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  • 1.
    Axelsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kihlberg, Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Davis, Paul
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nyström, Markus B. T.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering.
    Psychotherapy students' experiences of supervisee-centred supervision based on deliberate practice, feedback-informed treatment and self-compassion2024Inngår i: Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1473-3145, E-ISSN 1746-1405, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 719-733Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: There are few methods that focus on therapists' experiences of supervision. To facilitate the development of psychologist students, a supervisee-centred supervision, based on deliberate practice, feedback informed treatment and self-compassion, was introduced.

    Methods: This study examines six supervisees’ experiences of a supervisee-centred supervision. A semi- structured interview was used for the collection of the data, which identified two main themes: Learning and Development and five associated sub-themes: structure and purposesfulness, prerequisites, experience-based learning, therapeutic skills and personal development.

    Conclusion: The experience- and feedback-based approach was perceived as efficient, structured and goal oriented. This created high-focused activity and participation, a strong group dynamic and a good alliance with the supervisors, providing a good climate for learning and development. Focusing on performance and feedback was perceived as a potential obstacle that could create stress and anxiety.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Baghdo, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande.
    Game Telemtry: Store, Analyze and Improve UX in Game from Player-Choices2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    During this project, the main objective was to store and analyze the user choices through game telemetry, in the game Bloodlines. With the goal to adjust the game for each member personally, for an improved user experience. This was done through a constructed database. By saving metrics of player choices and events such as: Most used weapon, attempts per session, session time periods, amount of deaths and highest rate of death cause. The results got analyzed with the control group settings in mind. Adjustments made were based on a fundamental foundation. In addition a web application with the functionality to enter and change the settings metrics in real time.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Barrón Löthman, Laura
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Leading Organizational Change Globally: A study of the success factors for effectively driving change in a multicultural and international company2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations face challenges in terms of costs and resistance when dealing with change. Global organizations face additional challenges with change when dealing with differences in national culture. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate organizational change in an international and multicultural environment. The aim was to discover how global companies can effectively drive change by analyzing perspectives, experiences, attitudes and values of change of employees of different nationalities and positions in a global company. Research questions such as: “What factors enable or prevent the implementation of organizational changes?”, “Which are the success factors for leading change in a global organization?”, “What are the challenges when it comes to leading change in a global organization?” and “Is there a difference in perspectives, attitudes, motivation and values towards change?” Were answered in this investigation. Semi-structured informant and respondent interviews as well as quantitative surveys were conducted. Analysis shows that factors affecting organizational change processes were dimensions of change, structure, time, support, change competencies, clarity and justifications for the change. Results showed that concern for human factors and global/ local awareness were success factors when leading change. Challenges identified included the delivery of a complete communication across the organization, adapting change approach to all cultures and an eagerness to create organizational changes. At last, results showed that respondents differed in perspectives, experiences and motivation for change. Statistical analysis proved that these differences were attributed to nationality but also to age and position. Finally, a discussion of results highlights the importance for organizations to understand and solve the dilemma of doing both, managing and leading change.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Leading Organizational Change
  • 4.
    Broberg, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Utredning av vuxenmobbning: Ur ett psykologi-och hälsoperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete innehåller en kvalitativ undersökning om vuxenmobbning. Syftet med studien var att öka förståelsen för de fysiska och psykiska konsekvenserna av vuxenmobbning inklusive användandet av försvarsmekanismer. Studien syftade även till att undersöka de utsattas upplevelser av sjukvården i samband med att de har sökt hjälp för mobbningen. Resultatet bygger på två tematiska analyser av fem stycken frågeformulär med öppna frågor som har besvarats av personer som har utsatts för mobbning i vuxen ålder. De teman som framkom var; depression, tappat umgänge, negativ påverkan på arbetssituationen, försvarsmekanismer och brist på kunskap och resurser inom sjukvården. Resultatet visar att mobbning påverkar människor uteslutande negativt och den mest allvarliga konsekvensen av mobbning är depression. Detta för att depression kan leda till självmordstankar och självmordsförsök. Inom sjukvården fanns flera upplevda brister gällande mobbning och den största var brist på kunskap och resurser eftersom det leder till att människor inte blir tagna på allvar och inte får nog mycket hjälp i tid. Medvetenheten om mobbning måste öka för att förebyggande arbete ska kunna tillämpas på arbetsplatsen men också på andra platser där mobbning kan förekomma. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Blood Pressure Levels and Longitudinal Changes in Relation to Social Network Factors2016Inngår i: Psychological Topics, ISSN 1332-0742, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 59-73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between social network variables and levels of and longitudinal changes in blood pressure in a middle-aged/older sample. The participants (50-75 years at baseline; n=1097) responded to questions concerning social relationships at baseline and their blood pressure (diastolic, systolic) was measured. Blood pressure levels were reassessed 5, 10, and 15 years later. Latent growth models with responses to questions concerning social relationships as predictors and basic demographic factors (age, sex) as covariates, unexpectedly indicated that a more limited social network (no close friend, few visits, little contact with friends in other ways, not living with someone, and a composite index based on all questions) was associated with significantly lower diastolic blood pressure levels. For systolic blood pressure a similar result was observed for one of the variables (lack of a close friend). In general, these effects diminished over time, as indexed by the positive relationship between several of the social variables and slope. The results were little affected by inclusion of additional covariates (e.g. measures of psychological distress, smoking/alcohol habits, and BMI) suggesting that the origins of this unexpected pattern of findings must probably be sought for in other subjectrelated factors, such as, for example, increased help seeking. Future studies should consider qualitative aspects (e.g. feelings of loneliness, quality of social relationships) in addition to structural aspects to provide a better understanding of these associations.

  • 6.
    Fredin-Knutzén, Johan
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, Niklas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Pedagogik, språk och ämnesdidaktik. VTI (The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, Sweden.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    VTI (The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, Sweden.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lidestam, Björn
    VTI (The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, Sweden.
    Train drivers' work-related stress and job satisfaction2023Inngår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 65, nr 9, s. 775-782Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives 

    This study investigated which work-related stressors are rated highest by train drivers, and which are strongest correlated with consideration to change profession.

    Methods 

    In a questionnaire, a total of N = 251 Swedish train drivers rated 17 work-related stressors, to which extent they had considered quitting their profession, and if they had experienced a PUT (person under train) accident.

    Results 

    PUTs (when experienced) and irregular work-hours are the main stressors, but the strongest predictors of consideration to change profession are those that are encountered often, and last over time (e.g., irregular work-hours, r = .61; and major organizational changes, r = .51).

    Conclusions 

    For effective reduction of stress and improved job satisfaction, focus should be on aspects that affect everyday life for drivers, such as better working shifts, less delays, and improved social climate.

  • 7.
    Henriksson, Sophie
    et al.
    Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier, Karlstads universitet, Sweden.
    Anclair, Malin
    Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier, Karlstads universitet, Sweden.
    Hiltunen, Arto J
    Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier, Karlstads universitet, Sweden.
    Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy on health-related quality of life: An evaluation of therapies provided by trainee therapists2016Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, nr 3, s. 215-222Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Kilu, Rufai Haruna
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Sanda, Mohammed-Aminu
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Udén, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Investigating the Non-Gendered Recruitment Characteristics of Mining Firms in Ghana: The Role of Sociocultural, Psychosocial and Organizational Design Factors2016Inngår i: Business and Management Quarterly Review, ISSN 2180-2777, Vol. 7, nr 3/4, s. 38-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the influencing dynamics of psychosocial, cultural and organizational design factors on the non-gendered characteristics of employee recruitment in firms operating in the Ghanaian mining industry that constrains the employability of women. A conceptual framework linking psychosocial, cultural, and organizational design to recruitment processes was developed to guide the study. Quantitative data was collected in four mining firms in Ghana using a questionnaire. The collated data was firstly factor analyzed to establish the predictiveness of the conceptual model components’ indicators. This was followed by an analysis of the conceptual model for “model goodness fit” using the AMOS–based structural equation modeling approach. The results showed that the non-gendered characteristics of employees’ recruitment in mining firms in Ghana, constrains the employability of women, is influenced directly and positively by the firms organizational designs, which is in turn influenced directly by the firms’ psychosocial and sociocultural factors. The study also showed that the non-gendered recruitment characteristic of the firms is influenced indirectly, but positively by the firms’ psychosocial factors, and negatively by other sociocultural factors. By implication, the study provides knowledge that can be used to understand the rationale behind the non-gendered characteristics of employee recruitment in Ghanaian mines and the influencing roles of organizational design factors as well as psychosocial and cultural factors. Mining firms can use this knowledge in developing gendered recruitment policies to enhance future recruitment of all qualified human resource, irrespective of gender.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system.. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Prytz, Erik
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bernheim, Lisa
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Olsson, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Moertl, Peter
    Virtual Vehicle Research GmbH, Graz, Austria.
    Train driver attention is influenced by the type of railway signalling system2022Inngår i: DDI 2022 Gothenburg: Abstract book, Göteborg: Safer , 2022, s. 50-52Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) will replace national standards with the aim to promote cross-border traffic and enhance efficiency. The transition involves a shift from lineside signalling to mostly in- cabin information via a Driver Machine Interface (DMI). Previous research indicates that this may lead to a decrease in driver attention to the outside world and to a decrease in workload, leading to boredom. Using a train simulator, 41 participants drove the same track with the ERTMS system and the Swedish national standard (ATC) while wearing eye- tracking equipment. Subjective workload and boredom assessments were made after each drive. An analysis of the first set of reduced data (15 participants) showed that the formal attentional requirements like the monitoring of speed changes and signals were fulfilled in almost all cases, regardless of system. Overall, however, the data indicate that in line with previous research the drivers focus their attention more to the inside of the train when using the ERTMS system. This is corroborated by the finding that horn blowing is slightly delayed with the ERTMS system. Perceived workload was generally low, with the ERTMS system experienced to be more boring. We draw the preliminary conclusion that while formal attentional requirements are fulfilled for both systems, the ERTMS system likely has a tendency to pull the drivers’ overall attention inwards. Given that for the ERTMS system most relevant information is presented inside of the train on the DMI, this is not surprising, but needs to be addressed by the authorities.

  • 10.
    Knott, Lauren
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, City, University of London, London, UK.
    Litchfield, Damien
    Department of Psychology, Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, UK.
    Donovan, Tim
    Institute of Health, University of Cumbria, Lancaster, UK.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering. School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    False memory-guided eye movements: insights from a DRM-Saccade paradigm2024Inngår i: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 223-236Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Deese-Roediger and McDermott (DRM) paradigm and visually guided saccade tasks are both prominent research tools in their own right. This study introduces a novel DRM-Saccade paradigm, merging both methodologies. We used rule-based saccadic eye movements whereby participants were presented with items at test and were asked to make a saccade to the left or right of the item to denote a recognition or non-recognition decision. We measured old/new recognition decisions and saccadic latencies. Experiment 1 used a pro/anti saccade task to a single target. We found slower saccadic latencies for correct rejection of critical lures, but no latency difference between correct recognition of studied items and false recognition of critical lures. Experiment 2 used a two-target saccade task and also measured corrective saccades. Findings corroborated those from Experiment 1. Participants adjusted their initial decisions to increase accurate recognition of studied items and rejection of unrelated lures but there were no such corrections for critical lures. We argue that rapid saccades indicate cognitive processing driven by familiarity thresholds. These occur before slower source-monitoring is able to process any conflict. The DRM-Saccade task could effectively track real-time cognitive resource use during recognition decisions.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Labonté, Katherine
    et al.
    School of Psychology, Université Laval, Quebec City, Canada;School of Human Nutrition, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle, Människa och teknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Vachon, François
    School of Psychology, Université Laval, Quebec City, Canada.
    Distraction by Auditory Categorical Deviations Is Unrelated to Working Memory Capacity: Further Evidence of a Distinction between Acoustic and Categorical Deviation Effects2021Inngår i: Auditory Perception & Cognition, ISSN 2574-2442, Vol. 4, nr 3-4, s. 139-164Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Lipiäinen, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik.
    Vännen nära till hands: En undersökning av fenomenet nomofobi2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersöker nomofobi, en förkortning av ‘no mobile phobia’, där individer upplever negativa känslor eller tankar då de finner sig utan sin mobiltelefon. Med mätinstrumentet Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q) som underlag utvecklades den svenska versionen NMP-Q-SE, som består av 19 påståenden. Explorativ faktoranalys visade att 64% av variansen i svaren förklarades av tre bakomliggande faktorer som namngavs; (1) att förlora tillgång till kommunikation, (2) att förlora tillhörighet och (3) att förlora tillgång till information och bekvämlighet med Cronbach’s α=.939, vilket gjorde instrumentet lämpligt för undersökning av nomofobi med hänsyn till validitet och reliabilitet. Statistisk analys av medelvärdet för de 220 deltagarna motsvarade en måttlig grad av nomofobi enligt klassificeringen, M=64.47, SD=24.267. Signifikanta skillnader mellan kön fanns i faktor 1, där kvinnor (M=30.75, SD=10.38) hade högre poäng än män (M=25.91, SD= 12.40), t(76.67)=2.573, p=0.012. Variansanalys visade att respondenter med högre utbildningsnivå (M=66.50, SD=23.59) uppvisade signifikant högre poäng än dem med lägre utbildningsnivå (M=57.89, SD=23.83) för totalpoäng samt faktor 2 och 3, p=0.02. Deltagarna med en högre daglig skärmtid uppvisade även signifikant högre totalpoäng NMP-Q-SE (M=70.28, SD=25.88) än de med lägre daglig användningstid av mobiltelefon (M=59.30, SD=21.41), t(218)=-3.439, p=0.01, vilket tyder på ett samband mellan ökad användningstid av mobiltelefon och försvårad nomofobi som bör undersökas vidare. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Lohilahti Bladfält, Sanna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Människa och teknik.
    Driving technology and development: Usability studies of gear shifters with variations in pattern, stability and design2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last few decades, the development of technology used in cars has moved forward at a very intensive pace. The focus has started to shift from the technology to the human as a user. The work done earlier regarding, for example, driver’s capabilities to process information, has now become a focus when developing modern cars in order to make driving more safe, efficient, and pleasurable. With increased knowledge comes new questions. With advancing technology and opportunities, questions about the user and how to adapt the technology to humans has become increasingly detailed and complex. One of these technological devices is the novel gear shifter used in passenger cars. Today, there is a transition taking place. Traditional gear shifters, which use a mechanical connection to the transmission, are being replaced by gear shifters that rely on electronic systems. This will allow for greater variation in both the function and design of modern cars. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about this new technology; we know little about what effects these variations can have on users. The aim of this thesis is to contribute with knowledge regarding this new technology by studying the conditions for technological development in general and the usability of modern gear shifters in passenger cars in particular.

    One field study, two laboratory studies and one interview study will be described in this thesis work. The field study, which was conducted with traditional shift-by-wire gear shifters, showed that the joystick shifter was the most preferred gear shifter type since it was familiar, however, the largest number of errors was made with the joystick and stalk shifter. Familiarity and the car environment seemed to influence the overall acceptance and attitude towards the gear shifters. The second and third study showed evidence of driver difficulties with the monostable gear shifters. Difficulties concerned the lack of dedicated positions, which withdrew both visual and haptic aid for the driver and could presumably increase the driver’s cognitive load, causing the driver to feel lost in the shifter pattern and to direct too much attention towards the gear shifter instead of the road. Participants described how extensive use of gear shifter modes that are lined up in a row could be cognitively demanding and that the single fixed position of the gear shifter did not provide the type of haptic or visual feedback that could help the driver become oriented with the shifter pattern. The third study compared the performance of the gear shifters in younger and older participants. The older participants made more errors and had longer task completion times than the younger participants. However, the older participants rated the gear shifters with higher ease-of-use scores than the younger participants. The older participants seemed to learn how to use the polystable gear shifters quite quickly, but not the monostable gear shifters. The fifth paper used a different approach and methodology to describe the complexities of decision-making in the Swedish vehicle industry. It revealed a situation where decision-making was a balancing act between normative and descriptive decision-making, often dependent on available knowledge and guidelines and whether there was time and money to acquire new and complementary knowledge. If resources for knowledge acquisition were lacking, social networking was described as a way to compensate. Well-functioning communication between teams and key actors in the development process was also revealed to be crucial for efficient decision-making. Also, a more agile way of working has the potential to impact decision-making due to different resource requirements for hardware and software.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Irehill, Hanna
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Age as an antecedent to mangers’ stress and inefficient leadership, with social support as a potential buffer2024Inngår i: Cogent Psychology, E-ISSN 2331-1908, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikkel-id 2347069Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 15.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering. School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Bell, Raoul
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Röer, Jan P.
    Department of Psychology and Psychotherapy, Witten/Herdecke University, Witten, Germany.
    Hodgetts, Helen M.
    Department of Applied Psychology, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK.
    Emerging perspectives on distraction and task interruptions: metacognition, cognitive control and facilitation - part I2024Inngår i: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 1-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern technology allows for the control of learning and work environments to an unprecedented degree. Therefore, the focus of research shifts from how learning and work performance are passively affected by environmental factors to how people actively shape their own learning and work experiences. This includes task-irrelevant stimuli and task interruptions. For instance, modern headphones allow one to switch between two modes: Active noise cancelling eliminates all background sounds while acoustic transparency allows certain signals to pass through the headphones, creating a customisable audio space. Modern devices also allow us to plan certain task interruptions (for example, by email alerts) in advance. This gives users unprecedented autonomy over their learning and work environments. However, increased control does not necessarily imply that these environments are free of distraction and interruptions. In fact, quite the opposite is true: Modern-day digital learning and work environments are full of distractions and interruptions. With users’ increased control over their learning and work environments, new research questions arise that emphasise the active role of the individual in shaping their own learning and work experiences:

    • Are people capable of distinguishing between harmful and helpful task-irrelevant stimuli and activities?
    • Can the harmful aspects of distractions and interruptions be brought under cognitive control?
    • Are distraction and task interruptions always harmful or are they sometimes helpful? 

    Within this Special Issue, we primarily focus on the following emerging trends in distraction and attention.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Människa och teknik. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Threadgold, Emma
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Barker, Melissa E.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK. Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, UK.
    Litchfield, Damien
    Department of Psychology, Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, UK.
    Degno, Federica
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Ball, Linden J.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    The susceptibility of compound remote associate problems to disruption by irrelevant sound: a Window onto the component processes underpinning creative cognition?2021Inngår i: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 33, nr 6-7, s. 793-822Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Controversy exists regarding the processes involved in creative thinking with the Remote Associates Test (RAT) and the Compound Remote Associates Test (CRAT). We report three experiments that aimed to shed light on the component processes underpinning CRAT performance by using the mere presence of task-irrelevant sound as a key theoretical tool. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that CRAT performance was impaired relative to a quiet condition by the presence of sequences of changing letters and tones, respectively. In both experiments a non-changing sound (a repeated letter or a repeated tone) produced no disruption relative to quiet. Experiment 3 established that additional disruption was engendered by having to ignore meaningful speech as compared to meaningless speech. These experiments demonstrate that both semantic activation and subvocalisation are important determinants of successful creative thinking with CRAT problems. We suggest that semantic activation underpins solution-generation processes whereas subvocalisation underpins solution-evaluation processes.

  • 17.
    Marsh, John Everett
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Kattner, Florian
    Institute for Psychology, Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany;Health and Medical University, Potsdam, Germany.
    Ruhnau, Philipp
    Center for Behavioral Brain Sciences, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany.
    Research Collection: On Theoretical Advancement in Auditory Distraction Research2021Inngår i: Auditory Perception & Cognition, ISSN 2574-2442, Vol. 4, nr 3-4, s. 133-138Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 18.
    Nyström, Markus B. T.
    et al.
    Deparment of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; The Graduate School in Population Dynamics and Public Policy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Deparment of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kormi-Nouri, Reza
    School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Deparment of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    To what extent is subjective well-being in late adulthood related to subjective and objective memory functioning? Five-year cross-lagged panel analyses2019Inngår i: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 92-99Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Olsson, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    ERTMS-utbildning i simulatormiljö: Framgångsfaktorer för en effektiv utbildning2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Införandet av det nya signal- och tågskyddssystemet ERTMS (European Rail Traffic Management System) syftar bland annat till förenklad trafikledning och till att underlätta för gränsöverskridande tågtrafik i Europa. För att klara övergången behöver aktörerna närmast inblandade i den dagliga tågföringen ha tillräcklig kunskap och kompetens för att utnyttja systemets fördelar utan att riskera trafiksäkerheten. Tågförare och tågklarerare står därför inför stora utmaningar med kommande driftsättningar av ERTMS, med Malmbanan 2023, Västerdalsbanan 2025 och Södra stambanan (ScanMed ost) 2026 närmast i tiden. Vid framförallt driftsättningen av ScanMed ost uppstår ett akut logistiskt problem avseende möjligheten att, för en stor mängd förare, öva praktiskt då ERTMS[1]utrustade banor och fordon inte finns tillgängliga i geografisk närhet. I Sverige används, sedan några år tillbaka, en portabel tågsimulator (PC med pekskärm och en körspak som kopplas till extern skärm) i stor skala vid utbildning av tågförare. Den här studien syftade till att ta reda på hur utbildning för tågförare och tågklarerare i en sådan simulator kan utformas för att skapa förutsättningar för effektiva och trafiksäkra framtida driftsättningar av ERTMS. Förarstudien genomfördes via ett experiment där 16 förare från samma operatör delades in i två grupper varav hälften genomförde sin praktik i simulatormiljö och hälften i verkligheten enligt vedertagen metodik. Efter avslutad praktik genomförde förarna ett individuellt simulatortest där prestationen bedömdes dels genom en objektiv mätmetod över antalet fel, dels via en subjektiv instruktörsbedömning.

    Resultatet visar att praktisk utbildning i simulatormiljö är effektivare än praktik i verkligheten där möjligheten till repetition av olika särfallssituationer är den viktigaste faktorn för att utbilda effektiva och trafiksäkra förare. Tågklarerarna fick se, diskutera och, via en enkät, utvärdera tre filmer på förare som hanterade olika särfallssituationer i simulatormiljö. Resultatet indikerar att utbildningsmetoden kan vara nyttig för framförallt tågklarerare utan tidigare erfarenhet av ERTMS

  • 20.
    Olsson, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Simulatorutbildning för en robustare järnväg: Studie av tågförares praktiska hantering av kontaktledningsanläggningen2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nedrivna och skadade kontaktledningar leder till stora kostnader för Sveriges skattebetalare, tågresenärer och fraktbolag. Ungefär hälften av de nedrivna kontaktledningarna där trafikutövarna är inblandade (knappt 600 förseningstimmar) är möjliga att förhindra med bättre utbildade tågförare och tågsättsklargörare. Det här projektet syftade till att, i simulatormiljö, studera hur tågförare hanterar kontaktledningsanläggningen i situationer med olika komplexitet, vilken effekt erfarenhet och övning har på den praktiska kunskapen liksom hur ett teoretiskt utbildningsmaterial kan bidra till ökad kunskap om anläggningen. Totalt deltog 49 förarelever i slutet av sin utbildning och 8 erfarna förare i en simulatorstudie där de skulle hantera tavlor kopplade till kontaktledningsanläggningen i situationer med olika svårighetsgrad.

    Resultatet visar att förarnoviser liksom erfarna förare hanterar tavlor utmed linjen utan distraktion med låg felprocent men där framförallt noviserna ofta glömmer den utvändiga miljön (tavlorna) när man distraheras av exempelvis ett larmande tågskyddssystem. En upprepad mätning indikerar att förarna hanterar likadana situationer något bättre efter repetition medan ingen förbättring uppmättes gällande hanteringen av liknande situationer.

    Resultatet åskådliggör nyttan med projektet där förarträning i simulatormiljö tillsammans med det kompletterande utbildningsmaterialet sannolikt kan bidra till en robustare järnvägsanläggning med färre förseningar och minskade kostnader som följd.

  • 21.
    Patel, Pankaj C.
    et al.
    Villanova School of Business, Villanova University, 800 E. Lancaster Ave., Villanova, PA 19085, USA.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle, Industriell ekonomi.
    Tran, Phan-Kiet
    Children's Heart Center, Skåne University Hospital, Lasarettgatan 28, SE, 22185 Lund, Sweden.
    Perceived risk and the need for trust as drivers of improved surgical skills in 3D surgical video technology2022Inngår i: Journal of Innovation and Knowledge, ISSN 2530-7614, E-ISSN 2444-569X, Vol. 7, nr 4, artikkel-id 100269Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the technology adoption model, the implementation of medical technology presents a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it may improve health outcomes and facilitate improved skills; on the other hand, it could elicit risk and trust concerns. In this exploratory study, which combines adoption of the medical technology with an associated skills improvement framework, we use responses from eighty-five staff members directly involved in the peri- and intra-operative care of the patient at a large hospital in Sweden during the gestating stages of 3D surgical video implementation. We find that a perceived lower risk for patients from 3D surgical videos is positively associated with improved surgical skills through a lower perceived need for trust in 3D surgical videos. The findings show that lower perceived losses lead to lower need for trust, which, in turn, improves perceptions of improved surgical skills. The findings carry implications for considering non-technological and non-medical factors in driving appreciation of the benefits (perceived improvements in surgical skills).

  • 22.
    Perham, Nick
    et al.
    Department of Applied Psychology, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK.
    Begum, Fahena
    Department of Applied Psychology, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle, Människa och teknik. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    The Categorical Deviation Effect May Be Underpinned by Attentional Capture: Preliminary Evidence from the Incidental Recognition of Distracters2023Inngår i: Auditory Perception & Cognition, ISSN 2574-2442, Vol. 6, nr 1-2, s. 20-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a visual focal task is appreciably disrupted by an unexpected change (or deviation) in the properties of a task irrelevant auditory background. A vast amount of evidence suggests that a change in the acoustic properties of sound disrupts performance via attentional capture. However, an emerging body of evidence suggests that the disruption of task performance by a change in semantic category within a stream of sounds does not behave the same and is therefore not produced by attentional capture. This preliminary study aimed to further investigate whether the disruption produced by a categorical deviant was underpinned by attentional capture. In a single experiment, participants were presented with an irrelevant sound stream while they memorized a categorized list for free recall. We examined whether free recall performance was disrupted by an unexpected change in category within the sound and later investigated, via a surprise recognition test, whether participants had superior memory for deviant items as compared to items from the same positions in control sequences. Results revealed that the categorical deviation effect manifested in poorer free recall performance. Additionally, post-study, participants demonstrated better recognition memory for deviant items compared to control items. On the assumption that explicit recognition requires attentional encoding of deviant items, our results yield evidence that the categorical deviation effect may indeed be produced via attentional capture.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Richardson, Beth
    et al.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston UK.
    McCulloch, Kathleen C.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston UK.
    Ball, Linden J.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston UK.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle, Människa och teknik. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston UK.
    The Fate of the Unattended Revisited: Can Irrelevant Speech Prime the Non-dominant Interpretation of Homophones?2023Inngår i: Auditory Perception & Cognition, ISSN 2574-2442, Vol. 6, nr 1-2, s. 72-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether the post-categorical, semantic properties of task-irrelevant speech are processed has been a source of debate between two central accounts. The first, a structural account, proposes that the semantic content of irrelevant speech is filtered out early on, and thus remains unprocessed. The second account proposes that the semantic content of speech is, in fact, processed and can influence later behavior. The present research offers a resolution between these two prominent accounts by examining whether semantic processing of task-irrelevant speech occurs despite explicit instructions to ignore it. During a visual-verbal serial recall paradigm, participants were auditorily presented with non-dominant homophones plus their close associates, or close associates without the homophone itself and asked to ignore this irrelevant speech containing these semantic primes. In a subsequent “unrelated” phase, we assessed whether the spelling of homophones was influenced by the irrelevant speech that had occurred earlier in the serial recall phase. We found evidence of semantic priming in conditions wherein the homophone was present, as well as conditions wherein only associates of the homophone were present. Regardless of whether they were presented, homophones were more likely to be spelt in accordance with their non-dominant meaning, and most participants did not report awareness of this fact. We suggest that semantic processing of irrelevant speech occurs even when there is an explicit direction to ignore it and does not result in any material disruptive effect on serial recall performance.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Rouchitsas, Alexandros
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering.
    Virtual Human Characters for Autonomous Vehicle-to-Pedestrian Communication2022Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Pedestrians base their street-crossing decisions on both vehicle-centric cues, like speed and acceleration, and driver-centric cues, like gaze direction and facial expression. In the future, however, drivers of autonomous vehicles will be preoccupied with non-driving related activities and thus unavailable to provide pedestrians with relevant communicative cues. External human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) hold promise for filling the expected communication gap by providing information about the current state and future behaviour of an autonomous vehicle, to primarily ensure pedestrian safety and improve traffic flow, but also promote public acceptance of autonomous vehicle technology. The aim of this thesis is the development of an intuitive, culture-transcending eHMI, that can support multiple pedestrians in parallel make appropriate street-crossing decisions by communicating pedestrian acknowledgement and vehicle intention. In the proposed anthropomorphic eHMI concept, a virtual human character (VHC) is displayed on the windshield to communicate pedestrian acknowledgement and vehicle intention via gaze direction and facial expression, respectively. The performance of different implementations of the proposed concept is evaluated in the context of three monitor-based, laboratory experiments where participants performed a crossing intention task. Four papers are appended to the thesis. Paper I provides an overview of controlled studies that employed naive participants to evaluate eHMI concepts. Paper II evaluates the effectiveness of the proposed concept in supporting a single pedestrian or two co-located pedestrians make appropriate street-crossing decisions. Paper III evaluates the efficiency of emotional facial expressions in communicating non-yielding intention. Paper IV evaluates the efficiency of emotional and conversational facial expressions in communicating yielding and non-yielding intention. An implementation of the proposed anthropomorphic eHMI concept where a male VHC communicates non-yielding intention via an angry expression, cruising intention via cheek puff, and yielding intention via nod, is shown to be both highly effective in ensuring the safety of a single pedestrian or even two co-located pedestrians without compromising traffic flow in either case, and the most efficient. Importantly, this level of effectiveness is reached in the absence of any explanation of the rationale behind the eHMI concept or training to interact with it successfully.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Rouchitsas, Alexandros
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering.
    Communicating Vehicle Non-Yielding Intention via Emotional Facial Expressions: Angry vs. Surprised2022Inngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 26.
    Rouchitsas, Alexandros
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering.
    Ghost on the Windshield: Employing a Virtual Human Character to Communicate Pedestrian Acknowledgement and Vehicle Intention2022Inngår i: Information, E-ISSN 2078-2489, Vol. 13, nr 9, artikkel-id 420Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pedestrians base their street-crossing decisions on vehicle-centric as well as driver-centric cues. In the future, however, drivers of autonomous vehicles will be preoccupied with non-driving related activities and will thus be unable to provide pedestrians with relevant communicative cues. External human–machine interfaces (eHMIs) hold promise for filling the expected communication gap by providing information about a vehicle’s situational awareness and intention. In this paper, we present an eHMI concept that employs a virtual human character (VHC) to communicate pedestrian acknowledgement and vehicle intention (non-yielding; cruising; yielding). Pedestrian acknowledgement is communicated via gaze direction while vehicle intention is communicated via facial expression. The effectiveness of the proposed anthropomorphic eHMI concept was evaluated in the context of a monitor-based laboratory experiment where the participants performed a crossing intention task (self-paced, two-alternative forced choice) and their accuracy in making appropriate street-crossing decisions was measured. In each trial, they were first presented with a 3D animated sequence of a VHC (male; female) that either looked directly at them or clearly to their right while producing either an emotional (smile; angry expression; surprised expression), a conversational (nod; head shake), or a neutral (neutral expression; cheek puff) facial expression. Then, the participants were asked to imagine they were pedestrians intending to cross a one-way street at a random uncontrolled location when they saw an autonomous vehicle equipped with the eHMI approaching from the right and indicate via mouse click whether they would cross the street in front of the oncoming vehicle or not. An implementation of the proposed concept where non-yielding intention is communicated via the VHC producing either an angry expression, a surprised expression, or a head shake; cruising intention is communicated via the VHC puffing its cheeks; and yielding intention is communicated via the VHC nodding, was shown to be highly effective in ensuring the safety of a single pedestrian or even two co-located pedestrians without compromising traffic flow in either case. The implications for the development of intuitive, culture-transcending eHMIs that can support multiple pedestrians in parallel are discussed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Rouchitsas, Alexandros
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering.
    Smiles and Angry Faces vs. Nods and Head Shakes: Facial Expressions at the Service of Autonomous Vehicles2023Inngår i: Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, E-ISSN 2414-4088, Vol. 7, nr 2, artikkel-id 10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When deciding whether to cross the street or not, pedestrians take into consideration information provided by both vehicle kinematics and the driver of an approaching vehicle. It will not be long, however, before drivers of autonomous vehicles (AVs) will be unable to communicate their intention to pedestrians, as they will be engaged in activities unrelated to driving. External human–machine interfaces (eHMIs) have been developed to fill the communication gap that will result by offering information to pedestrians about the situational awareness and intention of an AV. Several anthropomorphic eHMI concepts have employed facial expressions to communicate vehicle intention. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of emotional (smile; angry expression) and conversational (nod; head shake) facial expressions in communicating vehicle intention (yielding; non-yielding). Participants completed a crossing intention task where they were tasked with deciding appropriately whether to cross the street or not. Emotional expressions communicated vehicle intention more efficiently than conversational expressions, as evidenced by the lower latency in the emotional expression condition compared to the conversational expression condition. The implications of our findings for the development of anthropomorphic eHMIs that employ facial expressions to communicate vehicle intention are discussed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Sandbakk, Øyvind
    et al.
    Center for Elite Sports Research, Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Pyne, David B.
    Research Institute for Sport and Exercise, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    McGawley, Kerry
    Swedish Winter Sports Research Center, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Foster, Carl
    Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Wisconsin–La Crosse, La Crosse, WI, USA.
    Talsnes, Rune Kjøsen
    Center for Elite Sports Research, Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Solli, Guro Strøm
    Department of Sports Science and Physical Education, Nord University, Bodø, Norway.
    Millet, Grégoire P.
    Institute of Sport Sciences, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Seiler, Stephen
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Laursen, Paul B.
    Sports Performance and Athlete Development Environments (SPADE), University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand (SPRINZ), AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Haugen, Thomas
    School of Health Sciences, Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Tønnessen, Espen
    School of Health Sciences, Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Wilber, Randy
    United States Olympic Committee, Colorado Springs, CO, USA.
    van Erp, Teun
    Division of Movement Science and Exercise Therapy (MSET), Department of Exercise, Sport and Lifestyle Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa.
    Stellingwerff, Trent
    Canadian Sport Institute—Pacific, Victoria, BC, Canada.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering. School of Kinesiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Sandbakk, Silvana Bucher
    Department of Teacher Education, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    The Evolution of World-Class Endurance Training: The Scientist's View on Current and Future Trends2023Inngår i: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 18, nr 8, s. 885-889Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Elite sport is continuously evolving. World records keep falling and athletes from a longer list of countries are involved.

    Purpose: This commentary was designed to provide insights into present and future trends associated with world-class endurance training based on the perspectives, experience, and knowledge of an expert panel of 25 applied sport scientists.

    Results: The key drivers of development observed in the past 10-15 years were related to (1) more accessible scientific knowledge for coaches and athletes combined with (2) better integration of practical and scientific exchange across multidisciplinary perspectives within professionalized elite athlete support structures, as well as (3) utilization of new technological advances. Based on these perspectives, we discerned and exemplified the main trends in the practice of endurance sports into the following categories: better understanding of sport-specific demands; improved competition execution; larger, more specific, and more precise training loads; improved training quality; and a more professional and healthier lifestyle. The main areas expected to drive future improvements were associated with more extensive use of advanced technology for monitoring and prescribing training and recovery, more precise use of environmental and nutritional interventions, better understanding of athlete- equipment interactions, and greater emphasis on preventing injuries and illnesses.

    Conclusions: These expert insights can serve as a platform and inspiration to develop new hypotheses and ideas, encourage future collaboration between researchers and sport practitioners, and, perhaps most important, stimulate curiosity and further collaborative studies about the training, physiology, and performance of endurance athletes.

  • 29.
    Sio, Ut Na
    et al.
    Institute of Work Psychology, Sheffield University of Management School, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Lortie-Forgues, Hugues
    Centre for Mathematical Cognition, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Marsh, John E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Effects of task characteristics and task-switching on remote associates test problem solving2024Inngår i: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Creative problem solving is often viewed as a search process. However, little is known about the factors that impact this process. To address this question, we conducted two studies to examine whether task characteristics and task-switching influence performance on Remote Associates Test (RAT) problems - problems commonly used to measure creativity and study the creative search process. Consistent with prior research, we found that RAT problem-solving performance was positively associated with the relatedness between the answer and the problem. The association was strongest when the amount of competition within the initial search space was low. Moreover, this interaction was observed irrespective of the methods used to measure the task characteristics. By contrast, we did not replicate the positive effect of task-switching on RAT problem-solving accuracy found in previous studies. However, our findings suggest that task-switching may improve problem-solving speed and facilitate a broader search. Implications for future research are discussed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Socher, Michaela
    et al.
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics IBP, Institute Stuttgart Stuttgart, Germany.
    Löfkvist, Ulrika
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wass, Malin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering.
    Comparing the semantic networks of children with cochlear implants and children with typical hearing: Effects of length of language access2022Inngår i: Journal of Communication Disorders, ISSN 0021-9924, E-ISSN 1873-7994, Vol. 99, artikkel-id 106247Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Kenett et al. (2013) report that the sematic networks, measured by using an oral semantic fluency task, of children with cochlear implants (CI) are less structured compared to the sematic networks of children with typical hearing (TH). This study aims to evaluate if such differences are only evident if children with CI are compared to children with TH matched on chronological age, or also if they are compared to children with TH matched on hearing age.

    Method

    The performance of a group of children with CI on a verbal fluency task was compared to the performance of a group of chronological-age matched children with TH. Subsequently, computational network analysis was used to compare the semantic network structure of the groups. The same procedure was applied to compare a group of children with CI to a group of hearing-age matched children with TH.

    Results

    The children with CI perform on the same level on an oral semantic verbal fluency task as the children with TH matched on hearing age. There are significant differences in terms of the structure of the semantic network between the groups. The magnitude of these differences is very small and they are non-significant for a proportion of nodes included in the bootstrap analysis. This indicates that there is no true difference between the networks. Hearing age, but not age at implantation was found to be significantly positively correlated with semantic verbal fluency performance for the children with CI.

    Conclusions

    The results from the current study indicate that length of language exposure is an important factor for the structure of the semantic network and the performance on a semantic verbal fluency task for children with CI. Further studies are needed to explore the role of the accessibility of the language input for the development of semantic networks of children with CI.

  • 31.
    Threadgold, Emma
    et al.
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle, Människa och teknik. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems, and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems, and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden; Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Nelson, Megan
    Department of Psychology, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
    Ball, Linden John
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Biased Estimates of Environmental Impact in the Negative Footprint Illusion: The Nature of Individual Variation2022Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, artikkel-id 648328Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    People consistently act in ways that harm the environment, even when believing their actions are environmentally friendly. A case in point is a biased judgment termed the negative footprint illusion, which arises when people believe that the addition of “eco-friendly” items (e.g., environmentally certified houses) to conventional items (e.g., standard houses), reduces the total carbon footprint of the whole item-set, whereas the carbon footprint is, in fact, increased because eco-friendly items still contribute to the overall carbon footprint. Previous research suggests this illusion is the manifestation of an “averaging-bias.” We present two studies that explore whether people’s susceptibility to the negative footprint illusion is associated with individual differences in: (i) environment-specific reasoning dispositions measured in terms of compensatory green beliefs and environmental concerns; or (ii) general analytic reasoning dispositions measured in terms of actively open-minded thinking, avoidance of impulsivity and reflective reasoning (indexed using the Cognitive Reflection Test; CRT). A negative footprint illusion was demonstrated when participants rated the carbon footprint of conventional buildings combined with eco-friendly buildings (Study 1 and 2) and conventional cars combined with eco-friendly cars (Study 2). However, the illusion was not identified in participants’ ratings of the carbon footprint of apples (Study 1 and 2). In Studies 1 and 2, environment-specific dispositions were found to be unrelated to the negative footprint illusion. Regarding reflective thinking dispositions, reduced susceptibility to the negative footprint illusion was only associated with actively open-minded thinking measured on a 7-item scale (Study 1) and 17-item scale (Study 2). Our findings provide partial support for the existence of a negative footprint illusion and reveal a role of individual variation in reflective reasoning dispositions in accounting for a limited element of differential susceptibility to this illusion.

  • 32.
    Wallo, Linn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Alla ska med på tåget: En kvalitativ undersökning av medarbetarengagemang som del i den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    På svenska arbetsplatser är psykisk ohälsa i arbetslivet ett problem för både individer och organisationer. Ett sätt att stävja eskaleringen av människor som mår dåligt i arbetslivet är genom hälsofrämjande förhållningssätt som motiverar medarbetare att använda sin fulla kapacitet i arbetet. Detta examensarbetes övergripande syfte är att bidra till ökad förståelse av medarbetarengagemang genom att beskriva och undersöka begreppet som en del av den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön i ett kommunalägt bolag. I examensarbetet användes självbestämmandeteorin som ett övergripande teoretiskt ramverk. Utifrån kvalitativa djupintervjuer med tjugo informanter framkom det att förutsättningar för ökat medarbetarengagemang återfinns i skapandet av en god organisatorisk och social arbetsmiljö. Resultatet visar att det är genom medarbetares tolkning av sin arbetsmiljö möjlighet ges till förståelse för vilka faktorer som möjliggör eller förhindrar medarbetarengagemang. Denna kunskap är relevant för organisationer som vill arbeta hälsofrämjande för medarbetares ökade engagemang och välbefinnande.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 33.
    Wennberg, Filip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Förekomst och hantering av psykisk ohälsa och stress inom räddningstjänsten i Norrbotten: En enkät- och intervjustudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Westin, Fanny
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering. Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Informing patients about possible negative effects of psychological treatment: A survey of Swedish clinical psychologists’ attitudes and practices2023Inngår i: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The present study explored Swedish clinical psychologists’ attitudes and practices of informing patients about possible negative effects of psychological treatment.

    Method: An anonymous online survey with closed and open-ended questions was distributed via Facebook and two mailing lists. In total, 320 clinical psychologists (age M = 38.6, SD = 10.3; 76% women; 77.3% Cognitive Behavior Therapy) completed the survey. Responses were analyzed using χ2, binominal regression analysis, and thematic analysis.

    Results: No significant associations were identified between demographic variables selected a priori and informing patients about possible negative effects, i.e., years in practice, therapeutic orientation, age, and male gender. The thematic analysis resulted in several positive (e.g., creating realistic expectations of treatment and increasing resilience) and negative attitudes (e.g., causing excessive worry) of sharing patients with information about possible negative effects. It also revealed various factors that prevent an open discussion on the topic, despite being seen as important.

    Conclusion: The need to offer patients information about possible negative effects should be included in ethical guidelines, codes of conduct, and taught during clinical training. Lack of knowledge, fear, lack of time, and patient characteristics however seem to prevent therapists from discussing the issue during the informed consent procedure.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 35.
    Zhang, Qiyuan
    et al.
    School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; Human Factors Excellence Research Group (HuFEx), Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; Intelligence, Robotics and Human-Machine Systems, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    Williams, Craig
    School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; Human Factors Excellence Research Group (HuFEx), Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    Morgan, Phillip L.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering. School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; Human Factors Excellence Research Group (HuFEx), Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; Intelligence, Robotics and Human-Machine Systems, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    Partial habituation to disruption by irrelevant emotive speech—evidence for duplex-mechanism account2024Inngår i: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 42-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 36.
    Öberg, Jonathan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik.
    Är distansstudierna här för att stanna efter COVID-19?: Universitetsstudenters syn på distansstudier, en analys baserad på femfaktorteorin2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Till följd av COVID-19-pandemin och dess restriktioner för att minska smittspridningen har universitet i Sverige behövt stängas. Universitetsutbildningar har övergått till distansundervisning och det råder idag en brist på studier som undersöker hur studenter ställer sig till de förändringar som genomförts. Syftet med denna studie var huvudsakligen att samla in information, undersöka och analysera hur universitetsstudenter ställde sig till hemstudierna som infördes till följd av COVID-19. Studien syftade även till att undersöka om någon av personlighetsdimensionerna i femfaktorteorin hade ett samband med önskan att studera hemifrån. Empiri samlades in med hjälp av en enkät som besvarades av 67 universitetsstudenter. Resultaten visade att upp emot nästan hälften av studenterna ställde sig positivt till distansstudier medan ungefär en tredjedel ställde sig negativt. Vidare fanns det ett samband mellan synen på hemstudier och personlighetsdimensionerna extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness och openness. Studiens viktigaste slutsatser är att en relativt stor andel, över 40% av studenterna föredrog hemstudier, att de individer som skattade högt inom extraversion föredrog i signifikant större utsträckning distansstudier och kände sig signifikant mindre ensamma än de som skattade lågt. Slutligen var personlighetsdimensionen neuroticism minst användbart för att predicera synen på distansstudier. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
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