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  • 1.
    Acosta, April Anne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Behaviour of the Cold-formedTrapezoidal Sheet Overlap Jointin a Gerber Lapped Connection2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 2.
    Al-Gburi, Majid
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand. College of engineering, University of Mosul, Iraq.
    Jonasson, Jan-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Prediction of Restraint in Second Cast Sections of Concrete Culverts using Artificial Neural Networks2018Inngår i: European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, ISSN 1964-8189, E-ISSN 2116-7214, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 226-245Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimation of restraint is very important for accurately predicting the risk of early thermal and shrinkage cracking in concrete structures. The stress in young concrete is affected by changes in its dimensions during hydration and the restraint imposed by adjoining structures. In concrete culverts, the restraints from existing structures acting upon the first and second casting sections to be cast are different, causing them to exhibit different early cracking behaviour. This work presents a new method for predicting restraint in complex concrete structures using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Finite element calculations were performed to predict restraint in 108 slabs, 324 walls and 972 roofs from second sections of concrete culverts, and the results obtained were used to train and validate ANN models. The ANN models were then used to study the effects of varying selected parameters (the thickness and width of the roof and slab, the thickness and height of the walls, and the length of the culvert section) on the predicted restraint. Mathematical expressions for predicting restraint values in slabs, walls and roofs were derived based on the ANN models’ output and implemented in an Excel spreadsheet that provides a simple way of predicting restraint in practical applications. Restraint values predicted in this way agree well with the results of finite-element calculations

  • 3.
    Al-Gburi, Majid
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Jonasson, Jan-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Reduction of Early Age Crack Risks in Concrete Walls by Using a New Casting Technique2016Inngår i: Structural Engineering International, ISSN 1016-8664, E-ISSN 1683-0350, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 216-224Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Volumetric changes in early age concrete that are restrained might lead to cracks. The degree of restraint is influenced by the casting sequence and the dimensions of the castings. In the current study a new casting technique is proposed to reduce restraint in the newly cast concrete with a new arrangement of the structural joint to the existing old concrete. The proposed technique is valid for the typical structure wall-on-slab using one structural joint. This casting method means that lower part of the wall is cast together with the slab, and that part is called a kicker. Hereby, the behavior of the structure changes from a typical case wall-on-slab to a typical case wall-on-wall. It has been proven by the beam theory and demonstrated by numerical calculations that there is a clear reduction in the restraint from the slab to the wall using kickers. In the paper different kicker heights are studied with the aim of determining the minimum restraint in the upper part of the wall cast in contact with the kicker. The technique using kickers is compared with common measures used in the field to avoid cracking, such as cooling pipes in the new casting and/or heating cables in the adjoining old concrete. The presented method is both cost and time effective, as it opens the possibility to use larger structural length of each casting sequence.

  • 4.
    Alniemi, Jamal
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Jämförande studie av lastnedräkningar för hand och med FEM-program2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 5.
    Andersson, Isac
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Ek, Niklas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Temperature distribution and charring penetrations in timber assemblies exposed to parametric fire curves: Comparisons between tests and TASEF predictions2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Four furnace tests have been performed using two different parametric fire curves and the results are compared with computer simulations and Eurocode calculations. What differentiates the parametric fire curve from other fire curves is in particular the cooling phase, something that has proven to be hard to model for timber structures.

    A literature study and computer simulations were followed by experimental work performed at SP Wood Building Technology in Stockholm. The computer simulations were performed using the computer code TASEF. The predictions from TASEF were compared with measurements from the fire tests to evaluate how well the program can predict temperature distribution using a parametric fire curve.

    The four fire tests were executed at SP Wood Building Technology, glued laminated timber beams were used in all tests. When preparing the test specimens thermocouples were installed to measure temperature distribution, the thermocouples were installed in drilled holes. A deviation study regarding these drill-holes was performed as a part of the preparations. The temperature distributions measured during the tests were compared with the temperature distribution predicted by TASEF.

    Charring rate and charring depth were obtained from the fire tests, from the TASEF simulations but also by using equations given in the Eurocode. Since TASEF simulates temperature distribution and not charring depth, the 300 °C isotherm was assumed to represent the charring depth. The results from all three methods were compared and evaluated.

    The agreement between experiments and TASEF predictions regarding temperature distribution and charring depth were in general very good. Parametric fire curves with opening factors of 0.02 m1/2 and 0.04 m1/2 were used in four fire tests. TASEF performed more accurate predictions regarding the temperature distribution for the small opening factor but looking at the charring depth the predictions were better for the bigger opening factor. It is recommended to perform further studies and find out the reason for this behaviour.

    Comparing the charring depths measured at the tests with values calculated using Eurocode 5 there were some differences in charring depths. Charring depths for the horizontal direction of the beams were much alike, but when comparing the charring depths for the vertical direction there is a significant difference. The equations regarding charring depth for wood exposed to parametric fire curves in Eurocode 5 underestimate the charring depth. It is recommended to evaluate these equations further.

    For one of the timber beams delamination occurred, this has previously been assumed not to occur to glued laminated beams. More studies should be performed regarding delamination of glued laminated beams exposed to fire.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Lucas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Shadow effects in open cross-sections: An analysis of steel temperatures with COMSOL Multiphysics, TASEF and Eurocode2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Steel is a material commonly used in various constructions such as high-rise buildings, sport arenas, ships etc. Steel is a versatile building material due to its isotropic characteristics, e.g. both high tensile- and compressive strength. This allows steel to be formed into open section profiles which reduces material usage but simultaneously allows the tensile- and compressive stress resistance to be high in directions were loads are applied. Although steel has a high stress resistance its sensitivity to fire is larger than other building materials due to its high thermal conductivity. The strength of the material is reduced at higher temperatures and thereby makes the dimensioning of beams in fire cases vital in fire safety design of structural elements.

    An aspect to consider when dimensioning open section building elements in steel is the shadow effect. The shadow effect is the result of the open cross-section geometrical shape of beams and columns, e.g. H-profiles. The interior of the profile is screened from thermal radiation caused by fire which makes the characteristics of the thermal exposure different from closed cross-section profiles. A common way to estimate the temperatures of steel after a certain time of fire exposure is to use numerical calculations described in Eurocode. In these calculations the shadow effect is applied as a reduction of the total heat exchange, i.e. both convection and thermal radiation, from the fire exposure.

    A more realistic approach is to separate these boundary conditions and treat them as independent quantities. Wickström (2001) argues that a void is created within the flanges and that reduction factor thereby only should be applied to the radiative part of the total heat exchange, acting as a reduction of surface emissivity within the profile. This, since the convection is not affected by the shadow effect. Wickströms (2001) suggestion of application has been investigated in this thesis and has showed a better correlation than the approach suggested in Eurocode when compared to experimental tests.

    Shadow effects calculated on the premises of separated boundary conditions for the total heat exchange has of yet only been investigated in detail with TASEF+-simulations, but these simulations predicts steel temperatures with satisfactory results. It is possible to reproduce a similar setup in the program COMSOL Multiphysics in two-dimensional simulations, and further three-dimensional simulations. This possibility has been investigated in this thesis.

    COMSOL Multiphysics has proven to be an adequate tool when it comes to simulate fire exposure on slender steel beam with shadow effects considered. Both three- and two-dimensional models produced simulation results correlating well to simulations conducted in TASEF. Additionally, adequate correlations with experimental tests were obtained for COMSOL Multiphysics as well. Further work regarding fire simulations with the utilisation of COMSOL Multiphysics is thereby suggested.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Lucas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Thermal Exposure Caused by the Smoke Gas Layer in Pre-flashover Fires: A Two-zone Model Approach2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A pre-flashover fire is very different from a post-flashover fire. The main difference is that in a pre-flashover fire the gas temperature and the radiation temperature differ. One thing that makes it a lot different is that the thermal exposure induced by a pre-flashover fire is largely affected by the smoke gas layer. These smoke gases can be very hot and therefore they emit heat radiation to their surroundings. The theory used, to calculate the thermal exposure of a pre-flashover fire, in this thesis relies on using thermal resistances to describe the heat transfer from the smoke gases. By doing so it is possible to calculate the temperatures of the smoke gases and the surfaces in touch with the smoke gases. Another approach is to use CFD software to numerically calculate the temperatures and in this thesis the two-zone model are compared to FDS, a CFD software. The two-zone model are also compared to a reduced-scale test. The comparisons gave good results, the two-zone model produced similar results compared to re reduced-scale test and FDS. This method of calculating thermal exposure can thereby be used to evaluate evacuation safety and save a lot of calculation time compared to calculating the thermal exposure with CFD software such as FDS.

  • 8.
    Andrade, Pedro
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Structural Assessment and Optimization of the Modular System of a Student Residential Building in Luleå and Coimbra: Affordable Houses Project2010Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays there is a main concern that should always be present in our minds; it is important to integrate and reconcile the economic, social and environmental aspects within a holistic and balanced sustainable development framework.Therefore, the construction sector has been facing a profound change in the materials used, new processes and approaches. According to this new aim, a new concept of structures had been born; the Affordable Houses.A concept is more often seen as an abstract idea of something, being it materialization always faced as a challenge. Therefore the challenge of this thesis is to create a system that could be able to erect, literally, a structure and, simultaneously, create conditions for the construction of a building, through the appliance of the concept of Modular Houses and Top Down Construction.For the implementation of these new concepts two case studies were created for the construction of a student residential building in Coimbra and Luleå. These case studies are integrated in different environments and socio-economic conditions, which will allow the assessment of this study to a more global application.This study was developed within the scope of a partnership between the University of Coimbra and Luleå University of Technology and was supervised by Professor Luís Simões da Silva (UC) and Professor Milan Veljkovic( LTU).

  • 9.
    Andrade, Pedro
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Lagerqvist, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Simões, Rui
    University of Coimbra, Department of Civil Engineering, Coimbra.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    Delft University of Technology, Department of Structural Engineering.
    Structural assessment of a column splice with opened slotted holes: Finger Connection2017Inngår i: ce/papers, E-ISSN 2509-7075, Vol. 1, nr 2-3, s. 514-521Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a novel joint based on a friction connection designed for column-splices. The jointwas developed within the scope of modular construction to improve the fast assembly of prefabricatedframes and to accommodate eventual misalignments. Gaps at the connection are considered on the jointhorizontal and vertical axis to accommodate misalignments whether they are rotations and/ordisplacements and so to allow for the easy fit of the columns. The efficiency of the joint resistance basedon different connection gaps subjected to uniform compression is assessed.

  • 10.
    Andrade, Pedro
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Lagerqvist, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    Delft University of Technology.
    Simoes, Rui
    University of Coimbra.
    Lundholm, John
    Part Construction AB.
    Innovative system for the construction and management of student resisdences: Frameup system2016Inngår i: IABSE CONGRESS, STOCKHOLM, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovativeand Sustainable Built Environment / [ed] Lennart Elfgren, Johan Jonsson, Mats Karlsson, Lahja Rydberg-Forssbeck and Britt Sigfrid, CH - 8093 Zürich, Switzerland: International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2016, s. 1364-1370Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has a strong demand on the construction of student accommodations and consequently significant efforts have been taken to increase and streamline construction methods. In addition, the fluctuation on the number of students admitted at each year, in each university, lead to periods of house shortage or, in opposition to that, to eventual surplus on the housing market. For these reasons urges finding a fast execution process in construction to fulfil the market needs, together with a housing mechanism of control which balances the students’ needs with the housing availability. In this sense, the Frameup system arises as a solution to solve both problems by combining a modular construction with an innovative execution process.

    The FRAMEUP buildings uses a steel frame in combination with prefabricated 3D modules - fully equipped and suitable for student accommodations – which are assembled by starting from the roof to the 1st floor. The existence of the lifting system permits the erection of the building, promoting each time the building is lifted, a clearance of one-floor-height, at ground level, for the assembly of a new floor. The procedure is repeated several times, according to the number of floors, until the 1st floor of the building, the last floor of the execution sequence, is assembled.

    Alongside with its advantage on the fast execution, the Frameup system allows to efficiently increase or decrease the number of the floors and consequently its exchangeability with other buildings of same nature. Thus, assuming a net of FRAMEUP buildings at each university, its exchangeability system would create the necessary conditions so that the number of floors at each campus would follow the fluctuations of the students’ population among the different universities on different periods of time, so to suppress the needs for housing or to avoid the surplus on construction.

  • 11.
    Andrade, Pedro
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Project: FRAMEUP - Optimization of frames for effective assembling2014Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 12. Arason, Magnús
    et al.
    Collin, Peter
    Hällmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Strengthening of steel girder bridges using coiled pins2019Inngår i: Proceedings from the 2019 IABSE Congress New York City: The Evolving Metropolis, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A requirement for heavier vehicular transport on the Norwegian road network has resulted in a demand forincreased bearing capacity for many of the older bridges in the country. Many of the bridges that have beenfound to have insufficient capacity against present-day demands are steel girder bridges with concrete slabswithout a shear connection between steel and concrete. There is a large number of bridges of this type inNorway and the paper presents strengthening of two of those, in Aust-Agder county in the south of thecountry. These bridges are approximately 30 m long, single span. The bearing capacity has been upgraded byinstalling composite action between the steel girders and the concrete slab using coiled pins, in conjunctionwith thickening of the bottom flange of the steel girders. To obtain composite action, the pins are fitted totightly drilled holes through the top flange of girders up into the concrete slab. Coiled pins have not been usedmuch for bridge applications. In the work presented, the method has been found to have advantages in termsof cost and workability. Furthermore, the method has benefits when viewed from an environmentalstandpoint, since it allows strengthening

  • 13.
    Axelsson, Kennet B. E.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Luleå, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå University of Technology.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Grennberg, Torsten
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Horrigmoe, Geir
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Institutionen för Anläggningsteknik. Verksamhetsberättelse 1987/881988Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 14.
    Axelsson, Kennet B. E.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Luleå, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå University of Technology.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Grennberg, Torsten
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Horrigmoe, Geir
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Institutionen för Anläggningsteknik, Verksamhetsberättelse 1988/891989Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 15.
    Axelsson, Kennet B. E.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Luleå, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå University of Technology.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Grennberg, Torsten
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Horrigmoe, Geir
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Institutionen för Anläggningsteknik. Verksamhetsberättelse 1989/901990Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 16.
    Axelsson, Kennet B. E.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Luleå, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå University of Technology.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Grennberg, Torsten
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Horrigmoe, Geir
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Institutionen för Anläggningsteknik. Verksamhetsberättelse 1990/911991Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 17.
    Bagge, Niklas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Structural assessment procedures for existing concrete bridges: Experiences from failure tests of the Kiruna Bridge2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing existing bridges is an important task in the sustainable management ofinfrastructure. In practice, structural bridge assessments are usually conducted usingtraditional and standardised methods, despite knowledge that these methods oftenprovide conservative estimates. In addition, more advanced methods are available, suchas nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis, that are used for research purposes and cansimulate the structural behaviour of bridges more accurately. Therefore, it would beuseful to develop practical and reliable procedures for refined assessments using theseadvanced techniques.Focusing on the ultimate load-carrying capacity of existing concrete bridges, this thesispresents a procedure for structural assessments. The fundamental idea is to improve theassessment successively, as necessary to predict bridges’ structural behaviour adequately.The procedure involves a multi-level assessment strategy with four levels of structuralanalysis, and an integrated framework for safety verification. At the initial level (Level 1)of the multi-level strategy, traditional standardised methods are used, no failures arecovered implicitly in the structural analysis and action effects are verified using localresistances calculated using analytical models. In the subsequent enhanced levels (Levels2 – 4), nonlinear FE analysis is used for stepwise integration of the verification of flexural,shear-related and anchorage failures into the structural analysis. The framework for safetyverifications includes partial safety factor (PSF), global resistance safety factor (GRSF) andfull probabilistic methods. Within each of these groups, verifications of desired safetymargins can be conducted with varying degrees of complexity.To demonstrate and evaluate the proposed structural assessment procedure, comparativestudies have been carried out, based on full-scale tests of a prestressed concrete bridge.This was the Kiruna Bridge, located in the northernmost city in Sweden, which was duefor demolition as part of a city transformation project, necessitated by large grounddeformations caused by the large nearby mine. Thus, it was available for destructiveexperimental investigation within the doctoral project presented in this thesis. The bridgehad five continuous spans, was 121.5 m long and consisted of three parallel girders with a connecting slab at the top. Both the girders and slab were tested to failure to investigatetheir structural behaviour and load-carrying capacity. Non-destructive and destructivetests were also applied to determine the residual prestress forces in the bridge girders andinvestigate the in situ applicability of methods developed for this purpose. The so-calledsaw-cut method and decompression-load method were used after refinement to enabletheir application to structures of such complexity. The variation of the experimentallydetermined residual prestress forces was remarkably high, depending on the sectioninvestigated. There were also high degrees of uncertainty in estimated values, and thusare only regarded as indications of the residual prestress force.Level 1 analysis of the multi-level assessment strategy consistently underestimatedcapacity, relative to the test results, and did not provide accurate predictions of the shearrelatedfailure observed in the test. With linear FE analysis and local resistance modelsdefined by the European standard, Eurocode 2, the load-carrying capacity wasunderestimated by 32 % for the bridge girder and 55 % for the bridge deck slab. At theenhanced level of structural analysis (Level 3), nonlinear FE analyses predicted thecapacities with less than 2 % deviation from the test results and correctly predicted thefailure mode. However, for existing bridges there are many uncertainties, for instance,the FE simulations were sensitive to the level of residual prestressing, boundaryconditions and assumed material parameters. To accurately take these aspects intoaccount, bridge-specific information is crucial.The complete structural assessment procedure, combining the multi-level strategy andsafety verification framework, was evaluated in a case study. Experiences from theprevious comparative studies were used in an assessment of the Kiruna Bridge followingthe Swedish assessment code. The initial assessment at Level 1 of the multi-level strategyand safety verification, using the PSF method, indicated that the shear capacity of one ofthe girders was critical. The most adverse load case (a combination of permanent loads,prestressing and variable traffic loads) was further investigated through enhancedstructural analyses implicitly accounting for flexural and shear-related failures (Level 3).Nonlinear FE analysis and safety evaluation using the PSF method, several variants of theGRSF method and the full probabilistic analysis for resistance indicated that the permittedaxle load for the critical classification vehicle could be 5.6 – 6.5 times higher than thelimit obtained from the initial assessment at Level 1. However, the study also indicatedthat the model uncertainty was not fully considered in these values. The modeluncertainty was shown to have strong effects on the safety verification and (thus)permissible axle loads. The case study also highlighted the need for a strategy forsuccessively improving structural analysis to improve understanding of bridges’ structuralbehaviour. The refined analysis indicated a complex failure mode, with yielding of thestirrups in the bridge girders and transverse flexural reinforcement in the bridge deck slab,but with a final shear failure of the slab. It would be impossible to capture suchcomplexity in a traditional standardised assessment, which (as mentioned) indicated thatthe shear capacity of the girder limited permissible axle loads. However, nonlinear FEanalyses are computationally demanding, and numerous modelling choices are required.Besides a strategy for rationally improving the analysis and helping analysts to focus oncritical aspects, detailed guidelines for nonlinear FE analysis should be applied to reduce the analyst-dependent variability of results and (thus) the model uncertainty. Clearly, toensure the validity of bridge assessment methods under in situ conditions, theirevaluations should include in situ tests. This thesis presents outcomes of such tests, therebyhighlighting important aspects for future improvements in the assessment of existingbridges.

  • 18.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Structural performance and failure loading of a 55 year-old prestressed concrete bridge2016Inngår i: Maintenance, Moniring, Safety, Risk and Resilience of Bridges and Bridge Networks / [ed] Tulio N. Bittencourt; Dan M. Frangopol; André T. Beck, London: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, , 2016, s. 2225-2232Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tests have been performed at service- and ultimate load levels of a 55 year-old 121.5 m long prestressed concrete bridge. The purpose was to acquire data for enhanced assessment and calibration of such methods. At service-load several truck overpasses and the dynamic response were particularly studied. Some conclusions were: (a) less stiff load-deflection behavior was obtained with a finite element (FE) analysis compared to measurements and (b) good agreement was obtained for predicted and tested dynamic characteristics. The focus in the destructive tests was on the overall bridge behavior and the ultimate load-carrying capacity of the bridge’s girders and slab. The results were: (a) combined flexure-shear failure of girders occurred after reinforcement yielding for a load indicating an appreciable safety margin in relation to code predictions and (b) good agreement was obtained between FE analysis and the ultimate response and capacity of the tested bridge

  • 19.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Sundquist, Håkan
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Carolin, Anders
    Trafikverket, Luleå.
    Assessment and failure test of a prestressed concrete bridge2017Inngår i: Life-Cycle of Engineering Systems: Emphasis on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure / [ed] Jaap Bakker; Dan M Frangopol; Klaas van Breugel, Leiden: CRC Press/Balkema , 2017, s. 1058-1063Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tests have been carried out at service- and ultimate load levels of a 55 year-old prestressed concrete girder bridge. The bridge, located in Kiruna, Sweden, was continuous in five spans with a total length of 121.5 m. The overall aim of the study was to determinate the accuracy of assessment methods for existing structures and to provide procedures for optimized assessment. Before the tests a 2D finite element (FE) analysis was performed to predict the behavior and load-carrying capacity of the bridge. In order to more accurately assess the bridge response a 3D FE model has now been developed. The actual loading history and material properties has been considered in the model. A Life Cycle Cost Assessment of the bridge has also been performed

  • 20.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Evaluation of residual prestress force in a concrete girder bridge2016Inngår i: IABSE CONGRESS, STOCKHOLM, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovativeand Sustainable Built Environment / [ed] Lennart Elfgren, Johan Jonsson, Mats Karlsson, Lahja Rydberg-Forssbeck and Britt Sigfrid, CH - 8093 Zürich, Switzerland, 2016, s. 222-229Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When assessing the structural behaviour of prestressed concrete bridges, understanding the level of prestressing is crucial. However, for existing structures, this is usually an unknown parameter and the literature only describes a few methods of experimentally determining the residual prestress forces. For this paper, a non-destructive testing approach has been evaluated based on testing of a multi-span continuous girder bridge. The method, consisting of in-situ measurements in combination with finite element (FE) simulations, revealed prestress levels in the range 25 % to 82 % of the reinforcement steel yield strength, depending on the section tested. A comparison with theoretically calculated residual prestress forces, taking into account friction and timedependent losses, indicated values of the same order but with some inconsistencies.

  • 21.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Nilimaa, jonny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    In-situ methods to determine residual prestress forces in concrete bridges2017Inngår i: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 135, s. 41-52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of residual prestress forces are key parameters when assessing the structural behaviour of existing prestressed concrete bridges. However, these parameters are often unknown and not easy to determine. To explore them, two existing non-destructive and destructive approaches have been further developed for practical application and demonstrated on a multi-span continuous girder bridge. The evaluation of the prestress forces was part of an extensive experimental programme aimed to calibrate and develop assessment methods. Due to the pursuit of practical applications for existing bridges, the main focus was on non-destructive methodology, combining experimental data and finite element modelling to obtain the residual prestress forces. Assuming that the initial prestress force corresponded to 85% of the characteristic 0.2% proof strength of the reinforcing steel, estimated losses in investigated sections ranged between 5 and 70%. However, determined residual prestress forces were generally higher than theoretically based estimates accounting for friction and time-dependent losses in the prestressing system. In addition to describing in detail the methods for prestress evaluation, this paper presents suggestions for improvements and further studies, based on experiences from the field tests.

  • 22.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Puurula, Arto
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Carolin, Anders
    Trafikverket, Luleå.
    Full-Scale Tests to Failure Compared to Assessments: Three Concrete Bridges2017Inngår i: High Tech Concrete: Where Technology and Engineering Meet - Proceedings of the 2017 fib Symposium / [ed] Lukovic M.,Hordijk D.A., Cham: Springer, 2017, s. 1917-1924Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Three Swedish concrete bridges have been tested to failure and the results have been compared to assessment using standard code models and advanced numerical methods.

    The three tested and assessed bridges were:

    1. (1)

      Lautajokk, a 29 year old one span (7 m) concrete trough bridge tested in fatigue to check the concrete shear capacity.

       
    2. (2)

      Ӧrnskldsvik, a 50 year old two span trough bridge (12 + 12 m) strengthened to avoid a bending failure.

       
    3. (3)

      Kiruna Mine Bridge, a 55 year old five span prestressed concrete road bridge (18 + 21 + 23 + 24 + 20 m) tested in shear and bending of the beams and punching of the slab.

       

    The main results in the paper are the experiences of the real failure types, the robustness/weakness of the bridges, and the accuracy of different codes and models. In all three cases the bridges had a considerable hidden capacity.

  • 23.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand. WSP, Luleå, Sweden.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand. Norut Teknik, Norut, Norge.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Bernspång, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Carolin, Anders
    Trafikverket, Luleå.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Assessment of concrete bridges - Structural capacity: Experiences from full-scale testing to failure of a bridge in Kiruna2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 23rd Nordic Concrete Research Symposium, Oslo, Norway: Nordic Concrete Federation, Oslo: Nordic Concrete Federation , 2017, s. 263-266Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To calibrate methods for condition assessment of prestressed concrete (PC) bridges, tests were carried out on a 55 year old five-span bridge with a length of 121 m in Kiruna in northern Sweden. Both non-destructive and destructive full-scale tests were performed. This paper presents results regarding methods for assessment of the structural capacity of concrete bridges.

  • 24.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand. WSP, Luleå, Sweden.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand. Norut Teknik, Norut, Norge.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Carolin, Anders
    Trafikverket, Luleå.
    Paulsson, Björn
    Trafikverket; UIC, Paris, France; Charmec, Chalmers tekn högskola.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Assessment of concrete bridges - Prestress forces: Experiences from full-scale testing to failure of a bridge in Kiruna2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 23rd Nordic Concrete Research Symposium, Oslo, Norway: Nordic Concrete Federation, Oslo: Nordic Concrete Federation , 2017, s. 267-270Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To calibrate methods for condition assessment of prestressed concrete (PC) bridges, tests were carried out on a 55 year old five-span bridge with a length of 121 m in Kiruna in northern Sweden. Both non-destructive and destructive full-scale tests were performed. This paper presents results regarding the residual forces in the prestressed reinforcement.

  • 25.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand. Department of Bridge & Hydraulic Design, WSP Sverige AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Plos, M.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Popescu, Cosmin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand. Norut Northern Research Institute, Narvik, Norway.
    A multi-level strategy for successively improved structural analysis of existing concrete bridges: examination using a prestressed concrete bridge tested to failure2019Inngår i: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 27-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a multi-level strategy with increased complexity through four levels of structural analysis of concrete bridges. The concept was developed to provide a procedure that supports enhanced assessments with better understanding of the structure and more precise predictions of the load-carrying capacity. In order to demonstrate and examine the multi-level strategy, a continuous multi-span prestressed concrete girder bridge, tested until shear failure, was investigated. Calculations of the load-carrying capacity at the initial level of the multi-level strategy consistently resulted in underestimated capacities, with the predicted load ranging from 25% to 78% of the tested failure load, depending on the local resistance model applied. The initial assessment was also associated with issues of localising the shear failure accurately and, consequently, refined structural analysis at an enhanced level was recommended. Enhanced assessment using nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis precisely reproduced the behaviour observed in the experimental test, capturing the actual failure mechanism and the load-carrying capacity with less than 4% deviation to the test. Thus, the enhanced level of assessment, using the proposed multi-level strategy, can be considered to be accurate, but the study also shows the importance of using guidelines for nonlinear FE analysis and bridge-specific information. 

  • 26.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Popescu, Cosmin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Failure tests on concrete bridges: Have we learnt the lessons?2018Inngår i: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 292-319Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Full-scale failure tests of bridges are important for improving understanding of bridges’ behaviour and refining assessment methods. However, such experiments are challenging, often expensive, and thus rare. This paper provides a review of failure tests on concrete bridges, focusing on lessons from them. In total, 40 tests to failure of 30 bridges have been identified. These include various types of bridges, with reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete superstructures, composed of slabs, girders and combinations thereof. Generally, the tests indicated that theoretical calculations of the load-carrying capacity based on methods traditionally used for design and assessment provide conservative estimates. It can also be concluded that almost a third of the experiments resulted in unexpected types of failures, mainly shear instead of flexure. In addition, differences between theoretical and tested capacities are often apparently due to inaccurate representation of geometry, boundary conditions and materials

  • 27.
    Bernander, Stig
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Dury, Robin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Progressive Landslide Analysis in Canadian Glacial Silty Clay in Churchill River2017Inngår i: / [ed] Vikas Thakur, Jean-Sébastien L’Heureux, Ariane Locat, 2017, s. 1-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The poster presents the risks for a progressive landslide in a natural dam. The stability will be critical when the water level is raised after the building of a hydro power plant, Bernander (2016), Dury (2017). The analysis is based on a finite difference method developed by Stig Bernander (2011), Bernander et al.(2016)

     

    The following issues will be discussed:  

    - Material properties

    - Risk for liquefaction

    - Three possible failure surfaces: one horizontal, one inclined and one curved

    - Failure riska for different material propeties

    - The need to check the real properties of the soil

  • 28.
    Bernander, Stig
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Dam Bank Stability in loosely layered silty sands and lean silty sandy clays: Comments on the risk of failure in the North Spur at Muskrat Falls in the Churchill River Valley, Labrador, Newfoundland2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The differences in landslide analysis between the classic limit equilibrium method (LEM) and a progressive failure procedure is outlined. In LEM the soils are presumed to be fully plastic, whereas in the progressive failure approach the joint effect of strain-softening material properties and deformations in the soil mass are considered.

    The risk of failure in the North Spur ridge due to the dam impoundment at Muskrat Falls in the Churchill River Valley (Labrador/Newfoundland) is investigated. An important issue in this context is e.g. that sloping failure surfaces near the cut-off wall (COW) are bound to be much more critical than the horizontal failure planes, which have hitherto been considered according to Nalcor/SNC-Lavalin Engineering Reports.

    Results from progressive failure analyses have now been obtained, applying plausible deformation-softening material properties to the soils in the ridge. These results, which are presented at the end of this report, render unsatisfactory safety factors – i.e. lower than 0.5, thus indicating potential risks of failure when the water surface is raised to the proposed levels.

    Three reports and a summing up are appended, where Dr Bernander strongly emphasizes the need of stability evaluations based on proper progressive failure analysis – i.e. using soil properties based on tests that are not carried out under fully drained conditions.

    Measures to reducing the detrimental effects of high in-situ porosity are also proposed.

  • 29.
    Bernander, Stig
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Riverbank stability in loose layered silty clays: Comments on the North Spur Dam at Muskrat Falls in Churchill River, Labrador, Newfoundland2017Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The differences are outlined in landslide analysis between the classic limit equilibrium method with assumed plastic properties of the soil and a progressive analysis applying softening material properties.

    The risk for failure is studied in the dam at the North Spur riverbank ridge at Muskrat Falls in Churchill River in Labrador, Newfoundland, Canada. A sloping failure surface is much more critical than the horizontal surfaces which have hitherto been studied. Results from new analyses have now been obtained applying softening material properties probable for the ridge. The results indicate safety factors lower than 0.5, i.e. there is a high risk that the ridge will fail if the water level is raised to the proposed level.

    Three reports are appended where Stig Bernander argues in detail for the need for a proper progressive failure analysis based on measured material properties. He also proposes how such properties may be obtained and gives an example of a way to stabilize the ridge if the soil properties show a softening behaviour. Finally examples of progressive failure analyses are included using probable material properties.

  • 30.
    Bernander, Stig
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Kullingsjö, Anders
    Skanska Teknik, Göteborg, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Gylland, Anders K
    Multiconsult, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Bengtsson, Per-Evert
    Statens Geotekniska Institut, Linköping, PEB Geoteknik.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Olofsson, Jan
    Skanska Sverige AB, Skanska Teknik, Göteborg.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Downhill Progressive Landslides in Long Natural Slopes: Triggering Agents and Landslide Phases modeled with a Finite Difference Method2016Inngår i: Canadian geotechnical journal (Print), ISSN 0008-3674, E-ISSN 1208-6010, Vol. 53, nr 10, s. 1565-1582Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A large landslide in Tuve (Gothenburg, Sweden 1977) initiated the development of a model for slope stability analysis taking the deformation-softening of soft sensitive clays into consideration. The model studies triggering agents and five phases in progressive slope failure are identified: (1) in-situ, (2) disturbance, (3) unstable ‘dynamic’, (4) transitory (or permanent) equilibrium, and (5) ‘global’ failure. The clay resistance in these phases may differ widely; mostly due to different rates of loading. Two time dependent failure criteria are defined: (i) the triggering load condition in the disturbance Phase (2), and (ii) the transitory equilibrium in Phase (4), indicating whether minor downhill displacements or a veritable landslide catastrophe will occur. The analysis explains why downhill landslides tend to spread over vast areas of almost horizontal ground further down-slope. The model has been applied to landslides in Scandinavia and Canada. Three case studies are briefly discussed. The model is a finite difference approach, where local downhill deformations caused by normal forces is maintained compatible with deviatory shear deformations above the potential (or the established) failure surface. Software and an easy-to-use spreadsheet are introduced as well as recent developments. See also Video Abstract.

  • 31.
    Bhattacharjee, Shimantika
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Schade, Jutta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Performance evaluation of a passive house in sub-arctic climate2018Inngår i: 9th International Cold Climate Conference, Kiruna, Sweden. March 12-15, 2018: Sustainable New and Renovated Buildings in Cold Climate, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As the operational energy use in buildings contributes highly to the total energy used and greenhouse gases emitted in the cold climate regions of Europe, buildings which are more energy-efficient and less carbon-intensive during operation are key to meet sustainability objectives in these regions. Yet, research shows that the practice of passive or low-energy buildings in the sub-arctic climate of northern Sweden is comparatively less than in the southern region. Moreover, previous studies did not explicitly examine the performance of low energy buildings in sub-arctic climate in relation to established building energy efficiency standards. Consequently, knowledge regarding the energy performance of low-energy buildings in such climate is limited. Therefore, the aim is to evaluate the performance, in terms of indoor temperature and energy use for heating, domestic hot water and electricity of a new-built passive house titled “Sjunde Huset” in the sub-arctic town of Kiruna. It is Sweden’s northernmost house designed to fulfil the Swedish passive-house criteria of a maximum heat loss factor of 17 W/m2 and a maximum annual energy use of 63 kWh/m2. The implemented passive design strategies include a highly insulated, compact and airtight building envelope with a vestibule, mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and renewable energy production through photovoltaic solar cells. The house is connected to district heating and is equipped with energy-efficient appliances to allow low occupant energy use. Ongoing performance evaluation is based on building simulation and measurements of energy and temperature in different zones of the building. Energy performance deviations between occupied and non-occupied zones are explored through internal heat gain evaluations. The indoor temperature is also evaluated to assess the temperature variations throughout the year. The ongoing research further evaluate a comparative simulated and measured energy analysis of heating, hot water and electricity based on both the international passive house standard and the Swedish passive house criteria “Feby 12”.

  • 32.
    Bjälke, Victor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Structural mechanics and resistance of concrete structures in the event of a hydrogen explosion in nuclear powerplants2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the problem of hydrogen explosions in nuclear power plants, and evaluates if the reactor hall is to be seen as a safety barrier for such events. Today, the reactor hall is not seen as a safety barrier that is able to withstand an internal explosion. In the analysis Abaqus was used for the FEM calculations, where a main scenario of a wall subjected to a hydrogen explosion was used.

    In conclusion, the results showed that a reactor hall with the assumed dimensions cannot be seen as a safety barrier, since the deformation after a hydrogen explosion near the LEL was too great.

    However, it is also concluded that with increased wall and rebar dimensions it is possible to construct a wall of this kind that fulfills the requirements of a safety barrier.

  • 33.
    Blandine, Feneuil
    et al.
    Aalto University, Concrete Technology Laboratory, Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto University.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Cwircen, Andrzej
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Erratum to: Contribution of CNTs/CNFs morphology to reduction of autogenous shrinkage of Portland cement paste2017Inngår i: Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, ISSN 2095-2430, E-ISSN 2095-2449, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 255-255Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 34.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Mätprogram för broarna över Åby älv och Rautasjokk: FAS 22013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Mätprogram för broarna över Åby älv och Rautasjokk: Utmattning och överlast2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten är beställd av trafikverket som en förstudie om förslag till möjligheterna att mäta på en bro över Åby älv som ligger på stambanan, samt vilka resultat som detta skulle kunna medföra.

  • 36.
    Bohling, Daniel
    et al.
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Bond Strength between Glass Fiber Fabrics and Low Water-to-Binder Ratio Mortar: Experimental Characterization2018Inngår i: Advances in Civil Engineering / Hindawi, ISSN 1687-8086, E-ISSN 1687-8094, Vol. 2018, artikkel-id 8197039Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Full utilization of mechanical properties of glass fiber fabric-reinforced cement composites is very limited due to a low bond strength between fibers and the binder matrix. An experimental setup was developed and evaluated to correlate the mortar penetration depth with several key parameters. The studied parameters included fresh mortar properties, compressive and flexural strengths of mortar, the fabric/mortar bond strength, fabric pullout strength, and a single-lap shear strength. Results showed that an average penetration of mortar did not exceed 100 µm even at a higher water-to-binder ratio. The maximum particle size of the used fillers should be below an average spacing of single glass fibers, which in this case was less than 20 µm to avoid the sieving effect, preventing effective penetration. The pullout strength was strongly affected by the penetration depth, while the single-lap shear strength was also additionally affected by the mechanical properties of the mortar.

  • 37.
    Bonath, Victoria
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Edeskär, Tommy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Lintzén, Nina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Fransson, Lennart
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Properties of ice from first-year ridges in the Barents Sea and Fram Strait2019Inngår i: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 168, artikkel-id 102890Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    First-year ice ridges are one of the main load scenarios that off-shore structures and vessels operating in ice-covered waters have to be designed for. For simulating such load scenarios, the knowledge gap on ice mechanical properties from the consolidated part of first-year ridges has to be filled. In total 410 small-scale uniaxial compression tests were conducted at different strain rates and ice temperatures on ice from the consolidated layer of 6 different first-year ridges in the sea around Svalbard. For the first time uniaxial tensile tests were performed on ice from first-year ridges using a new testing method. Ice strength was evaluated for different ice type, which are determined for each specimen based on a proposed ice classification system for ice from first-year ridges. 78% of all samples contained mixed ice with various compounds of brecciated columnar and granular ice. Ice strength of mixed ice showed isotropy, except for the samples containing mainly columnar ice crystals. For horizontal loading, mixed ice was stronger than columnar and granular ice. The residual strength of ductile ice depended on the strain rate. At 1.5% strain remained 70% of peak strength at 10−4 s−1 and 50% at 10−3 s−1. Ductile failure dominated for 75% of all mixed ice tests at 10−3 s−1 and − 10 °C. Ductile compressive strength was generally higher than brittle compressive strength for mixed ice. Brine volume was the main parameter influencing the tensile strength of the mixed ice which was between 0.14 MPa and 0.78 MPa measured at constant ice temperature of −10 °C.

  • 38.
    Bonath, Victoria
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Petrich, Chris
    Northern Research Institute Narvik.
    Sand, Bjørnar
    Northern Research Institute Narvik.
    Fransson, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Morphology, internal structure and formation of ice ridges in the sea around Svalbard2018Inngår i: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 155, s. 263-279Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The results from 3 years of comprehensive field investigations on first-year ice ridges in the Arctic are presented in this paper. The scopes of these investigations were to fill existing knowledge gaps on ice ridges, gain understanding on ridge characteristics and study internal properties of ice. The ability of developing reliable simulations and load predictions for ridge-structure interactions is the final principal purpose, but beyond the scope of this paper. The presented data comprise ridge geometry, ice block dimensions from ridge sails, ice structure in the ridge and values on the ridge porosity and the degree of consolidation. The total ridge thickness conformed to other ridges studied in the same regions. The consolidated layer thickness was on average 2–3 times the level ice thickness. Minimum 33% and in average 90% of the ridge keel area was consolidated. The distribution of ice block sizes and block shapes within a ridge appears to be predictable. A new approach for deriving a possible ridging scenario and ridge age is presented. Different steps of the ridge building process were identified, which are in good agreement with earlier simulated ridging events. After formation of very thin lead ice between two floes deformation occurs through rafting and ridging until closure of the lead. Subsequently the adjacent level ice floe fractures proceeding ridge formation until ridging forces exceed driving forces. A time span of 10 days could be assessed for a possible ridge formation date, estimating the ridge age of the studied ridge located east of Edgeøya at 78° N to be 7 to 8 weeks.

  • 39.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    State of the Art on Sensing Capability of Poorly or Nonconductive Matrixes with a Special Focus on Portland Cement–Based Materials2019Inngår i: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 31, nr 11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete is a well-established and the most used but also well-characterized building material in the world. However, many old and new-build structures suffer from premature failures due to extensive deterioration and decreased load-bearing capacity. Consequently, structural monitoring systems are essential to ensure safe usage of concrete structures within and beyond the designed life. Traditional monitoring systems are based on metallic sensors installed in crucial locations throughout the structure. Unfortunately, most of them have a relatively low reliability and very short life span when exposed to often very harsh environments. The ideal solution is therefore to develop a smart concrete having itself self-sensing capability. A number of studies show that conductive cementitious matrixes will undergo changes in their electrical resistivity with variations of stresses, strains or, developing microcracking. This can be used as a reliable tool to measure changes. This review provides a comprehensive overview of several non-conductive matrixes, with special focus on Portland cement based materials showing self-sensing capabilities by description of detection mechanisms, sensing capabilities, limitations and potential applications.  

  • 40.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Krzeminski, Lukasz
    Silesian University of Technology, The Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Poland.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Piezoresistive Load Sensing and Percolation Phenomena in Portland Cement Composite Modified with In-Situ Synthesized Carbon Nanofibers2019Inngår i: Nanomaterials, ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 9, nr 4, artikkel-id 594Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were directly synthesized on Portland cement particles by chemical vapor deposition. The so-produced cements contained between 2.51–2.71 wt% of CNFs; depending on the production batch. Several mortar mixes containing between 0 and 10 wt% of the modified cement were produced and the electrical properties at various ages and the load sensing capabilities determined. The percolation threshold related to the electrical conductivity was detected and corresponded to the amount of the present CNFs, 0.271, 0.189, 0.135 and 0.108 wt%. The observed threshold depended on the degree of hydration of the Portland cement. The studied mortars showed a strong piezoresistive response to the applied compressive load reaching a 17% change of the electrical resistivity at an applied load of 3.5 MPa and 90% at 26 MPa. This initial study showed that the studied material is potentially suitable for future development of novel fully integrated monitoring systems for concrete structures.

  • 41.
    Byström, Alexandra
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Compartment Fire Temperature Calculations and Measurements2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is devoted to heat transfer and fire dynamics in enclosures. It consists of a main part which summarizes and discusses the theory of heat transfer, conservation of energy, fire dynamics and specific fire scenarios that have been studied. In the second part of this thesis, the reader will find an Appendix containing seven scientific publications in this field.

    In particular, one- and two-zone compartment fire models have been studied. A new way of calculating fire temperatures of pre- and post-flashover compartment fires is presented. Three levels of solution techniques are presented including closed form analytical expressions, spread-sheet calculations and solutions involving general finite element temperature calculations. Validations with experiments have shown good accuracy of the calculation models and that the thermal properties of the surrounding structures have a great impact on the fire temperature development. In addition, the importance of the choice of measurement techniques in fire engineering has been studied. Based on the conclusions from these studies, the best techniques have been used in further experimental studies of different fire scenarios.

  • 42.
    Byström, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Lind, Oskar
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Palmklint, Erika
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Jönsson, Petter
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Analysis of a new plate thermometer: the copper disc plate thermometer2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Fire Safety Symposium 2015: Coimbra, Portugal, 20th-22nd April 2015 / [ed] João Paulo C Rodrigues, International Fire Safety Symposium , 2015, s. 453-460Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two temperatures govern heat transfer to a surface of a solid body. One is the gas temperature which can be measured with thermocouples (TC) and the other the black body radiation temperature. The latter can also be expressed as the incident radiant heat flux. It is difficult to measure as radiometers cannot be used under hot fire conditions. Indirectly the radiation temperature can be obtained by measuring the Adiabatic Surface Temperature (AST) with plate thermometers (PT) for example as defined in the fire resistance furnace standards EN 1363-1 and ISO-834-1 combined with measurements of gas temperature with thin TC. In the test reported here a smaller gauge is used to measure adiabatic surface temperature at surfaces. It has been named copper disc Plate Thermometer (cdPT). Then a thin copper disc with an attached TC is mounted flush at the surface to obtain the AST in e.g. cone calorimeters according to ISO 5660. A main advantage of the cdPT is that it can record the AST before as well after a material has ignited. It can thereby be used to indicate ignition as well as continue recording the thermal exposure thereafter when ignition occurs the cdPT reacts immediately by displaying a quick temperature rise.

  • 43.
    Byström, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Influence of surrounding boundaries on fire compartment temperature2015Inngår i: International Conference ‘’Applications of Structural Fire Engineering" / [ed] Wald F.,Bjegovic D.,Horova K.,Burgess I.,Jelcic Rukavina M., Prague: Czech Technical University , 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows and demonstrates how an analysis of the energy and mass balance of a fully developed (ventilation controlled) compartment fire can be used as a basis for simple and accurate predictions of fire temperatures. The model has been applied on compartments of light weight concrete structures. A finite element FE analysis has been used to solve the heat transfer equation. Effects of moisture were considered for material properties of the surrounding structure. The results were validated with experiments. The model then accurately predicted the fire temperatures and among other things it showed the influence of moisture in the surrounding structure on the fire temperature. Parametric temperature curves according to EN 1991-1-2, 2002 were shown to overestimate the fire temperature.

  • 44.
    Byström, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Pre-flashover compartment fire temperature: a new calculation model validated with experimentsInngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new two-zone model for computing temperature of pre-flashover compartment fires is introduced. This model predicts upper layer fire temperatures in compartments with semi-infinitely thick boundaries as well as with boundaries of insulated or non-insulated steel sheets. The mass flows of air and fire gases are assumed controlled by the plume entrainment depending on a prescribed heat release rate and plume height. The combustion is limited by the rate at which gaseous fuel (pyrolysis gases) is released. The model is based on the assumption that the heat release rate is equal to the heat lost by convection of air and radiation out through the opening(s) and by losses to the surrounding structures.

    For a constant heat release rate, this model yields the maximum upper layer temperature a fire would reach when lasting for a very long time as well as the fire temperature as a function of time depending on the inertia, on the design of the surrounding structure and on the ventilation conditions of the compartment.

    This model is validated by comparisons with very accurately defined and controlled experiments.

  • 45.
    Byström, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Temperature of post-flashover compartment fires: calculations and validation2018Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, nr 3, s. 255-265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and validates by comparisons with tests a one-zone model for computing temperature of fully developed compartment fires. The model is based on an analysis of the energy and mass balance assuming combustion being limited by the availability of oxygen, i.e. ventilation controlled fire. It is demonstrated that the model can be used to predict fire temperatures in compartments with semi-infinitely thick boundaries as well as with boundaries of insulated and uninsulated steel sheets where the entire heat capacity of the surrounding structure is assumed to be concentrated to the steel core. That is so called lumped heat capacity is assumed.

    When developing the fire model a maximum fire temperature was defined depending on combustion efficiency and opening heights only. This temperature was then used as a thermal boundary condition to calculate the temperature of the surrounding structure. The fire temperature was then derived to be a weighted average between the maximum fire temperature and the current calculated surrounding structure surface temperature.

    A general finite element solid temperature calculation code (TASEF) was used to calculate the temperature in the boundary structure. With this code it is possible to analyze surrounding structures of various kinds comprising materials with properties varying with temperature as well as assemblies of various materials.

    The experiments referred to were accurately defined and surveyed. In all the tests a propane diffusion burner was used as the only fire source. Temperatures were measured with thermocouples and plate thermometers at several positions [1].

  • 46.
    Byström, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Sjöström, Johan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sverige.
    Anderson, Johan
    Sverige.
    Project: Validation of a one-zone room fire model with well-defined experiments2016Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 47.
    Carolin, Anders
    et al.
    Trafikverket, Luleå.
    Anderson, Robert
    Network Rail, London, United Kingdom.
    Heissenberger, Roman
    ÖBB, Wien, Austria.
    Hermosilla Carrasco, Carlos
    Acciona Technology, Madrid, Spain.
    Schewe, Britta
    Deutsche Bahn, Berlin, Germany.
    Nilimaa, jonny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Cwircen, Andrzej
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Innovative Intelligent Management of Railway Bridges, In2Rail: A European Horizon 2020 Project2016Inngår i: IABSE CONGRESS, STOCKHOLM, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovativeand Sustainable Built Environment / [ed] Lennart Elfgren, Johan Jonsson, Mats Karlsson, Lahja Rydberg-Forssbeck and Britt Sigfrid, CH - 8093 Zürich, Switzerland, 2016, s. 2552-2561Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovative Intelligent Railways, In2Rail, is a European Horizon 2020 Project with the objective to enhance capacity, increase reliability and reduce Life Cycle Costs of European Railways. Bridges and Tunnels is the main focus in Work Package 4. The aim is to study, benchmark and further develop new Inspection Technologies in order to create more proactive maintenance procedures. In this paper some preliminary results are presented.

  • 48. Carolin, Anders
    et al.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Vill vi betala mer för ökad dammsäkerhet?2007Inngår i: Norrbottens-Kuriren, s. 3-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 49.
    Casas, Joan Ramon
    et al.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.
    Cremona, Christian
    Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris, France.
    Holm, Göran
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, SGI, Lindköping, Sweden.
    Karoumi, Raid
    Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Melbourne, Clive
    University of Salford, United Kingdom.
    Plos, Mario
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sloth, Mette
    COWI A/S, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Wisniewski, Dawid
    Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland.
    Gylltoft, Kent
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Thelandersson, Sven
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Guideline for Load and Resistance Assessment of Existing European Railway Bridges, SB-LRA: Advices on the use of advanced methods. Sustainable Bridges Deliverable D4.22007Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The bridge assessment in many aspects is very similar to the bridge design. The same basic principles lie at the heart of the process. Nevertheless, an important difference lies in the fact that when a bridge is being designed, an element of conservatism is generally a good thing that can be achieved with very little additional costs. When a bridge is being assessed, it is important to avoid unnecessarily conservative measures because of the financial implications that may follow the decision of ratingthe bridge as deficient. Therefore, the design codes (e.g. EC codes) may not always be appropriate for assessment of existing bridges and some additional recommendations or guidelines are required that will lead to less conservative assessment of theirs load carrying capacity. Such guidelines have been already proposed for assessment of highway bridges in Europe. However, there is a lack of this type of documents that can be applied for the assessment of railway bridges.The present "Guideline for Load and Resistance Assessment of Existing European Railway Bridges - advices on the use of advanced methods" is providing guidance and recommendations for applying the most advanced and beneficial methods, models and tools for assessing the load carrying capacity of existing railway bridges. This includes systematized step-level assessment methodology, advanced safety formats (e.g. probabilistic or simplified probabilistic) refined structural analysis (e.g. non-linear or plastic, dynamic considering train-bridge interaction), better models of loads and resistance parameters (e.g. probabilistic and/or based on the results of measurements) and methods for incorporation of the results form monitoring and on-site testing (e.g. Bayesian updating). Basis for the "Guideline for Load and Resistance Assessment of Existing EuropeanRailway Bridges - advices on the use of advanced methods" is the research work carried out in the work package WP4 of the Sustainable Bridges project combined with the best practical experience and know-how of all the partners involved. The research activities within the work package WP4 have been carried out in the following five groups:− Loads and dynamic effects, with focus on train loads and dynamics (Deliverables D4.3, also referred as SB 4.3 Dynamic (2007), or just SB4.3 (2007));− Safety and probabilistic modelling (Deliverables D4.4, also referred as SB4.4Safety (2007), or just SB4.4 (2007));− Concrete bridges, with focus on non-linear analysis (Deliverables D4.5, also referred as SB4.5 Concrete (2007), or just SB4.5 (2007));− Metal bridges, with focus on riveted bridges (Deliverables D4.6, also referredas SB4.6 Metal (2007), or just SB4.6 (2007));− Masonry arch bridges including soil/structure interaction (Deliverables D4.7,also referred as SB4.7 Masonry (2007), or just SB4.7 (2007)). The results of these activities are reported in corresponding Background Documents (Deliverables) listed above within parenthesis.The main results from the research activities performed and the know-how of all the partners in the specific areas of bridge assessment are tried to be presented in this Sustainable Bridges SB-LRA 2007-11-30 6 (428) Guideline in such a way that the target reader of the Guideline, a structural engineer experienced in assessment of railway bridges, is able to apply them in the everyday practice, without necessity of searching for several specific scientific publications. Nevertheless, in some cases it has been necessary to refer to public available literature and Background Documents prepared in the Sustainable Bridges project. The present Guideline has been prepared aiming to follow somehow the structure of the EC codes and it is divided into 10 chapters and 12 Annexes concerning:− Assessment procedure (Chapter 2);− Requirements, safety formats and limit states (Chapter 3, Annexes 3.1-3.7);− Basic information for bridge assessment (Chapter 4);− Load and dynamic effects (Chapter 5, Annex 5.1);− Concrete bridges (Chapter 6);− Metal bridges (Chapter 7, Annex 7.1);− Masonry arch bridges (Chapter 8, Annexes 8.1 and 8.2);− Foundations and transition zones (Chapter 9);− Improvement of assessment using information from testing and monitoring (Chapter 10, Annex 10.1). In most of the topics related to railway bridges assessment the Guideline uses the current state-of-the-art knowledge and the presently best practice. Nevertheless, in many subjects it propose the use of original methods and models that have been developed, obtained or systematized due to research performed within one of the five groups of work package WP4. Regarding the loads and dynamic aspects, the innovative elements suggested in the Guideline are:− Train load models for assessment of railway bridges based on the UIC 71 load model and calibrated α-values;− Original methods for quantifying dynamic effects that may lead to reduced dynamic amplification factors.

  • 50.
    Chung, Johnny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Determination of Thermal Conductivity of Wood Exposed to Fire based on Small Scale Laboratory Trials for Finite Element Calculations2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes an approach to determine the thermal conductivity of wood at elevated temperatures. The aim is to be able to use the developed conductivity as input in structural elements in finite element calculations. The conductivity of pine wood and glue laminated timber with different densities and moisture contents have been evaluated where small scale one-dimensional laboratory trials have been carried out in a cone calorimeter. Steel temperatures were measured behind the exposed wood samples. Obtained temperatures from the experimental trials have been compared with back calculated steel temperatures in the finite element program TASEF (Temperature Analysis in Structures Exposed to Fire). In the back calculations the conductivity at 100 °C, 300 °C and 500 °C was altered in order to achieve a best fit steel temperature curve as the measured ones during the experimental trials. At 20 °C the conductivity was taken from the literature. Between these temperature levels the conductivity was assumed to vary linearly.

    The dehydration of the moisture content in the wood samples have been considered by including it in the specific volumetric enthalpy, i.e. the integral over temperature of the density and specific heat as input in the temperature calculation program TASEF. Regarding the thermal degradation, recommended formulas in Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures – Part 1-2: General – Structural fire design, have been applied.

    The final back calculated conductivity values of the studied pine wood at specific temperatures (20 °C, 100 °C, 300 °C och 500 °C) were determined by the cone calorimeter test to be as follows; 0.09 W/mK, 0.07 W/mK, 0.05 W/mK and 0.35 W/mK. Comparing with presented conductivity of wood in Eurocode 5 the developed conductivity in this study are generally lower.

    Derived conductivity values from the back calculations in TASEF have been reconsidered for the glue laminated timber by taken account of differences in density and moisture content. By using a developed conversion factor, so called “conductivity ratio”, new conductivity values could be obtained which then has been used as an input in TASEF. As a result, good similarities between calculated steel temperatures and measured steel temperatures could be seen.

    The implemented method, consisting of simple one-dimensional laboratory trials for determining the thermal conductivity is deemed to be promising.  However, further studies are needed to be done in order to increase the accuracy of the method.

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