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  • 1.
    Ahlén, Gustaf
    et al.
    Recopharma AB.
    Strindelius, Lena
    Recopharma AB.
    Johansson, Tomas
    Recopharma AB.
    Nilsson, Anki
    Rrecopharma AB.
    Chatzissavidou, Nathalie
    Recopharma AB.
    Sjöblom, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Holsgersson, Jan
    Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy.
    Mannosylated mucin-type immunoglobulin fusion proteins enhance antigen-specific antibody and T lymphocyte responses2012Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Targeting antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APC) improve their immunogenicity and capacity to induce Th1 responses and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). We have generated a mucin-type immunoglobulin fusion protein (PSGL-1/mIgG2b), which upon expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris became multivalently substituted with O-linked oligomannose structures and bound the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR) and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) with high affinity in vitro. Here, its effects on the humoral and cellular anti-ovalbumin (OVA) responses in C57BL/6 mice are presented.OVA antibody class and subclass responses were determined by ELISA, the generation of anti-OVA CTLs was assessed in 51Cr release assays using in vitro-stimulated immune spleen cells from the different groups of mice as effector cells and OVA peptide-fed RMA-S cells as targets, and evaluation of the type of Th cell response was done by IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5 ELISpot assays.Immunizations with the OVA − mannosylated PSGL-1/mIgG2b conjugate, especially when combined with the AbISCO®-100 adjuvant, lead to faster, stronger and broader (with regard to IgG subclass) OVA IgG responses, a stronger OVA-specific CTL response and stronger Th1 and Th2 responses than if OVA was used alone or together with AbISCO®-100. Also non-covalent mixing of mannosylated PSGL-1/mIgG2b, OVA and AbISCO®-100 lead to relatively stronger humoral and cellular responses. The O-glycan oligomannoses were necessary because PSGL-1/mIgG2b with mono- and disialyl core 1 structures did not have this effect.Mannosylated mucin-type fusion proteins can be used as versatile APC-targeting molecules for vaccines and as such enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses.

  • 2.
    Antonopoulou, Io
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Hunt, Cameron
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Cerullo, Gabriella
    Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples "Federico II".
    Varriale, Simona
    Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”.
    Gerogianni, Alexandra
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Faraco, Vincenza
    Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples "Federico II".
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Tailoring the specificity of the type C feruloyl esterase FoFaeC from Fusarium oxysporum towards methyl sinapate by rational redesign based on small molecule docking simulations2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 5, artikkel-id e0198127Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The type C feruloyl esterase FoFaeC from Fusarium oxysporum is a newly discovered enzyme with high potential for use in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass but it shows low activity towards sinapates. In this work, small molecule docking simulations were employed in order to identify important residues for the binding of the four model methyl esters of hydroxycinnamic acids, methyl ferulate/caffeate/sinapate/p-coumarate, to the predicted structure of FoFaeC. Subsequently rational redesign was applied to the enzyme’ active site in order to improve its specificity towards methyl sinapate. A double mutation (F230H/T202V) was considered to provide hydrophobic environment for stabilization of the methoxy substitution on sinapate and a larger binding pocket. Five mutant clones and the wild type were produced in Pichia pastoris and biochemically characterized. All clones showed improved activity, substrate affinity, catalytic efficiency and turnover rate compared to the wild type against methyl sinapate, with clone P13 showing a 5-fold improvement in catalytic efficiency. Although the affinity of all mutant clones was improved against the four model substrates, the catalytic efficiency and turnover rate decreased for the substrates containing a hydroxyl substitution.

  • 3.
    Arroyo-Morales, Manuel
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain. Biohealth Research Institute in Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Granada, Spain, Sport and Health University Research Institute (iMUDS), Granada, Spain.
    Martin-Alguacil, Jose
    Orthopedic Surgery Service Hospital Nuestra Señora de la Salud, Granada, Spain.
    Lozano-Lozano, Mario
    Department of Physical Therapy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain. Sport and Health University Research Institute (iMUDS), Granada, Spain.
    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciencies, University of Málaga, Andalucia. Instituto de Investigación en Biomedica de Málaga (IBIMA), Grupo de Clinimetria, Malaga, Spain. School of Clinical Sciences, The Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Fernández-Fernández, Andrés J.
    Department of Physical Therapy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    González, Jose A.
    Department of Computer Science, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene
    Department of Physical Therapy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain. Biohealth Research Institute in Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Granada, Spain, Sport and Health University Research Institute (iMUDS), Granada, Spain.
    The Lysholm score: Cross cultural validation and evaluation of psychometric properties of the Spanish version2019Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 8, artikkel-id e0221376Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    This study aims at assessing the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the Lysholm score, a widely used instrument for assessing knee function and activity level after ligament injuries.

    Methods

    Ninety-five participants (67.4% male, 22±5 years) completed the questionnaire twice within 7 days and a subsample of 42 participants completed a test-retest reliability. Reliability, validity and feasibility psychometric properties were studied. The validity of the questionnaire was analysed using ceiling and floor effects. Factor structure and construct validity were analysed with the SF-36, the Hip and Knee Questionnaire (HKQ) and one leg jump test (OLJT).

    Results

    Criterion validity with the SF-36 Physical State was moderate (r = 0.50 and p<0.01), poor and inverse relationship (r = -0.31, p<0.01) with HKQ and positive moderate (r = 0.59, p<0.01) with OLJT. Measurement error from MDC90 was 3.9%. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated a one-factor solution explaining 51.5% of total variance. The x2 test for the one-factor model was significant (x2 = 29.58, df = 20, p < 0.08). Test-retest reliability level was high (ICC2.1 = 0.92, p<0.01) and also the internal consistency (α = 0.77).

    Conclusion

    The Spanish Lysholm score demonstrated that it is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used to assess knee function after ligament injuries.

  • 4.
    De Silva, Daswin
    et al.
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Ranasinghe, Weranja
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Bandaragoda, Tharindu
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Adikari, Achini
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Mills, Nishan
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Iddamalgoda, Lahiru
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Alahakoon, Damminda
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Lawrentschuk, Nathan
    Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia..
    Persad, Raj
    North Bristol, NHS Trust, Bristol, United Kingdom..
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Gray, Richard
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Bolton, Damien
    Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia..
    Machine learning to support social media empowered patients in cancer care and cancer treatment decisions2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 10, artikkel-id e0205855Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    A primary variant of social media, online support groups (OSG) extend beyond the standard definition to incorporate a dimension of advice, support and guidance for patients. OSG are complementary, yet significant adjunct to patient journeys. Machine learning and natural language processing techniques can be applied to these large volumes of unstructured text discussions accumulated in OSG for intelligent extraction of patient-reported demographics, behaviours, decisions, treatment, side effects and expressions of emotions. New insights from the fusion and synthesis of such diverse patient-reported information, as expressed throughout the patient journey from diagnosis to treatment and recovery, can contribute towards informed decision-making on personalized healthcare delivery and the development of healthcare policy guidelines.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS

    We have designed and developed an artificial intelligence based analytics framework using machine learning and natural language processing techniques for intelligent analysis and automated aggregation of patient information and interaction trajectories in online support groups. Alongside the social interactions aspect, patient behaviours, decisions, demographics, clinical factors, emotions, as subsequently expressed over time, are extracted and analysed. More specifically, we utilised this platform to investigate the impact of online social influences on the intimate decision scenario of selecting a treatment type, recovery after treatment, side effects and emotions expressed over time, using prostate cancer as a model. Results manifest the three major decision-making behaviours among patients, Paternalistic group, Autonomous group and Shared group. Furthermore, each group demonstrated diverse behaviours in post-decision discussions on clinical outcomes, advice and expressions of emotion during the twelve months following treatment. Over time, the transition of patients from information and emotional support seeking behaviours to providers of information and emotional support to other patients was also observed.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Findings from this study are a rigorous indication of the expectations of social media empowered patients, their potential for individualised decision-making, clinical and emotional needs. The increasing popularity of OSG further confirms that it is timely for clinicians to consider patient voices as expressed in OSG. We have successfully demonstrated that the proposed platform can be utilised to investigate, analyse and derive actionable insights from patient-reported information on prostate cancer, in support of patient focused healthcare delivery. The platform can be extended and applied just as effectively to any other medical condition.

  • 5.
    Genuis, Stephen John
    et al.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
    Siy, Anna Kristen J.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Toxic element contamination of natural health products and pharmaceutical preparations2012Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Concern has recently emerged regarding the safety of natural health products (NHPs)-therapies that are increasingly recommended by various health providers, including conventional physicians. Recognizing that most individuals in the Western world now consume vitamins and many take herbal agents, this study endeavored to determine levels of toxic element contamination within a range of NHPs. Methods: Toxic element testing was performed on 121 NHPs (including Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese, and various marine-source products) as well as 49 routinely prescribed pharmaceutical preparations. Testing was also performed on several batches of one prenatal supplement, with multiple samples tested within each batch. Results were compared to existing toxicant regulatory limits. Results: Toxic element contamination was found in many supplements and pharmaceuticals; levels exceeding established limits were only found in a small percentage of the NHPs tested and none of the drugs tested. Some NHPs demonstrated contamination levels above preferred daily endpoints for mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic or aluminum. NHPs manufactured in China generally had higher levels of mercury and aluminum. Conclusions: Exposure to toxic elements is occurring regularly as a result of some contaminated NHPs. Best practices for quality control-developed and implemented by the NHP industry with government oversight-is recommended to guard the safety of unsuspecting consumers

  • 6.
    Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Jourak, Amir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    The effect of hydraulic loading rate and influent source on the binding capacity of phosphorus filters2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sorption by active filter media can be a convenient option for phosphorus (P) removal and recovery from wastewater for on-site treatment systems. There is a need for a robust laboratory method for the investigation of filter materials to enable a reliable estimation of their longevity. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate and (2) quantify the effect of hydraulic loading rate and influent source (secondary wastewater and synthetic phosphate solution) on P binding capacity determined in laboratory column tests and (3) to study how much time is needed for the P to react with the filter material (reaction time). To study the effects of these factors, a 22 factorial experiment with 11 filter columns was performed. The reaction time was studied in a batch experiment. Both factors significantly (α = 0.05) affected the P binding capacity negatively, but the interaction of the two factors was not significant. Increasing the loading rate from 100 to 1200 L m-2 d-1 decreased P binding capacity from 1.152 to 0.070 g kg-1 for wastewater filters and from 1.382 to 0.300 g kg-1 for phosphate solution filters. At a loading rate of 100 L m-2 d-1, the average P binding capacity of wastewater filters was 1.152 g kg-1 as opposed to 1.382 g kg-1 for phosphate solution filters. Therefore, influent source or hydraulic loading rate should be carefully controlled in the laboratory. When phosphate solution and wastewater were used, the reaction times for the filters to remove P were determined to be 5 and 15 minutes, respectively, suggesting that a short residence time is required. However, breakthrough in this study occurred unexpectedly quickly, implying that more time is needed for the P that has reacted to be physically retained in the filter.

  • 7.
    Leszczyński, Marcin
    et al.
    Deptartment of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München.
    Wykowska, Agnieszka
    Deptartment of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München.
    Perez-Osorio, Jairo
    Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich.
    Müller, Hermann J.
    Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich.
    Deployment of spatial attention towards locations in memory representations2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 12, artikkel-id 83856Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recalling information from visual short-term memory (VSTM) involves the same neural mechanisms as attending to an actually perceived scene. In particular, retrieval from VSTM has been associated with orienting of visual attention towards a location within a spatially-organized memory representation. However, an open question concerns whether spatial attention is also recruited during VSTM retrieval even when performing the task does not require access to spatial coordinates of items in the memorized scene. The present study combined a visual search task with a modified, delayed central probe protocol, together with EEG analysis, to answer this question. We found a temporal contralateral negativity (TCN) elicited by a centrally presented go-signal which was spatially uninformative and featurally unrelated to the search target and informed participants only about a response key that they had to press to indicate a prepared target-present vs. - absent decision. This lateralization during VSTM retrieval (TCN) provides strong evidence of a shift of attention towards the target location in the memory representation, which occurred despite the fact that the present task required no spatial (or featural) information from the search to be encoded, maintained, and retrieved to produce the correct response and that the go-signal did not itself specify any information relating to the location and defining feature of the target

  • 8.
    Liu, Bing
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Krishnaswamyreddy, Sumitha
    Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Muraleedharan, Madhu Nair
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Olson, Åke
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Broberg, Anders
    Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Ståhlberg, Jerry
    Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Sandgren, Mats
    Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Side-by-side biochemical comparison of two lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases from the white-rot fungus Heterobasidion irregulare on their activity against crystalline cellulose and glucomannan2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 9, artikkel-id e0203430Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Our comparative studies reveal that the two lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases HiLP-MO9B and HiLPMO9I from the white-rot conifer pathogen Heterobasidion irregulare display clear difference with respect to their activity against crystalline cellulose and glucomannan. HiLPMO9I produced very little soluble sugar on bacterial microcrystalline cellulose (BMCC). In contrast, HiLPMO9B was much more active against BMCC and even released more soluble sugar than the H. irregulare cellobiohydrolase I, HiCel7A. Furthermore, HiLPMO9B was shown to cooperate with and stimulate the activity of HiCel7A, both when the BMCC was first pretreated with HiLPMO9B, as well as when HiLPMO9B and HiCel7A were added together. No such stimulation was shown by HiLPMO9I. On the other hand, HiLPMO9I was shown to degrade glucomannan, using a C4-oxidizing mechanism, whereas no oxidative cleavage activity of glucomannan was detected for HiLPMO9B. Structural modeling and comparison with other glucomannan-active LPMOs suggest that conserved sugar-interacting residues on the L2, L3 and LC loops may be essential for glucomannan binding, where 4 out of 7 residues are shared by HiLPMO9I, but only one is found in HiLPMO9B. The difference shown between these two H. irregulare LPMOs may reflect distinct biological roles of these enzymes within deconstruction of different plant cell wall polysaccharides during fungal colonization of softwood.

  • 9. Ljungberg, Jessica K
    et al.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Andrés, Pilar
    Josefsson, Maria
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    A longitudinal study of memory advantages in bilinguals.2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 9, artikkel-id e73029Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task) and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n=178) between 35-70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging.

  • 10.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Öhman, Micael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Distribution of low-molecular lipophilic extractives beneath the surface of air- and kiln-dried Scots pine sapwood boards2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 10, artikkel-id e0204212Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During industrial wood drying, extractives migrate towards the wood surfaces and make the material more susceptible to photo/biodegradation. The present work provides information about the distribution, quantity and nature of lipophilic substances beneath the surface in air- and kiln-dried Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood boards. Samples were taken from knot-free sapwood surfaces and the composition of lipophilic extractives, phenols and low-molecular fatty/resin acids layers at different nominal depths below the surface was studied gravimetrically, by UV-spectrometry and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentration of total extractives was significantly higher in kiln-dried than in air-dried samples and was higher close to the surface than in the layers beneath. The scatter in the values for the lipophilic extractives was high in both drying types, being highest for linoleic acid and slightly lower for palmitic, oleic and stearic acids. The amount of fatty acids was low in kiln-dried boards, probably due to a stronger degradation due to the high temperature employed. The most abundant resin acid was dehydroabietic acid followed by pimaric, isopimaric, and abietic acids in both drying types. It is concluded that during kiln-drying a migration front is created at a depth of 0.25 mm with a thickness of about 0.5 mm.

  • 11.
    Najjarzadeh, Nasim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Krige, Adolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Pamidi, Taraka Rama Krishna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Johansson, Örjan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Enman, Josefine
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Numerical modeling and verification of a sonobioreactor and its application on two model microorganisms2020Inngår i: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, nr 3, artikkel-id e0229738Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasound has many uses, such as in medical imaging, monitoring of crystallization, characterization of emulsions and suspensions, and disruption of cell membranes in the food industry. It can also affect microbial cells by promoting or slowing their growth and increasing the production of some metabolites. However, the exact mechanism explaining the effect of ultrasound has not been identified yet. Most equipment employed to study the effect of ultrasound on microorganisms has been designed for other applications and then only slightly modified. This results in limited control over ultrasound frequency and input power, or pressure distribution in the reactor. The present study aimed to obtain a well-defined reactor by simulating the pressure distribution of a sonobioreactor. Specifically, we optimized a sonotrode to match the bottle frequency and compared it to measured results to verify the accuracy of the simulation. The measured pressure distribution spectrum presented the same overall trend as the simulated spectrum. However, the peaks were much less intense, likely due to non-linear events such as the collapse of cavitation bubbles. To test the application of the sonobioreactor in biological systems, two biotechnologically interesting microorganisms were assessed: an electroactive bacterium, Geobacter sulfurreducens, and a lignocellulose-degrading fungus, Fusarium oxysporum. Sonication resulted in increased malate production by Gsulfurreducens, but no major effect on growth. In comparison, morphology and growth of Foxysporum were more sensitive to ultrasound intensity. Despite considerable morphological changes at 4 W input power, the growth rate was not adversely affected; however, at 12 W, growth was nearly halted. The above findings indicate that the novel sonobioreactor provides an effective tool for studying the impact of ultrasound on microorganisms.

  • 12.
    Neely, Gregory
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sörman, Daniel Eriksson
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, .School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
    The impact of spoken action words on performance in a cross-modal oddball task2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a cross-modal oddball task was employed to study the effect that words spokeneither non-urgently or urgently would have on a digit categorization task and if women wouldexhibit greater behavioral inhibitory control. The words were unrelated to the task itself, butrelated to the action required to complete the task. Forty participants (21 women) conducteda computerized categorization task while exposed to a sinewave tone as a standard stimulus(75% of the trials) or a to-be ignored word (press, stop) spoken either non-urgently orurgently as unexpected auditory deviant stimulus (6.25% trials for each category). Urgentwords had sharp intonation and an average fundamental frequency (F0) ranging from 191.9(stop) to 204.6 (press) Hz. Non-urgent words had low intonation with average F0 rangingfrom 103.9.9 (stop) to 120.3 (press) Hz. As expected, deviant distraction and longerresponse times were found by exposure to the word stop, but deviant distraction was notfound to be significant with the word press or due to intonation. While the results showedthat women had in general longer reaction times, there were no gender differences foundrelated to the deviant distraction caused by word or intonation. The present results do notsupport the hypothesis that women have greater behavioral inhibitory control, but there wasevidence that the meaning of the word could influence response times.

  • 13.
    Parreiras, Lucas S.
    et al.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Breuer, Rebecca J.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Narasimhan, Ragothaman Avanasi
    University of Wisconsin.
    Higbee, Alan J.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Reau, Alex La
    University of Wisconsin.
    Tremaine, Mary T.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Qin, Li
    University of Wisconsin.
    Willis, Laura B.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Bice, Benjamin D.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Bonfert, Brandi L.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Pinhancos, Rebeca C.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Balloon, Allison J.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Uppugundla, Nirmal
    Michigan State University.
    Liu, Tongjun
    Michigan State University.
    Li, Chenlin
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    Tanjore, Deepti
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    Ong, Irene
    University of Wisconsin.
    Li, Haibo
    University of Wisconsin.
    Pohlmann, Edward L.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Serate, Jose
    University of Wisconsin.
    Withers, Sydnor T.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Simmons, Blake Alexander
    Joint BioEnergy Institute, California, Deconstruction Division, Berkeley.
    Hodge, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Westphall, Michael S.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Coon, Joshua J.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Sato, Trey
    University of Wisconsin.
    Engineering and two-stage evolution of a lignocellulosic hydrolysate-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for anaerobic fermentation of xylose from AFEX pretreated corn stover2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 9, artikkel-id e107499Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The inability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment xylose effectively under anaerobic conditions is a major barrier to economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Although genetic approaches have enabled engineering of S. cerevisiae to convert xylose efficiently into ethanol in defined lab medium, few strains are able to ferment xylose from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the absence of oxygen. This limited xylose conversion is believed to result from small molecules generated during biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis, which induce cellular stress and impair metabolism. Here, we describe the development of a xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain with tolerance to a range of pretreated and hydrolyzed lignocellulose, including Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). We genetically engineered a hydrolysate-resistant yeast strain with bacterial xylose isomerase and then applied two separate stages of aerobic and anaerobic directed evolution. The emergent S. cerevisiae strain rapidly converted xylose from lab medium and ACSH to ethanol under strict anaerobic conditions. Metabolomic, genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that a missense mutation in GRE3, which was acquired during the anaerobic evolution, contributed toward improved xylose conversion by reducing intracellular production of xylitol, an inhibitor of xylose isomerase. These results validate our combinatorial approach, which utilized phenotypic strain selection, rational engineering and directed evolution for the generation of a robust S. cerevisiae strain with the ability to ferment xylose anaerobically from ACSH.

  • 14.
    Perez-Osorio, Jairo
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich.
    Müller, Hermann J.
    Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich.
    Wiese, Eva
    Department of Psychology, George Mason University, Fairfax.
    Wykowska, Agnieszka
    Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich.
    Gaze following is modulated by expectations regarding others' action goals2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 11, artikkel-id e0143614Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans attend to social cues in order to understand and predict others' behavior. Facial expressions and gaze direction provide valuable information to infer others' mental states and intentions. The present study examined the mechanism of gaze following in the context of participants' expectations about successive action steps of an observed actor. We embedded a gaze-cueing manipulation within an action scenario consisting of a sequence of naturalistic photographs. Gaze-induced orienting of attention (gaze following) was analyzed with respect to whether the gaze behavior of the observed actor was in line or not with the action-related expectations of participants (i.e., whether the actor gazed at an object that was congruent or incongruent with an overarching action goal). In Experiment 1, participants followed the gaze of the observed agent, though the gaze-cueing effect was larger when the actor looked at an action-congruent object relative to an incongruent object. Experiment 2 examined whether the pattern of effects observed in Experiment 1 was due to covert, rather than overt, attentional orienting, by requiring participants to maintain eye fixation throughout the sequence of critical photographs (corroborated by monitoring eye movements). The essential pattern of results of Experiment 1 was replicated, with the gazecueing effect being completely eliminated when the observed agent gazed at an actionincongruent object. Thus, our findings show that covert gaze following can be modulated by expectations that humans hold regarding successive steps of the action performed by an observed agent. © 2015 Perez-Osorio et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • 15.
    Pohl, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för Samhällsmedicin och Rehabilitering, Umeå University, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Sandlund, Marlene
    Umeå University, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy, Umeå universitet, Institutionen för Samhällsmedicin och Rehabilitering.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för Samhällsmedicin och Rehabilitering.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Olsson, Lillemor Lundin
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för Samhällsmedicin och Rehabilitering, Umeå University, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Melander-Wikman, Anita
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Fall risk awareness and safety precautions taken by older community-dwelling women and men: A qualitative study using focus group discussions2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 3, artikkel-id e0119630Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Daily life requires frequent estimations of the risk of falling and the ability to avoid a fall. The objective of this study was to explore older women's and men's understanding of fall risk and their experiences with safety precautions taken to prevent falls.METHODS: A qualitative study with focus group discussions was conducted. Eighteen community-dwelling people [10 women and 8 men] with and without a history of falls were purposively recruited. Participants were divided into two groups, and each group met four times. A participatory and appreciative action and reflection approach was used to guide the discussions. All discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis, and categories were determined inductively.FINDINGS: Three categories describing the process of becoming aware of fall risks in everyday life were identified: 1] Facing various feelings, 2] Recognizing one's fall risk, and 3] Taking precautions. Each category comprised several subcategories. The comprehensive theme derived from the categories was "Safety precautions through fall risk awareness". Three strategies of ignoring [continuing a risky activity], gaining insight [realizing the danger in a certain situation], and anticipating [thinking ahead and acting in advance] were related to all choices of actions and could fluctuate in the same person in different contexts.CONCLUSIONS: The fall risk awareness process might be initiated for various reasons and can involve different feelings and precautions as well as different strategies. This finding highlights that there are many possible channels to reach older people with information about fall risk and fall prevention, including the media and their peers. The findings offer a deeper understanding of older peoples' conceptualizations about fall risk awareness and make an important contribution to the development and implementation of fall prevention programmes.

  • 16.
    Röhlcke, Sebastian
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bäcklund, Christian
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Time on task matters most in video game expertise2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 10, artikkel-id e0206555Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated whether working memory capacity (WMC), personality characteristics (grit) and number of matches played (time on task) can predict performance score (matchmaking rating [MMR]) in experienced players of a popular video game called Dota 2. A questionnaire and four online-based cognitive tasks were used to gather the data, and structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to investigate the interrelationships between constructs. The results showed that time on task was the strongest predictor of MMR, and grit also significantly influenced performance. However, WMC did not play a substantial role in predicting performance while playing Dota 2. These results are discussed in relation to sample characteristics and the role of deliberate practice and skill acquisition within the domain of playing Dota 2. Further, we suggest that future research investigates the social aspects of attaining skill, the relationship between personality and performance, and the qualitative aspects of time spent on a task.

  • 17.
    Saha, Sanjib
    et al.
    Centre for Primary Healthcare Research, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Lund University/Region Skåne.
    Carlsson, Katarina Steen
    Centre for Primary Healthcare Research, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Lund University/Region Skåne.
    Gerdtham, Ulf G.
    Centre for Primary Healthcare Research, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Lund University/Region Skåne.
    Eriksson, Margareta K.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Hagberg, Lars
    Centre for Healthcare Science, Örebro County Council and Örebro University.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sunderby Research Unit, Umeå University.
    Johansson, Pia
    Centre for Health Economics, Informatics and Healthcare Research, Stockholm County Council.
    Are lifestyle interventions in primary care cost-effective?: An analysis based on a Markov model, differences-in-differences approach and the Swedish Björknäs study2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 11, artikkel-id e80672Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lifestyle interventions affect patients' risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MeSy), a pre-stage to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and related complications. An effective lifestyle intervention is the Swedish Bjorknas intervention, a 3-year randomized controlled trial in primary care for MeSy patients. To include future disease-related cost and health consequences in a cost-effectiveness analysis, a simulation model was used to estimate the short-term (3-year) and long-term (lifelong) cost-effectiveness of the Bjorknas study. Methodology/Principal Findings: A Markov micro-simulation model was used to predict the cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for MeSy-related diseases based on ten risk factors. Model inputs were levels of individual risk factors at baseline and at the third year. The model estimated short-term and long-term costs and QALYs for the intervention and control groups. The cost-effectiveness of the intervention was assessed using differences-in-differences approach to compare the changes between the groups in the health care and societal perspectives, using a 3% discount rate. A 95% confidence interval (CI), based on bootstrapping, and sensitivity analyses describe the uncertainty in the estimates. In the short-term, costs are predicted to increase over time in both groups, but less in the intervention group, resulting in an average cost saving/reduction of US$-700 (in 2012, US $ 1= six point five seven SEK) and US$-500, in the societal and health care perspectives. The long-term estimate also predicts increased costs, but considerably less in the intervention group: US$-7,300 (95% CI: US$-19,700 to US $-1,000) in the societal, and US$-1,500 (95% CI: US$-5,400 to US$ 2,650) in the health care perspective. As intervention costs were US$ 211 per participant, the intervention would result in cost saving. Furthermore, in the long-term an estimated 0.46 QALYs (95% CI: 0.12 to 0.69) per participant would be gained.

  • 18.
    Song, Zhen
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto.
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Rinne, Mikael
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto.
    Sturgul, John
    School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering, University of Adelaide.
    An Approach to Realizing Process Control for Underground Mining Operations of Mobile Machines2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 6, artikkel-id e0129572Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The excavation and production in underground mines are complicated processes which consist of many different operations. The process of underground mining is considerably constrained by the geometry and geology of the mine. The various mining operations are normally performed in series at each working face. The delay of a single operation will lead to a domino effect, thus delay the starting time for the next process and the completion time of the entire process. This paper presents a new approach to the process control for underground mining operations, e.g. drilling, bolting, mucking. This approach can estimate the working time and its probability for each operation more efficiently and objectively by improving the existing PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) and CPM (Critical Path Method). If the delay of the critical operation (which is on a critical path) inevitably affects the productivity of mined ore, the approach can rapidly assign mucking machines new jobs to increase this amount at a maximum level by using a new mucking algorithm under external constraints.

  • 19.
    Song, Zhen
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto.
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Rinne, Mikael
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto.
    Sturgul, John
    School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering, University of Adelaide.
    Intelligent Scheduling for Underground Mobile Mining Equipment2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 6, artikkel-id e0131003Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have been carried out and many commercial software applications have been developed to improve the performances of surface mining operations, especially for the loader-trucks cycle of surface mining. However, there have been quite few studies aiming to improve the mining process of underground mines. In underground mines, mobile mining equipment is mostly scheduled instinctively, without theoretical support for these decisions. Furthermore, in case of unexpected events, it is hard for miners to rapidly find solutions to reschedule and to adapt the changes. This investigation first introduces the motivation, the technical background, and then the objective of the study. A decision support instrument (i.e. schedule optimizer for mobile mining equipment) is proposed and described to address this issue. The method and related algorithms which are used in this instrument are presented and discussed. The proposed method was tested by using a real case of Kittilä mine located in Finland. The result suggests that the proposed method can considerably improve the working efficiency and reduce the working time of the underground mine

  • 20.
    Sörman, Daniel Eriksson
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Marsh, John
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Longitudinal effects of bilingualism on dual-tasking2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 12, artikkel-id e0189299Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An ongoing debate surrounds whether bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tests of executive processing. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are long-term (10 year) bilingual advantages in executive processing, as indexed by dual-task performance, in a sample that were 40–65 years at baseline. The bilingual (n = 24) and monolingual (n = 24) participants were matched on age, sex, education, fluid intelligence, and study sample. Participants performed free-recall for a 12-item list in three dual-task settings wherein they sorted cards either during encoding, retrieval, or during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list. Free recall without card sorting was used as a reference to compute dual-task costs. The results showed that bilinguals significantly outperformed monolinguals when they performed card-sorting during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list, the condition that presumably placed the highest demands on executive functioning. However, dual-task costs increased over time for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, a finding that is possibly influenced by retirement age and limited use of second language in the bilingual group.

  • 21.
    Wiese, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, George Mason University, Fairfax, Department of General and Experimental Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilian-University.
    Wykowska, Agnieszka
    Department of General and Experimental Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Munich.
    Müller, Hermann J.
    Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Department of General and Experimental Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Munich.
    What we observe is biased by what other people tell us: Beliefs about the reliability of gaze behavior modulate attentional orienting to gaze cues2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 4, artikkel-id e94529Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For effective social interactions with other people, information about the physical environment must be integrated with information about the interaction partner. In order to achieve this, processing of social information is guided by two components: a bottom-up mechanism reflexively triggered by stimulus-related information in the social scene and a topdown mechanism activated by task-related context information. In the present study, we investigated whether these components interact during attentional orienting to gaze direction. In particular, we examined whether the spatial specificity of gaze cueing is modulated by expectations about the reliability of gaze behavior. Expectations were either induced by instruction or could be derived from experience with displayed gaze behavior. Spatially specific cueing effects were observed with highly predictive gaze cues, but also when participants merely believed that actually non-predictive cues were highly predictive. Conversely, cueing effects for the whole gazed-at hemifield were observed with non-predictive gaze cues, and spatially specific cueing effects were attenuated when actually predictive gaze cues were believed to be non-predictive. This pattern indicates that (i) information about cue predictivity gained from sampling gaze behavior across social episodes can be incorporated in the attentional orienting to social cues, and that (ii) beliefs about gaze behavior modulate attentional orienting to gaze direction even when they contradict information available from social episodes.

  • 22.
    Wiese, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, George Mason University, Fairfax, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München.
    Wykowska, Agnieszka
    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München.
    Zwickel, Jan
    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München.
    Müller, Hermann J.
    Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München.
    I See What You Mean: Attentional Selection Is Shaped by Ascribing Intentions to Others2012Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 9, artikkel-id e45391Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to understand and predict others' behavior is essential for successful interactions. When making predictions about what other humans will do, we treat them as intentional systems and adopt the intentional stance, i.e., refer to their mental states such as desires and intentions. In the present experiments, we investigated whether the mere belief that the observed agent is an intentional system influences basic social attention mechanisms. We presented pictures of a human and a robot face in a gaze cuing paradigm and manipulated the likelihood of adopting the intentional stance by instruction: in some conditions, participants were told that they were observing a human or a robot, in others, that they were observing a human-like mannequin or a robot whose eyes were controlled by a human. In conditions in which participants were made to believe they were observing human behavior (intentional stance likely) gaze cuing effects were significantly larger as compared to conditions when adopting the intentional stance was less likely. This effect was independent of whether a human or a robot face was presented. Therefore, we conclude that adopting the intentional stance when observing others' behavior fundamentally influences basic mechanisms of social attention. The present results provide striking evidence that high-level cognitive processes, such as beliefs, modulate bottom-up mechanisms of attentional selection in a top-down manner

  • 23.
    Wykowska, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität.
    Wiese, Eva
    Department of Psychology, George Mason University, Fairfax, Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität.
    Prosser, Aaron
    Neuro-Cognitive Psychology Master Program, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich.
    Müller, Hermann J.
    Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich.
    Beliefs about the minds of others influence how we process sensory information2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 4, artikkel-id e94339Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Attending where others gaze is one of the most fundamental mechanisms of social cognition. The present study is the first to examine the impact of the attribution of mind to others on gaze-guided attentional orienting and its ERP correlates. Using a paradigm in which attention was guided to a location by the gaze of a centrally presented face, we manipulated participants' beliefs about the gazer: gaze behavior was believed to result either from operations of a mind or from a machine. In Experiment 1, beliefs were manipulated by cue identity (human or robot), while in Experiment 2, cue identity (robot) remained identical across conditions and beliefs were manipulated solely via instruction, which was irrelevant to the task. ERP results and behavior showed that participants' attention was guided by gaze only when gaze was believed to be controlled by a human. Specifically, the P1 was more enhanced for validly, relative to invalidly, cued targets only when participants believed the gaze behavior was the result of a mind, rather than of a machine. This shows that sensory gain control can be influenced by higher-order (task-irrelevant) beliefs about the observed scene. We propose a new interdisciplinary model of social attention, which integrates ideas from cognitive and social neuroscience, as well as philosophy in order to provide a framework for understanding a crucial aspect of how humans' beliefs about the observed scene influence sensory processing

  • 24.
    Yu, Ji-Guo
    et al.
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine Unit and School of Sport Sciences, Umeå University.
    Bonnerud, Patrik
    Eriksson, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Stål, Per S.
    Department of Integrative Medical Biology, Section for Anatomy, Umeå University.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå University, Department of Integrative Medical Biology, Winternet.
    Effects of Long Term Supplementation of Anabolic Androgen Steroids on Human Skeletal Muscle2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 9, artikkel-id e105330Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of long-term (over several years) anabolic androgen steroids (AAS) administration on human skeletal muscle are still unclear. In this study, seventeen strength training athletes were recruited and individually interviewed regarding self-administration of banned substances. Ten subjects admitted having taken AAS or AAS derivatives for the past 5 to 15 years (Doped) and the dosage and type of banned substances were recorded. The remaining seven subjects testified to having never used any banned substances (Clean). For all subjects, maximal muscle strength and body composition were tested, and biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained. Using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry (IHC), muscle biopsies were evaluated for morphology including fiber type composition, fiber size, capillary variables and myonuclei. Compared with the Clean athletes, the Doped athletes had significantly higher lean leg mass, capillary per fibre and myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the Doped athletes had significantly lower absolute value in maximal squat force and relative values in maximal squat force (relative to lean body mass, to lean leg mass and to muscle fiber area). Using multivariate statistics, an orthogonal projection of latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model was established, in which the maximal squat force relative to muscle mass and the maximal squat force relative to fiber area, together with capillary density and nuclei density were the most important variables for separating Doped from the Clean athletes (regression = 0.93 and prediction = 0.92, p<0.0001). In Doped athletes, AAS dose-dependent increases were observed in lean body mass, muscle fiber area, capillary density and myonuclei density. In conclusion, long term AAS supplementation led to increases in lean leg mass, muscle fiber size and a parallel improvement in muscle strength, and all were dose-dependent. Administration of AAS may induce sustained morphological changes in human skeletal muscle, leading to physical performance enhancement.

  • 25.
    Zhu, Zhaolong
    et al.
    College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
    Buck, Dietrich
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Guo, Xiaolei
    College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Pingxiang, Cao
    College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
    Wu, Zhenzeng
    Department of Material Engineering, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fujian, China.
    Machinability investigation in turning of high density fiberboard2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 9, s. 1-13, artikkel-id e0203838Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of experiments were conducted to assess the machinability of high density fiberboardusing cemented carbide cutting tools. The objective of this work was to investigate theinfluence of two cutting parameters, spindle speed and feed per turn, on cutting forces, chipformation and cutting quality. The results are as follows: cutting forces and chip-breakinglength decrease with increasing spindle speed and decreasing feed per turn. In contrast,surface roughness increases with decrease of spindle speed and increase in feed perturn. Chips were divided into four categories based on their shape: dust, particle, splinter,and semicontinuous chips. Chip-breaking length had a similar tendency to the varianceof cutting forces with respect to average roughness and mean peak-to-valley height: anincrease in the variance of cutting forces resulted in increased average roughness andmean peak-to-valley height. Thus, high cutting speed and low feed rate are parameters suitablefor high-quality HDF processing and will improve not only machining quality, but productionefficiency.

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