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  • 1.
    Bolldén, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Pedagogik och vuxnas lärande.
    Materialities and Virtualities of Online Teaching: A Practice Theory Perspective2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Various kinds of information and communication technologies (ICT) are common elements for educational purposes in higher education. Researchers have found that educational issues have been put in the background in favor of technology when it comes to teaching with ICT. Investments and efforts have been prioritised concerning hardware and software, and teachers' skills development have been focused on learning how to use specific software programs technically. However, teachers are also asking for skills development concerning pedagogical issues in relation to ICT. Mishra and Koehler (2006) argue that one of the reasons pedagogy has not been given more space is lack of theories that can help us understand the integration of technology in education.

    In order to use ICT teachers have to step into them to show presence and to conduct their teaching. Research has emphasised that presence is important in online learning and thus it becomes an issue of pedagogical interest. Embodiment as a way of showing presence has not been highlighted as other aspects of presence has been. Therefore this study sets out to study teachers' embodiments online. The study has an online ethnographical approach where the analysis is based on data from two case studies where different ICT are used; It's learning and Second Life. Each focuses on a course at university level that is held entirely online. Practice theory (Schatzki, 2002; Schatzki, 1996) and concepts of being a body, having a body and instrumental body have been used for analysing how teachers are stepping into embodied presence.

    Bodily presence implies choices where personalisation of teacher embodiment is afforded by the systems but not demanded. The embodiment is ranging from a default to a personalised one. This study shows that it is possible to customise the embodiment which happens but not always. Further, both the online and offline body is actualised in the online setting. What happens in the practice online is not cut off from what happens offline. Teaching in a virtual world is a matter of managing several bodies that overlaps to a more or lesser degree. There is a need to consider that being a body includes several bodies, not just one. To teach in a virtual world comprises knowledge and skills of manoeuvring the bodies and of teaching subject matter, with both of them in the foreground from time to time. Teachers' bodies online could be understood as instrumental, used for doing teaching in the online setting. The border between the bodies and the ICT is blurred and it is difficult to discern where one ends and the other begins.

    Mishra, P. & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge. Teachers College Record 108(6), 1017-1054.

    Schatzki, T. (2002). The site of the social: A philosophical account of the constitution of social life and change. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

    Schatzki, T. (1996). Social practices: A Wittgensteinian approach to human activity and the social. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • 2.
    Bolldén, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Pedagogik och vuxnas lärande.
    Online teaching practices: Sociomaterial matters in higher education settings2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe and analyse online teaching practices in the Swedish higher education context. The study had an online ethnographic approach and was based on empirical data on the teaching in two university courses. The study rested primarily on observational data but interviews and available documents also formed the basis for analysis. Empirical data were analysed with a perspective of practice theory – a perspective within a sociomaterial account. The results showed that online teaching was characterised by an embodied sociomaterial practice. The teacher’s body could be understood as both multiple and closely interwoven with technology. Furthermore, the teacher’s body was used in the teaching situation to reduce technological complexity but also, along with other forms of materiality, to prefigure what kind of teaching would take place. Teacher interventions in online environments could furthermore be understood as relational to both technology (that is the virtual material arrangement) and teachers’ doings and sayings (that is the teaching practice). Teacher interventions were aimed at making the arrangement intelligible for the students. The study showed that teacher interventions arranged both students and information and communication technology (ICT) in order to make them work as a teaching practice. The teaching practice that emerged was characterised as an interplay between virtual materiality and social practice, where asymmetricrelations between teachers and the ICT prevailed.

  • 3.
    Bolldén, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Pedagogik och vuxnas lärande.
    Teachers' embodied presence in online teaching practices2016Inngår i: Studies in Continuing Education, ISSN 0158-037X, E-ISSN 1470-126X, Vol. 38, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine teachers’ embodiments online. The analysis is based ononline ethnographic data from two online courses in higher education settings usingdifferent information and communication technologies. The perspective of practicetheory and the concepts of being a body, having a body and the instrumental body wereused to analyse how teachers step into an embodied presence. The embodied presencedepends on both teacher judgements and what the technology offers. The finding addsto the understanding of the concept of teacher presence online, in showing that teacherembodiment occurs online and furthermore that the body could be understood asmultiple. The result also shows how online and offline bodies hang together,actualising the offline body in the online setting, which in turn raises questions onthe dualism of online and offline. Teachers also deliberately used their embodimentsand bodily traces online in order to sustain presence and to bring about certain teachingpractices. Their bodily positioning signalled what kind of teaching that would takeplace. A deliberate positioning of the online body in a virtual world also helped toreduce the complexity of the arrangements for the students.

  • 4.
    Bolldén, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Pedagogik och vuxnas lärande.
    The emergence of online teaching practices: A sociomaterial analysis2016Inngår i: Learning, Media & Technology, ISSN 1743-9884, E-ISSN 1743-9892, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 444-462Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article was to analyse relations between online teaching practices and their virtual material arrangements. Two higher education online settings were studied using an online ethnographic approach in which observation of the teaching process was of central importance. The first setting was a course in education carried out on itslearning© (a learning management system) and the second setting was a language course in Second Life® (a virtual world). A sociomaterial perspective based on practice theory was used in the analysis, and the focal point was the co-constitutive relation between teaching practices and material arrangements in online settings. A number of relations between practice and arrangement were identified and analysed in the results section. It is argued that the relation between online arrangements and practice is not fixed and determined beforehand, but emerges and alters as the teaching unfolds.

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