag. The full-scale production experiments confirmed that both decreasing basicity below 2.2 and increasing the rate of cooling could be used to decrease chromium leaching.

  • 2.
    Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka
    et al.
    Process Metallurgy, University of Oulu.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    A dialogue about teaching and learning metallurgy in Finland and Sweden2019Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Metallurgy is taught as a part of degree programmes of process and environmental engineering at the University of Oulu in Finland and at the Luleå University of Technology in Sweden. In both universities metallurgy education is organised by units very closely linked with metallurgical industry which is the most significant employer of the students graduating in metallurgy. The purpose of this presentation is to consider the state of pedagogy in the education of metallurgy in these two universities with a dialogue of teachers representing both universities. The aim is not only to find the similarities and differences, but also to find ways to improve teaching and learning based on the ideas raised in the dialogue.

     

    Key issues in the education of metallurgy, as in all engineering education, are the connections between theory and practice and how these connections are seen and adopted by students while their expertise in metallurgy develops. Our dialogue is based on how these connections are recognised and taken into account in teaching and learning of metallurgy as well as in the development of metallurgical expertise of both students and teachers. We will also discuss what kind of pedagogical solutions that can be used to support this development.

  • 3.
    Lotfian, Samira
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Vikström, T.
    Boliden Mineral AB, Skelleftehamn, Sweden.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi. Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Cairo, Egypt.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Evaluating the potential of plastic-containing materials as alternative reducing agents2019Inngår i: Canadian metallurgical quarterly, ISSN 0008-4433, E-ISSN 1879-1395, Vol. 58, nr 4, s. 389-399Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of discarded plastic-containing materials is increasing, and one option to help with this issue is to use these materials in bath smelting processes. The injection of plastic-containing materials to partially substitute coal in zinc-fuming processes has been studied in an industrial trial at Boliden–Rönnskär smelter. To evaluate the potential of plastic-containing materials, thermodynamic calculations were performed in this study. In the first step, a thermodynamic calculation was performed for trials with only coal injection, and then this calculation was applied to trials with the co-injection of plastic materials. The thermodynamic calculation shows that not all the injected coal participates in the reactions within the slag. Similarly, the calculation with the co-injection of plastic-containing materials shows that different amounts of each plastic material participate in the reactions within the slag bath.

  • 4.
    Lotfian, Samira
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Vikström, Tommy
    Boliden Mineral AB, Skelleftehamn, Sweden.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Cairo, Egypt.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Plastic-containing materials as alternative reductants for base metal production2019Inngår i: Canadian metallurgical quarterly, ISSN 0008-4433, E-ISSN 1879-1395, Vol. 58, nr 2, s. 164-176Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Shredder residue materials are produced after the removal of ferrous and non-ferrous fractions from end-of-life electronic equipment. Despite the high plastic content and metal value in the ash, high percentages of these materials are currently sent to landfills. In this study, the potential of utilising shredder residue material and other plastic-containing materials as reducing agents was studied. Plastic-containing materials were co-injected with coal into a zinc-fuming furnace in Boliden-Rönnskär smelter. The data obtained from the trial, such as the data from the chemical analysis of the slag and the steam production, are discussed. The observations indicate that plastic-containing material can replace up to 1 ton h−1 of coal without a significant decrease in the zinc reduction rate.

  • 5.
    Lotfian, Samira
    et al.
    Boliden Mineral AB, Boliden, Sweden.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Jokilaakso, Ari
    School of Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Aalto University, Aalto, Finland.
    Sustainable Management of the Plastic-Rich Fraction of WEEE by Utilization as a Reducing Agent in Metallurgical Processes2019Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, nr 20, artikkel-id 4224Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In modern society, there is a fast growth in the production of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE); however, rapid growth results in the frequent discarding of this equipment. During the treatment of discarded materials, a stream is generated that contains a high fraction of plastic materials, but also metals and oxides. This stream, which is called shredder residue material (SRM), is heterogeneous, which limits its recycling options. Utilizing this material in metallurgical processes allows the plastic fraction to be used as a reductant and energy source and the metallic fraction to be recycled and returned to the production of EEE. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of plastic-containing materials, especially SRM, as alternative reductants in metallurgical processes. The first step was to compare the thermal conversion characteristics of plastic-containing materials to the currently used reducing agent, i.e., coal. Three main candidates, polyurethane (PUR), polyethylene (PE), and SRM, were studied using a drop tube furnace and an optical single-particle burner. PE had the highest volatile content and the fastest conversion time, whereas PUR had the longest conversion time. Thereafter, plastic materials were tested at the industrial scale through injection to the zinc fuming process at the Boliden Rönnskär smelter. During the industrial trial, the amount of coal that was injected was reduced and substituted with plastic material. The results indicate the possibility of reducing the coal injection rate in favor of partial substitution with plastic materials.

  • 6.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Understanding the bottom buildup in an electric copper smelting furnace by thermodynamic calculations2019Inngår i: Canadian metallurgical quarterly, ISSN 0008-4433, E-ISSN 1879-1395, Vol. 58, nr 1, s. 89-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermodynamic calculations were used to investigate the liquidus temperature of the slag and the possible influence on the buildup formation in an electric copper smelting furnace. The impact of parameters such as Fe/SiO2 ratio, partial pressure of oxygen and the content of the oxides ZnO, Al2O3 and Cr2O3 in the slag were investigated with respect to the liquidus temperature of the slag. Results show that the chromium content in the slag has the greatest impact on the liquidus temperature and on the formation of solid particles. The characterization of the buildup done earlier showed that spinel phases were among the dominating phases. This is supported by the thermodynamic calculations in the present paper, where the chromite solid solution was found to be the primary precipitation phase.

  • 7.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Pettersson, Joachim
    Boliden Mineral AB, Skelleftehamn, Sweden.
    Large-Scale WEEE Recycling Integrated in an Ore-Based Cu-Extraction System2018Inngår i: Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, ISSN 2199-3823, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 222-232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    At Boliden’s Rönnskär smelter, WEEE is smelted in a Kaldo process and the black copper, together or without the slag, is charged to the PS converter. This process route has proven to be a viable way to obtain a high WEEE smelting capacity in an originally ore-based process system. Experience shows that the slag in the PS converter is usually not fully liquid, and the amount of solids present in the slag increases due to introduction of slag and black copper from WEEE smelting. The effect of increased content of Al2O3 and Cr in the slag on the liquidus temperature has been calculated using FactSage both for the converter slag and for the slag in the electric smelting furnace. The potential of changed slag chemistry is discussed. The consequences of the applied praxis on the removal of Antimony in the converter have been modeled using SimuSage.

  • 8.
    Sefidari, Hamid
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Lindblom, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap. Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag (LKAB).
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap. RISE ETC (Energy Technology Centre) AB.
    Nordin, Lars Olof
    Loussavaara-Kiirunavaara Limited, Luleå.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Mouzon, Johanne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Bhuiyan, Iftekhar Uddin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    The effect of disintegrated iron-ore pellet dust on deposit formation in a pilot-scale pulverized coal combustion furnace: Part II: Thermochemical equilibrium calculations and viscosity estimations2018Inngår i: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 180, s. 189-206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fly ash particles from the combustion of solid-fuels together with disintegrated particles arising from iron-ore pellets result in accumulation of deposits on the refractory linings of the grate-kiln induration machine during the iron-ore pelletizing process. The deposits amass in the high-temperature regions of the induration furnace thus disturbing the flow of gas and pellets. Therefore, to tackle the above-mentioned issues, an understanding of deposit formation mechanism is of crucial importance. This study was conducted with the objective of addressing the effect of disintegrated iron-ore pellet dust on deposit formation and the mechanisms behind deposition (slagging) in the grate-kiln process. A comprehensive set of experiments was conducted in a 0.4 MW pilot-scale pulverized-coal- fired furnace where three different scenarios were considered as follows; Case 1 (reference case): Coal was combusted without the presence of pellet dust. Case 2: Natural gas was combusted together with simultaneous addition of pellet dust to the gas stream. Case 3: Coal was combusted together with the addition of pellet dust simulating the situation in the large-scale setup. Fly ash particles and short-term deposits were characterized and deposition was addressed in Part I of this study. In light of the experimental observations (Part I) and the thermochemical equilibrium calculations (Part II), a scheme of ash transformation during the iron-ore pelletizing process was proposed. The dissolution of hematite particles into the Ca-rich-aluminosilicate melt (from the coal-ash constituents) decreased the viscosity and resulted in the formation of stronger (heavily sintered) deposits. Overall, this pilot-scale work forms part of a wider study which aims at deepening the understanding of ash transformation phenomena during the large-scale pelletizing process.

  • 9.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Application of FactSage in Education within Process Metallurgy at Luleå University of Technology2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Luleå University of Technology are educating engineers, teachers nurses etc. The research subject Process Metallurgy is involved in the education of engineers within the MSc program Sustainable Process Engineering and especially the focus area called Sustainable Minerals and Metals Processing.

    FactSage is used in the education to introduce the possibilities, advantages and disadvantages with computational thermochemistry. To do this, the different FactSage modules are introduced in different courses both during lab-sessions and as a supplement to practical projects.

    This presentation will give some examples on how FactSage and computational thermochemistry is taught within the program.

  • 10.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Characterisation of buildup in an electric furnace for smelting copper concentrate2015Inngår i: Canadian metallurgical quarterly, ISSN 0008-4433, E-ISSN 1879-1395, Vol. 54, nr 4, s. 477-484Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The results from a characterization of buildup in an electric smelting furnace for treating copper-rich feed material at the Boliden Rönnskär smelter in Sweden are presented. The aim of the work was to obtain better knowledge about the mechanisms behind the formation of the buildup. Samples from the buildup were taken during the rebuilding of the furnace. The samples were characterized using chemical and mineralogical techniques. The buildup consists mainly of different phases such as spinel, matte, olivine and metalloids and has a complex and varying mineralogy, which indicates that the buildup is not formed under equilibrium conditions.

  • 11.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Wise Process Routes for Varying Feedstock in Base Metal Extraction: Modelling of a Peirce-Smith Converter and Investigation of Buildup Formation in an Electric Smelting Furnace2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper, like silver and gold, is one of the metals that are known to have been worked by some of the oldest civilisations on record. It is used forits unique properties such as corrosion resistance, good workability, high thermal conductivity and attractive appearance. New mines are opened to maintain a supply of primary feedstock for copper smelters. These new deposits are in many instances found to have a more complex mineralogy with several minor elements. Besides treating primary material, copper smelters are also showing an increasing interest in treating secondary materials, such as copper containing scrap from waste electrical and electronic equipment, which also have a complex composition. This increased complexity of the raw material can potentially lead to smelter plants having to deal with a feedstock containing several minor elements, including antimony, arsenic, bismuth, gold, silver, etc., at levels that can influence the ability to, in a cost effective way, maintain the final grade of the copper cathode. Process simulations can be an important tool for understanding the impact of process parameters on product quality and for the purpose of process optimisation. In the present work a dynamic, non-equilibrium model based on thermodynamics over the Peirce-Smith converter has been developed. The model was found to predict the composition of the main condensed phases well. Thermodynamic calculations in combination with characterisation have also been used to understand the buildup in an electric smelting furnace. Results from the characterisation and the modelling showed that the buildup consists mainly of different phases such as spinel, matte, olivine and metalloids and has a complex and varying mineralogy, which indicates that the buildup is not formed under equilibrium conditions. During the modelling the impact of parameters such as Fe/SiO2ratio, partial pressure of oxygen and the content of the oxides ZnO, Al 4O3 and Cr2O3 in the slag were investigated with respect to the liquidus temperature of the slag. The modelling showed that the chromium content in the slag has the greatest impact on the liquidus temperature and on the formation of solid particles. The thermodynamic modelling supports the result from the characterisation.The combination of characterisation, thermodynami-based modelling and process knowledge gives further understanding of element distribution. This enhances the potential to adjust for variations in raw material feed and flexible process routes.

  • 12.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Modelling of a Cu-making converter: a necessary tool for improved recycling2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Process simulation is an important tool for understanding the impact of process parameters on the product quality and for the purpose of process optimisation. In the present work a dynamic, non-equilibrium model based on thermodynamics over the Peirce-Smith converter has been developed. The non-equilibrium conditions have been simulated by introducing individual but linked segments. The purpose of using segments was to consider different reaction zones which yield different conditions within the converter. The model was validated using plant data and showed good agreement for the major elements

  • 13.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Thermodynamic process modelling of black copper addition to a Peirce-Smith converter: effect on the distribution of antimony and bismuth2014Inngår i: Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy Section C - Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, ISSN 0371-9553, E-ISSN 1743-2855, Vol. 123, nr 3, s. 157-164Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of adding black copper, originating from treating waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), to a Peirce-Smith converter has been investigated by using a thermodynamic process model. The model was formulated, by the authors, in an earlier publication and expanded, in the present work, to include the minor elements antimony and bismuth. The results show that the model describes the distribution of Bi well, whereas the distribution of Sb is not described as well and should only be used for trends. Addition of black copper lowers the removal of Bi and Sb compared to a converter cycle without addition. To maintain a good removal of Bi and Sb, black copper should be added as early as possible during a converter cycle.

  • 14.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Development of a model for copper converting2013Inngår i: Canadian metallurgical quarterly, ISSN 0008-4433, E-ISSN 1879-1395, Vol. 52, nr 4, s. 422-429Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on previous work reported in the literature, a dynamic model of the operation of the Peirce-Smith Converter has been developed to describe the distribution of the major elements present. The fundamental principle of the model was a thermodynamic calculation. The situation of non-equilibrium conditions was considered by dividing the converter into different zones linked by predefined flow parameters. The model was verified against actual converter plant data, with the simulated results for the major elements being in good agreement with the plant data. The agreement between plant and calculated data for Pb, and Zn was not as good and more work is required regarding this aspect.

  • 15.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Development of a process model for a Peirce-Smith converter2013Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper was one of the first metals ever extracted and used by mankind. It is used for its unique properties, like corrosion resistance, good workability, high thermal conductivity and attractive appearance. New mines are opened to maintain a supply of primary feedstock to copper smelters. These new deposits are in many instances found to have a more complex mineralogy with several minor elements. Besides treating primary material, copper smelters also show an increasing interest in treating secondary material, such as copper containing scrap from waste electric and electronic equipment, which also have a complex composition.Waste electric and electronic equipment are first disassembled and upgraded by mechanical processing, generating a product stream called e-scrap, that can be added directly to the smelting processes as cold material or melted in a separate furnace producing a metallic alloy (referred to as black copper) and a slag phase. The black copper can be refined in different ways, whereof one is by using it as a secondary feed material for input to Peirce-Smith converters. Consequently the load of minor elements to the converter can be expected to increase with an increased treatment of e-scrap.This increased complexity of the raw material can potentially lead to smelter plants having to deal with a feedstock containing several minor elements such as; antimony, bismuth, arsenic, gold, silver, etc. in levels that can influence the ability to, in a cost effective way, maintain the final grade of the copper cathode. Process simulations can be an important tool for understanding the impact of process parameters on the product quality and for the purpose of process optimisation. In the present work a dynamic, non-equilibrium model based on thermodynamics over the Peirce-Smith converter has been developed. The non-equilibrium conditions have been simulated by introducing individual but linked segments. The purpose of using segments was to consider different reaction zones which yield different conditions within the converter. The model was validated using plant data and showed good agreement for the major elements. The agreement between plant and calculated data for Pb, and Zn was not as good and more work is required regarding this aspect. The model was used to investigate the influence on the distribution of Bi and Sb during addition of black copper with or without slag. When black copper is added to a blow, the removal of Bi and Sb becomes lower compared to a blow without addition of black copper. Similar result is obtained during addition of black copper with slag. To maintain a total removal of Bi and Sb in similar levels as a blow without black copper, the black copper should be added as early as possible during the converting operation.

  • 16.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Minor elements in copper converting2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Lehner, Theo
    Metallurgical Challenges in WEEE Recycling2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Lehner, Theo
    Metallurgical Challenges in WEEE Recycling2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Awe, Samuel Ayowole
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Mostaghel, Sina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Sandström, Åke
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Wise process routes for varying feedstock in base metal extraction2011Inngår i: Proceedings, European Metallurgical Conference EMC 2011: Process Metallurgy, Recycling/Waste Treatment and Prevention, Germany: GDMB , 2011, Vol. 4, s. 1315-1322Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there are several large but low-grade ore deposits that have not been extracted so far. The main reason is presence of impurities such as arsenic and antimony that increase the overall cost of the process and make the extraction uneconomical. In-depth experimental studies, plant data and theoretical modelling and innovations are needed to develop new techniques for an efficient use of the resources. Besides, recycling of metals from end of life scrap and metal containing waste, e.g. waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), is an important part of a metal production plant. Most of these secondary raw materials contain mixtures of different metals together with various plastics and ceramics that may adversely affect products and by-products of the metallurgical opera-tion. Therefore, a thorough study on how to control possible changes of properties is required. The aim of the research is to develop an optimum combination of hydro- and pyro- metallurgical path-ways to bleed out impurities from the metal extraction chain and/or convert them into valuable by-products. The first part of the current paper focuses on impurity removal from a complex copper concentrate as an upgrading stage. It is shown that by selective dissolution of tetrahedrite in alkaline sulphide solution, antimony and arsenic would be eliminated and the concentrate can be treated in pyro-metallurgical processes. In the second part of the paper, influences of one of the most common and significant compounds that is included in most of the secondary raw materials, alumina Al2O3, on properties of a copper production slag are explained. Results show that increased alumina content of the slag will cause formation of a new phase and rises the liquidus temperature, while its leaching properties are not adversely affected.

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