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  • 1.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The environmental implications of depleted uranium in Iraq and the principles of isolating it2014Inngår i: Waste Management and the Environment VII / [ed] C.A. Beribba; G. Passerini; H. Itoh, Southanpton: WIT Press, 2014, s. 367-376Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq experienced two devastating wars in 1991 and 2003, during which massiveamounts of new weapons and sophisticated manufactured nuclear weaponscalled depleted uranium (DU) were used. DU is a by-product of the enrichmentof natural uranium for nuclear reactor-grade or nuclear weapons-grade uranium. Depleted uranium is chemically identical to natural uranium. During the second Gulf war in 2003 U.S. and British troops used more than 1100 to 2200 tons of DU. As a consequence the ruminants of wars are reported to have seriously affected people and the environment, causing cancer and abnormal birth defects. The water and soil all over most of Iraq is contaminated. There is no strategy, national or international program for cleaning Iraq of DU wastes. Site selection criteria have been suggested for the disposal of radioactive waste but no principle of designing and constructing disposals. The present paper describes a large geological feature, a deep natural depression, which would be useful for isolating DU by isolating it in smectitic Iraqi clay.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 2.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Suggested landfill sites for hazardous waste in Iraq2013Inngår i: Natural Science, ISSN 2150-4091, E-ISSN 2150-4105, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 463-477Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq experienced two devastating wars in 1991 and 2003, during which massive amounts of new weapons and sophisticated manufactured nuclear weapons were used called Depleted Uranium (DU). As a consequence of the radioactive contamination; the humans are suffering from various disease like cancer and the environment is polluted.In practice, there is no strategy and/or national program, not even well thought out plans and scientific personnel and technical equipment required to clean Iraq of these wastes. Reviewing the geological, topographical and hydrological data, it had been noticed that Umm Chaimin depression is a good candidate site to dump all contaminated radioactive scrap and soil. The suggested design of the landfill will ensure safe containment of the waste for hundreds of thousands of years even if significant climatic changes will take place.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 3.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhim
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Effective isolation of radioactive military wastes in Iraq: a necessary humanitarian action2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has been subject to a series of wars for more than fifty years, the latest one leaving large amounts of wrecked tanks, vehicles, weapons and ammunition. A considerable part of the waste has the form of, or contains, depleted uranium (DU), that is concluded to have cancerogenic effects through its radioactivity and toxicity. The DU exists in significant concentrations in areas where combat took place, mostly in and around the cities of Bagdad and Basra, the total number of particularly encountered areas being about 15. The way of long-term isolation of DU that is proposed in this paper is to construct relatively simple landfills of sandwiched contaminated soil and clay or clayey soil, covered by sand/gravel and erosion-resistant coarser material on top. The very low annual precipitation and long draught in the deserts, implying significant evaporation, means that the system of tight soil interlayered with contaminated soil, embedding wrecked military objects, minimizes percolation and release of DU, keeping it adsorbed on the finest soil particles. The clay-based material must be composed in a way that, i/ desiccation fractures are not formed in periods of long draught and ii/ not swell uncontrolled and loose strength in wet periods. The DU-contaminated soil is proposed to be scraped off and transported in closed trucks to four desert sites where landfills of the sandwich-type are proposed to be constructed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhim
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Isolation of radioactive military wastes in Iraq2013Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has been subject to a series of wars for more than fifty years, the latest one leaving large amounts of wrecked tanks, vehicles, weapons and ammunition. A considerable part of the waste has the form of, or contains, depleted uranium (DU), that is concluded to have cancerogenic effects through its radioactivity and toxicity. The DU exists in significant concentrations in areas where combat took place, mostly in and around the cities of Bagdad and Basra, the total number of particularly encountered areas being about 15. The way of long-term isolation of DU that is proposed in this paper is to construct relatively simple landfills of sandwiched contaminated soil and clay or clayey soil, covered by sand/gravel and erosion-resistant coarser material on top. The very low annual precipitation and long draught in the deserts, implying significant evaporation, means that the system of tight soil interlayered with contaminated soil, embedding wrecked military objects, minimizes percolation and release of DU, keeping it adsorbed on the finest soil particles. The clay-based material must be composed in a way that, i/ desiccation fractures are not formed in periods of long draught and ii/ not swell uncontrolled and loose strength in wet periods. The DU-contaminated soil is proposed to be scraped off and transported in closed trucks to four desert sites where landfills of the sandwich-type are proposed to be constructed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhim
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Saving Iraqi civilians and their environment from catastrophic implications of depleted uranium used in Gulf wars I and II2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Depleted uranium (DU) was used twice by the Americans and allied forces against Iraqi troops and personnel in 1991 and 2003. The largest single radionuclide contamination occurred in the Gulf during Gulf War II, 1991, where depleted uranium was used as an amour-penetrating ordnance. Due to this use the countryside of Iraq was contaminated to a significant extent and thus chronically exposed the civilian population and military personnel to different environmental loads i.e. DU dust, vapors, and aerosols etc. In addition to the radioactive contamination due to military activities in Gulf wars, other dangerous source of contamination has been reported from the material and equipment at the Iraqi Energy Authority. After the fall of the Baath regime in 2003, the Iraqi Energy Authority, like all other Ministries and governmental organizations, sustained immense losses due to the turmoil and looting. As an example the Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMI) reported in 2003 that uranium (as yellow cakes) as well as byproducts from processing activities in addition to tons of radioactive waste was stored in barrels. Simple citizens stole these barrels and used them for storing water. The radioactive materials in these barrels were in this way either spread in large quantities on the ground or taken to their homes. Other examples of how DU material is spread are given in the report as well. This report is highlighting the effect of radioactive waste on the people and the environment of Iraq and trying to find possible solutions to the problem. Special concerns are directed to the question of finding sustainable, environmentally acceptable and safe landfills for the final deposition of DU contaminated material.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT02
  • 6.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hazardous wastes problems in Iraq: a suggestion for an environmental solution2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq passed through many destructive wars where the country infrastructures have been destroyed. Consequently, various types of hazardous wastes generated from 1991 and 2003 wars are exposed in different parts of Iraq without any aspect of human and environment considerations. Contaminants are found in the form of contaminated rubble with depleted uranium (DU). Landfill disposal is still an economical and vital solution that should serve between 500-1000 years for confining hazardous wastes like DU. The longevity of a hazardous waste landfill is mainly controlled by clay based liners. There are many factors affecting the performance of clay liners. These factors were discussed in this research. The main requirements of hazardous waste landfills were listed according to USEPA and German regulations. Finally, the main aspects of landfill siting criteria in Iraq were suggested.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 7.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hazardous wastes problems in Iraq:a suggestion for an environmental solution2013Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 81-91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq passed through many destructive wars where the country infrastructures have been destroyed. Consequently, various types of hazardous wastes generated from 1991 and 2003 wars are exposed in different parts of Iraq without any aspect of human and environment considerations. Contaminants are found in the form of contaminated rubble with depleted uranium (DU). Landfill disposal is still an economical and vital solution that should serve between 300-1000 years for confining hazardous wastes like DU. The longevity of a hazardous waste landfill is mainly controlled by clay based liners. There are many factors affecting the performance of clay liners. These factors were discussed. The main requirements of hazardous waste landfills were listed according to USEPA and German regulations. Finally, the main aspects of landfill siting criteria in Iraq were suggested.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Proposed site selection criteria for hazardous waste disposal facilities in Iraq2012Inngår i: Waste Management and the Environment VI / [ed] V. Popov; H. Itoh; C.A. Brebbia, WIT Press, 2012, s. 309-319Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hazardous wastes in Iraq can be considered as a looming crisis due to its severe impact on health and environment after the 1991 and 2003 wars. The most dangerous type is depleted uranium waste. It is classified by EU and USEPA as Low-Level radioactive Waste and a simple and sufficiently safe way of isolating it from the biosphere is to turn it into a landfill confined within tight dikes. Selection of a disposal site requires a number of conditions to be fulfilled, like socio/economic, environmental and geotechnical criteria, which, in combination, determine where such landfills can be located. This is particularly obvious for Iraq, with its large desertic areas that are available for constructing landfills of hazardous waste. The climatic conditions are suitable and the deep groundwater level valuable for minimizing or avoiding contamination of the area. Heavy rain may occasionally fall requiring special measures to be taken for maintaining stability and tightness. This paper lists suitable site selection criteria for landfills of hazardous waste with special respect to Iraq. An example of a suitable disposal site is described and assessed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Natural smectitic soils for protective liners in arid climate2014Inngår i: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053, Vol. 102, s. 104-112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Compacted clay liners (CCL) can be used to isolate hazardous wastes like the soil and military scrap contaminated with depleted uranium that emanated from the Iraqi wars in 1991 and 2003. Near-surface repositories for such dangerous waste can preferably be located in the Iraqi deserts, which make up 60% of the territory of Iraq. CCLs are usually constructed using a mixture of clayey soil and coarse material compacted in air-dry form or suitably wetted. In the present study, two smectitic soils from Iraq, termed Green and Red clays, were investigated for potential use in CCLs. The shear strength, swelling pressure, hydraulic conductivity and creep properties were determined and used for preliminary design of top and bottom liners. The engineering properties were determined for various dry densities and water contents ranging from air-dry to fully saturated conditions. The results showed that mixtures of sand and 30-50% Green clay, and mixtures of sand and 40-60% Red clay are suitable for constructing top liners with a hydraulic conductivity between 1×10-10 - 1×10-9 m/s. For bottom liners, mixtures of sand and 70% Green clay and mixtures of sand and 80% Red clay can be considered. They were found to have a hydraulic conductivity of 1×10-11 m/s for a density at saturation of 2.1 g/cm3 (dry density 1.7 g/cm3). As to the slope stability of top liners, the shear strength for different clay percentages was found to guarantee slope stability for 18o inclination under both air-dry and water saturated conditions.

  • 10.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hydraulic properties of smectite clays from Iraq with special respect to landfills of DU-contaminated waste2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills of material contaminated by depleted uranium and other low-level radioactive waste must be isolated from the biosphere for a sufficiently long time. This can be effectively made in desert climate by collecting contaminated waste in suitable areas confined by tight embankments and covering them with very tight clay liners protected from desiccation and erosion by suitably composed filters and coarse rock fill. Examples of design principles and construction are described in the paper. The clay liners are made of air-dry expanding clay that can be found in sufficient quantities in Iraq and that provide very good tightness at low cost. The construction technique is well known from various projects.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 11.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hydraulic properties of smectite clays from Iraq with special respect to landfills of DU-contaminated waste2013Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 109-125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills of material contaminated by depleted uranium and other low-level radioactive waste must be isolated from the biosphere for a sufficiently long time. This can be effectively made in desert climate by collecting contaminated waste in suitable areas confined by tight embankments and covering them with very tight clay liners protected from desiccation and erosion by suitably composed filters and coarse rock fill. Examples of design principles and construction are described in the paper. The clay liners are made of air-dry expanding clay that can be found in sufficient quantities in Iraq and that provide very good tightness at low cost. The construction technique is well known from various projects.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hydraulic properties of smectite rich clay controlled by hydraulic gradients and filter types2014Inngår i: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053, Vol. 87, s. 73-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The common practice in geotechnical laboratories is to apply high hydraulic gradients for getting results in reasonable time but this can jeopardize the accuracy. In this paper, the hydraulic conductivity of a smectite rich clay from Iraq was determined under different hydraulic gradients (5 to 10000 m/m) using several densities and two permeants. Also, two types of filters were used, ordinary stainless steel sintered filter and sand/silt filter, in order to examine the possible effect of clogging by dragged clay gel particles. It was concluded that the outflow filter can affect the evaluated conductivity especially when applying high hydraulic gradients. For sintered filters the hydraulic conductivity was reduced as the gradient increased, while the conductivity increased as the hydraulic gradient increased when using sand/silt filters. For salt water the impact of the gradient was less obvious than for distilled water. A theoretical model was derived for selecting safe hydraulic gradients as a function of dry density, hydraulic gradient, swelling pressure and permeant type. A major conclusion was that the gradient in laboratory testing should not exceed 100 m/m.

  • 13.
    Bernander, Stig
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Kullingsjö, Anders
    Skanska Teknik, Göteborg, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Gylland, Anders K
    Multiconsult, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Bengtsson, Per-Evert
    Statens Geotekniska Institut, Linköping, PEB Geoteknik.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Olofsson, Jan
    Skanska Sverige AB, Skanska Teknik, Göteborg.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Downhill Progressive Landslides in Long Natural Slopes: Triggering Agents and Landslide Phases modeled with a Finite Difference Method2016Inngår i: Canadian geotechnical journal (Print), ISSN 0008-3674, E-ISSN 1208-6010, Vol. 53, nr 10, s. 1565-1582Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A large landslide in Tuve (Gothenburg, Sweden 1977) initiated the development of a model for slope stability analysis taking the deformation-softening of soft sensitive clays into consideration. The model studies triggering agents and five phases in progressive slope failure are identified: (1) in-situ, (2) disturbance, (3) unstable ‘dynamic’, (4) transitory (or permanent) equilibrium, and (5) ‘global’ failure. The clay resistance in these phases may differ widely; mostly due to different rates of loading. Two time dependent failure criteria are defined: (i) the triggering load condition in the disturbance Phase (2), and (ii) the transitory equilibrium in Phase (4), indicating whether minor downhill displacements or a veritable landslide catastrophe will occur. The analysis explains why downhill landslides tend to spread over vast areas of almost horizontal ground further down-slope. The model has been applied to landslides in Scandinavia and Canada. Three case studies are briefly discussed. The model is a finite difference approach, where local downhill deformations caused by normal forces is maintained compatible with deviatory shear deformations above the potential (or the established) failure surface. Software and an easy-to-use spreadsheet are introduced as well as recent developments. See also Video Abstract.

    Fulltekst (mp4)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Bouchelaghem, F.
    et al.
    Sorbonne Universit´e, Campus Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Diffusion calculations on numerical images of bentonite microstructure2020Inngår i: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective diffusion tensors were computed for tracer diffusion through compacted water-saturated bentonite at two distinct scales by combining random microstructures and microstructures obtained by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The original micrographs have been thresholded by considering four distinct phases at the mesoscopic scale, and image analysis techniques have been employed in order to characterize the morphology and in particular the texture anisotropy of grains, clay gels and macrovoids. The Homogenization of Periodic Media approach employed is based on the local description ion diffusion at both the microscopic level of clay platelets (assuming variable diffusivity and ion sorption) and the mesoscopic level of clay aggregates and macropores. The local problems were successively solved using randon and TEM-based numerical microstructures in order to investigate the contribution to macroscopic diffusion of soft gels, dense gels and macrovoids under various configurations. Comparisons were made with existing diffusion data for montmorillonite and natural bentonite, and a particular attention was given to the anisotropy of the macroscopic diffusion tensor in connection with morphological characteristics of the underlying microstructure. The effect of clay matrix diffusivity on the magnitude and orientation of the macroscopic diffusion tensor has been investigated, and the principal axes of diffusion have been compared with the index of fabric orientation. Computations were also performed on microstructures of increasing size in order to investigate the model implicit assumption of existence of a Representative Elementary Volume.

  • 15.
    Bouchelaghem, Fatiha
    et al.
    Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris .
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Fluid flow and effective conductivity calculations on numerical images of bentonite microstructure2017Inngår i: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053, Vol. 144, s. 9-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydraulic conductivities of compacted water-saturated bentonite were computed based on the real microstructure. The Homogenization of Periodic Media approach employed fully acknowledges the heterogeneous and multiscale microstructure of clay, as well as locally varying physical flow properties. Consequently, three levels of description were considered : the microscopic level of clay particles, the mesoscopic level of clay aggregates, mineral grains and inter-aggregate porosity, and the macroscopic level of the sample subjected to fluid pressure gradients in the laboratory. Starting from the local description of fluid flow, the expression of the effective hydraulic conductivity tensor was derived. The soft and dense gels and the open voids may form a connected flow path or remain occluded. The local problems were solved on the microstructure obtained from a digitalized micrograph by image analysis. The contribution to macroscopic flow by the soft and dense gels was investigated in various configurations, and comparisons were made with hydraulic conductivity data for MX-80 bentonite.

  • 16.
    Brundin, Herman
    et al.
    SÖRAB.
    Kihl, Anders
    Rang-Sells Avfallsbehandling AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Rihm, Thomas
    RVF service AB.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Långtidsegenskaper hos tätskikt innehållande bentonit2001Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bentonit är en starkt vattenupptagande och svällande naturlig lera med låg vattengenomsläpplighet. Huvudkomponenten är mineralet montmorillonit, som tillhör gruppen smektiter och som ger bentoniten dess unika egenskaper. Syftet med uppdraget är att söka identifiera vilka mekanismer och faktorer som kan vara begränsande för funktionen på kort och lång sikt hos tätskikt innehållande bentonitmattor samt blandningar av bentonit och andra material. I rapporten ges underlag för projektering, utformning och drift av deponier med tätskikt innehållande bentonit. Där redovisas också tre fallstudier från Högbytorp, Löt och Tveta.

  • 17.
    Carlsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Jacobsson, Arvid
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ofruset vatten i frusen jord: exempel på praktikansluten grundforskning vid avdelningen för geoteknik vid högskolan i Luleå.1982Inngår i: Väg- och Vattenbyggaren, ISSN 0042-2177, nr 1, s. 33-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 18.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Alkaradaghi, Karwan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Kurdistan Institution for strategic studies and scientific Research, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla Mustafa Muhamed
    Abdullah Mustafa Muhamed Al-Rawabdeh, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq; Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Final Cover Systems Design for Arid Areas Using the HELP Model: A Case Study in the Babylon Governorate, Iraq2018Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 12, artikkel-id 4568Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of selecting proper designs for landfills is to accommodate quantities of waste without having a negative effect on the surrounding environment and human health. The Babylon Governorate (province) in Iraq was taken as an example of an arid area with very shallow groundwater and where irregular waste disposal sites had developed that had not been subject to international standards when they were selected for landfill use. In the current study, the suggested design for landfills is a base liner and final cover system. In this suggested design, the final cover system allows for three scenarios. The first scenario considers an evapotranspiration soil cover (ET) (capillary barriers type), the second scenario is a modified cover design of “RCRA Subtitle D”, and the third scenario is a combination of the first and second scenarios. The HELP 3.95 D model was applied to the selected landfill sites in the governorate to check if there was any penetration of the leachate that might in future percolate from the landfill’s bottom barrier layer in arid areas. The results from the suggested landfill design showed that there was no leachate percolation from the bottom barrier layer using the second and third scenarios. For the first scenario, however, there was a small amount of leachate through the bottom barrier layer in the years 2013 and 2014.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    Department of Dams and Water Resources Engineering, University of Mosul, Mosul 41001, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa 51001, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Two Scenarios for Landfills Design in Special Conditions Using the HELP Model: A Case Study in Babylon Governorate, Iraq2018Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikkel-id 125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sound design of landfills is essential in order to protect human health and the environment (air, water, and soil). The study area, Babylon Governorate, is situated in the middle of Iraq, and is distinguished by a hot climate and shallow groundwater. The governorate did not have landfill sites that meet international criteria; in addition, the groundwater depth in Babylon Governorate is commonly shallow. Previously, the most important criteria for the study area and GIS software were used to select the best sites for locating landfills in the major cities of the governorate. In this study, the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP 3.95D) model was applied in order to ensure that there was no leakage of the leachate that results from the waste in the selected landfill sites. It is the most commonly utilized model for landfill design, and it is used to estimate water inflow through the soil layers. For the present study, to avoid groundwater pollution by leachate from a landfill site due to the shallow groundwater depth, compacted waste was placed on the surface using two height scenarios (2 m and 4 m). This design was developed using the soil properties of the selected sites coupled with the weather parameters in Babylon Governorate (precipitation, temperature, solar, and evapotranspiration) for a 12-year period covering 2005 to 2016. The results from both of the suggested landfill designs showed an absence of leachate from the bottom liner.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Kamaleddin, Suhair
    Iraqi Ministry of Housing & Construction, National Center for Construction Laboratories and Research Babylon, Baghdad.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Soil Characteristics in Selected Landfill Sites in theBabylon Governorate, Iraq2017Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 348-363Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Babylon Governorate is situated in the middle of Iraq. It covers an area of 5,315 km

    2 and has 2,092,998 inhabitants distributed throughout its five major cities (Qadhaa). Presently, there is no landfill site in the governorate that meets the environmental criteria for the disposal of municipal and industrial waste. Consequently, GIS (geographic information system) and methods of multi-criteria decision making were used here to select the best sites in each city in the Babylon Governorate that would fulfil the environmental requirements. Two sites were chosen in each city. As the groundwater is very shallow in this area, the design should ensure against groundwater pollution by leachate from these sites. To avoid this problem, soil investigation was conducted at these sites so that the most suitable landfill design could be accomplished. The results of soil investigation in these sites include the soil profile, groundwater depth, chemical properties, allowable bearing capacity, Atterberg limits test results and material characteristics of the soil strata. From the research, it is believed that the best design is one that puts the landfill above ground.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    GIS-based assessment of combined AHP and SAW methods for selecting suitable sites for landfill in Al-Musayiab Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq2017Inngår i: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 76, nr 5, artikkel-id 209Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting a landfill site is a difficult task because the process depends on many factors and restrictions. Landfill is an optimal solution for the disposal of solid waste in Al-Musayiab Qadhaa, which is located in the northern part of Babylon Governorate. At the moment, there is no landfill site in that area that follows the scientific selection site criteria. For this reason, in this research, fifteen variables were considered (groundwater depth, rivers, soil types; agriculture lands use, land use, elevation, slope, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centers, villages and archeological sites) using geographic information system (GIS) to find out the best suitable landfill site. In addition, two methods of multi-criteria decision-making were used to derive weights for criterion’s maps on GIS to obtain potential landfill sites. The first method is analytical hierarchy process (AHP) which was used to identify the weight for each criterion from the matrix of pairwise comparisons. The second method was the simple additive weighting (SAW) which is a simple method to solve the problem of the selection landfill sites. After comparison of the results obtained based on combining two final maps resulted from methods of AHP and SAW using GIS environment to determine the pixels percentage of matching and non-matching for two maps, two suitable candidate landfill sites were identified that satisfy the requirements with an area of 7.965–5.952 km2. Area of these sites can accommodate the solid waste generated from the Qadhaa up to 2030.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Kufa University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Sites Selection Using AnalyticalHierarchy Process and Ratio ScaleWeighting: Case Study of Al-Mahawil,Babylon, Iraq2017Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 123-141Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting a landfill site is an optimal solution for the disposal of solid waste inAl-Mahawil Qadhaa, both to fulfill the environmental and scientific requirements,and to comply with regulations and restrictions in this Qadhaa. Presently,there is no landfill site in the area that meets the scientific site selection criteria.Therefore, in this study, two methods of multi-criteria decision-makingand Geographic Information System (GIS) were used to produce a map ofcandidate sites for landfill. Fifteen criteria were entered within GIS: groundwaterdepth, rivers, soil types; agriculture lands use, land use, elevation, slope,gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centers, villagesand archaeological sites. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is the firstmethod that was applied to derive criteria weightings using the matrix of pairwisecomparisons. The second method was the Ratio Scale Weighting (RSW),which is based on experts’ opinion, in order to identify the criteria weightingsby giving a ratio score value for each criterion relative to the other criteria.Accuracy assessment (Kappa and Overall Assessment) methods were used tocompare the two raster maps which resulted from the two models, and to determinethe percentage value of matching pixels for the two maps. Two suitablecandidate sites for landfill were identified that satisfy the requirementswith an area of 2.218 km2 - 2.950 km2 in order to accommodate the solidwaste generated from the Qadhaa in the period 2020 to 2030.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Present Status of Solid Waste Management at Babylon Governorate, Iraq2015Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 5, nr 7, s. 408-423Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Babylon Governorate covers an area of 5315 km2 with a population that reaches about 1,974,490 inhabitants in the central part of Iraq. Iraq produced 31,000 tons/day solid waste in 2013. The Governorate of Babylon produces annual 483,221 tons of solid waste. Management of collection and disposal of waste in Babylon Governorate is done through open dumping of waste and poor collection process. These sites do not conform to the scientific and environmental criteria applied in the selection of landfill sites. To find out how much solid waste is expected in the future, two methods were used to calculate the population growth in Babylon Governorate to the year 2030. The results showed that the total waste in 2030 will be 761,104 tons and 943055 tons while the cumulated quantity of solid waste expected till 2030 was 12,494,521 tons and 14,095,437 tons according to the first and second methods respectively.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 24.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Sitting by Two Methods in Al-Qasim, Babylon, Iraq and Comparing Them Using Change Detection Method2017Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 8, s. 723-737Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The selecting of a site for landfill is considered as a difficult process because many criteria should be involved. The main aim of establishing a landfill is to protect the human and environment. Al-Qasim district is considered as the study area in this work. It is one of the main districts in Babylon Governorate, Iraq. There is no systematic site as landfill that fulfil the environmental and scientific criteria in this area. Therefore, the most important fifteen criteria that suited the environmental requirements were selected in the current study. These criteria are: groundwater depth, urban centers, rivers, villages, soil types, elevation, roads agricultural land use, slope, land use, archaeological sites, power lines, gas pipelines, oil pipelines and railways. Two methods of multi criteria decision making AHP (analytical hierarchy process) and SRS (straight rank sum) were applied to obtain the weights of criteria in dissimilar styles. The raster maps of the selected criteria were prepared and analyzed within the GIS software. Then, the change detection method was implemented to compare the two output raster maps resulted from AHP and SRS methods. Two appropriate candidate sites for landfill were selected to accommodate the cumulative solid waste until the year 2030 in Qasim district. The areas of these sites were 2.766 km2 and 2.055 km2 respectively.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Environment Engineering, college of Engineering, U niversity of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq. .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hazim, Anwer
    Koya university, Koya, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Sites Selection Using MCDM and Comparing Method of Change Detection for Babylon Governorate, Iraq2019Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, nr 35, s. 35325-35339Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill site`s selection represents a complicated process due to the large number of variables to be adopted. In this study, an arid area (Babylon Governorate as a case study) was selected. It is located in the middle region of Iraq. In this area, the  landfills do not satisfy the required  international criteria.  Fifteen  of the  most significant criterion were selected for this purpose. For suitable weight for each criterion, the multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were applied. These methods are AHP and RSW. In the GIS software 10.5, the raster maps of the chosen criterion were arranged and analysed. The method of change detection was implemented to determine the matching pixels and non-matching pixels. The final results showed that there are two candidate locations for landfills for each district in the governorate (ten sites). The areas of the selected sites were sufficient to contain the cumulative quantity of solid waste from 2020 until 2030.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill site selection using geographic information system and analytical hierarchy process: A case study Al-Hillah Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq2016Inngår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 427-437Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Al-Hillah Qadhaa is located in the central part of Iraq. It covers an area of 908 km2 with a total population of 856,804 inhabitants. This Qadhaa is the capital of Babylon Governorate. Presently, no landfill site exists in that area based on scientific site selection criteria. For this reason, an attempt has been carried out to find the best locations for landfills. A total of 15 variables were considered in this process (groundwater depth, rivers, soil types, agricultural land use, land use, elevation, slope, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centres, villages and archaeological sites) using a geographic information system. In addition, an analytical hierarchy process was used to identify the weight for each variable. Two suitable candidate landfill sites were determined that fulfil the requirements with an area of 9.153 km2 and 8.204 km2. These sites can accommodate solid waste till 2030

  • 27.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Siting Using GIS and AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process): A Case Study Al-Qasim Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 5, s. 530-543Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The selection of a landfill site is considered as a complicated task because this process is based on many factors and restrictions. For Al-Qasim Qadhaa, which is situated in the southern part of the Babylon Governorate, Iraq, there is no landfill site in that area that conforms to the scientific criteria for selecting sites for landfill. For this reason, 15 criteria were adopted in this study (groundwater depth, rivers, soil types, agriculture lands use, land use, elevation, slope, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centers, villages and archaeological sites) using GIS (geographic information system), which has a large ability to manage input data. In addition, the AHP (analytical hierarchy process) method was used to derive the relative weightings for each criterion using pair-wise comparison. To obtain the suitability index for candidate landfill sites, a weighted linear combination method was used. After combining these methods, two suitable candidate landfill sites, with areas of 2.766 km2 and 2.055 km2, respectively, were found to satisfy the scientific and environmental requirements. The area of these sites can accommodate solid waste from 2020 until 2030 based on the required area, which was 0.702 km2.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 28.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Combining GIS Applications and Method of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (AHP) for Landfill Siting in Al-Hashimiyah Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq2017Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, nr 11, artikkel-id 1932Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill siting is a complex process. It is one of the major problems in waste management, where many factors should be taken into consideration when selecting a suitable site for landfill in any given area. At the present time, there are many random waste disposal sites distributed throughout Al-Hashimiyah Qadhaa in Iraq. In this study, the Geographic Information System (GIS) and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) were used to select the best sites for landfill. The process of selecting sites for landfill in Al-Hashimiyah Qadhaa comprised two steps. First, fifteen different criteria were mapped and incorporated into overlay analyses within GIS software to produce the final suitability index map for the site. The second step comprises the exclusion of unsuitable areas from the final map to simplify identification of the candidate sites for landfill in the study area. The weightings of criteria were identified using AHP, and the weightings of the sub-criteria of each criterion were determined based on multiple factors. In order to accommodate solid waste from 2020 until 2030, two suitable candidate landfill sites were determined which fulfill the required area of 1.013 km2 with areas of 1.374 km2 and 1.288 km2 respectively.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussein, Hussein M.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfills Site Selection in Babylon, Iraq2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 1-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Babylon Governorate is located in the middle of Iraq and includes five major districts called Qadhaa. It occupies an area of 5315 km2 with population of 2,092,998 in 2015. The process of selecting landfill site is considered complicated task related to many factors and regulations. Currently, there is no landfill site in Babylon Governorate that fulfils the scientific and environmental criteria. Therefore, in this study fifteen of suitable criteria were selected. These criteria are: groundwater depth, urban canters, rivers, villages, soil types, elevation, agriculture, roads lands use slope, land use, archaeological sites, power lines, gas pipelines, oil pipelines and railways. Then these criteria were used in the GIS (geographic information system), which has a high ability to manage and analyse various data. In addition, the AHP (analytical hierarchy process) method was used to derive the weightings of criteria through using a matrix of pair-wise comparison. After that the weighted linear combination (WLC) method was used to obtain the suitability index map for candidate landfill sites. Ten suitable candidate sites for landfill were selected (two for each District), where all these sites satisfied the scientific and environmental criteria which were adopted in this study. The areas of the selected sites were adequate to accommodate solid waste from 2020 until 2030.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30. Dury, Robin
    et al.
    Bernander, Stig
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Kullingsjö, Anders
    Skanska Teknik AB.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Progressive Landslide Analysis with Bernander Finite Difference Method2017Inngår i: / [ed] Vikas Thakur, Jean-Sébastien L’Heureux, Ariane Locat, 2017, s. 1-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The poster presents a new Spreadsheet developed by Robin Dury (2017) to simplify the use of the Finite Difference Method developed by Stig Bernander et al (2011, 2016).

    It includes:

    - Material Properties

    - Finite Difference Method

    - Progressive failure process with five phses

    - Discussion

    - References

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Poster
  • 31.
    Forsberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yang, Ting
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Borehole seals of expandable clay with desired water content by use of “dry water”2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Seoul 2017, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dense clay can be used for sealing of boreholes and isolation of waste containers. Expansion of the clay to fill the space between containers and confining rock takes place by uptake of water of the clay, which thereby provides effective isolation. The issue is to prepare clay inserts with properly selected water content. The paper describes preparation of clay seals by mixing air-dry clay powder with nanoparticles of water droplets coated with very thin shells of a hydrophobic silicious substance (“dry water”). It behaves as dry powder and is easily mixed with dry clay. On compaction to the desired density the shells break into microscopic fragments while water becomes homogeneously distributed in the mass. Laboratory tests verify that the properties of clay prepared in this way are the same, or better, than of commonly saturated clay.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Forsberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yang, Ting
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Clay/water mixture by use of nano-sized water droplets "dry-water"2017Inngår i: ICSMGE 2017: 19th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 19th ICSMGE Secretariat , 2017, s. 2367-2370Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dense clay can be used for sealing of boreholes and isolation of waste containers. Expansion of the clay to fill the space between containers and confining rock takes place by uptake of water of the clay, which thereby provides effective isolation. The issue is to prepare clay inserts with properly selected water content. The paper describes preparation of clay seals by mixing air-dry clay powder with nanoparticles of water droplets coated with very thin shells of a hydrophobic silicious substance ("dry water"). It behaves as dry powder and is easily mixed with dry clay. On compaction to the desired density the shells break into microscopic fragments while water becomes homogeneously distributed in the mass. Laboratory tests verify that the properties of clay prepared in this way are the same, or better, than of commonly saturated clay. © 2017 19th ICSMGE Secretariat. All rights reserved.

  • 33.
    Hatem, Mohammed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Jonasson, Jan-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Rheological properties of low pH cement-palygorskite injection grout2013Inngår i: Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research, ISSN 2231-8844, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 167-192Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The rheological properties of cementitious materials containing fine particles, such as mineral admixture were investigated using a Viso Star-L rheometer with cylindrical spindles. Selected features of the behavior of these materials are evaluated from a rheological perspective through literatures results for the past 30 years. One of the important factors that governs the ability of grout to penetrate fractures, channels and porous material is the rheology. The mineral admixture was clay palygorskite which can be used for early gelation because of its thixotropic properties as well as the powder quartz used as aggregate. The cementitious materials were designed and three recipes (MPG1, MPG2 and MPG3) were examined in this research by changing the mix proportions of the mineral admixture palygorskite and water content. For ensuring the accuracy of rheological measurement for the candidate’s grouts, necessary verification was been evaluated such as, influence of mixing time, stability and “time effect” to the accuracy of viscosity measurement, and yield stress as well as the physical properties at 3, 7 and 28 days. The results showed that grouts recipes with quartzite aggregate of different granulometry, are chemically compatible and fulfill the requirement of containing no organic matter. Candidate’s grouts found to satisfy the stable sedimentation criteria with sedimentation rates less than 5% after 2 hours. Furthermore, it was found that the grout recipe 3 followed by 1 showed lower yield stress and plastic viscosity which are (0.1 Pa and 0.269 Pas) and (0.288 Pa and 0.531 Pas) respectively.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 34.
    Hatem, Mohammed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Gburi, Majid
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Jonasson, Jan-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Design of concrete mixes by systematic steps and ANN2012Inngår i: Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research, ISSN 2231-8844, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 232-251Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The current research caters for the possibility of arriving at a system for designing concrete mixeseasily using available materials locally by specified wide ranges of pre-requisites of three mainprescribed properties to cover a good variety of practical mixes, which are water, water-cement ratioand total aggregate-cement ratio. Using these three properties, a tri-linear form was constructed bygraphical technique manner based on absolute volume approach. This approach defines as asummation of absolute volume for each of these three materials individually water, cement andaggregate should be equal to the absolute volume of whole concrete mixture based on thesealtogether. A quad-form area which includes a wide range of mixes can be formed from thisrepresentation. This area should achieve all the prescribed properties aforementioned. Artificial neuralnetwork concept used in this study also to build easily and quickly system which can be translatedinto Excel sheet. This system predict proportions of concrete mixture and the compressive strengthusing the results designed by the quad-form area method in addition to the data from literature around500 mixes based on local materials used in Iraq. Six input parameters (water to cement ratio, theslump, % of fine to total aggregate content, maximum aggregate size, fineness modulus of fineaggregate and the compressive strength) were used in this system to get the outputs. In addition, nineinput parameters ((water, cement, sand and gravel contents) and the properties of the mix (Finenessmodulus, W/C ratio, the slump, % of fine to total aggregate and the M.A.S)) were used as basis ofcompressive strength model. The algorithm of this system aimed to reduce the high number of trailmixes error as well as saving the labors, cost and time. Results indicated that the concrete mix designand the compressive strength model can be predicted accurately by using graphical perspective andthe ANN approach.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 35.
    Hatem, Mohammed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Packing theory for natural and crushed aggregate to obtain the best mix of aggregate: research and development2012Inngår i: Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2010-376X, E-ISSN 2070-3740, Vol. 6, nr 7, s. 479-485Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete performance is strongly affected by the particle packing degree since it determines the distribution of the cementitious component and the interaction of mineral particles. By using packing theory designers will be able to select optimal aggregate materials for preparing concrete with low cement content, which is beneficial from the point of cost. Optimum particle packing implies minimizing porosity and thereby reducing the amount of cement paste needed to fill the voids between the aggregate particles, taking also the rheology of the concrete into consideration. For reaching good fluidity superplasticizers are required. The results from pilot tests at Luleå University of Technology (LTU) show various forms of the proposed theoretical models, and the empirical approach taken in the study seems to provide a safer basis for developing new, improved packing models.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Hatem, Mohammed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Optimization of concrete by minimizing void volume in aggregate mixture system2012Inngår i: Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research, ISSN 2231-8844, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 208-222Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The behavior of concrete is affected by the size, distribution of the voids, the porosity and of the granulometry of the aggregate mixture. As a consequence it necessary for engineers to consider in detail particle packing concepts and their influence on the physical performance of concrete. The present study included determination of the fineness modulus, cement paste volume based on slump test and the properties of fresh and hardened concrete. It also comprised a study of the applicability of two theoretical models Toufar’s and 4C-packing program for selecting suitable relative amounts of the concrete constituents, for obtaining a minimum void ratio. Comparison of the results was made from using these theoretical models literature-derived experimental data. The models gave similar results and suggest similar combinations of materials to give minimum void ratio. Optimization of the composition of the aggregate material in concrete is beneficial with respect to economy (low cement content), strength and durability. It was noted that minimizing the void ratio (V) tends to raise the stiffness and that the compressive strength (푓푐′) is closely related also to their molding (R) and fineness modules (FM). It was found that the compressive strength can be predicted by applying the formula;푓푐′=−2.1−63.8 푉+0.150 푅+10.4 퐹푀; R2=0.94, and two other relationships related to slump data and cement content.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 37.
    Hatem, Mohammed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Alireza, Pourbakhtiar
    Talc-based concrete for sealing borehole optimized by using particle packing theory2013Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 440-455Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes assessment of the performance of cement-poor concreteson the basis of packing theory. The concretes are intended for sealing segments of deep boreholes and have a small amount of cement for minimizing the mutual chemical impact on the contacting clay seals. The composition is examined by application of packing theory with respect to the cement/aggregate ratio and the gradation of the aggregate material which is crushed quartzite for providing high internal friction after maturation, as well as to talc added for fluidity and to the small amount of cement. Low porosity and micro-structural stability must be guaranteed for very long periods of time. The study exemplifies how packing theory assist designers in selecting optimal proportions of the various components. Optimum particle packing implies minimizing the porosity and thereby reducing the amount of cement paste needed to fill the voids between the aggregate particles. The use of talc as inorganic super-plasticizer since ordinary organic additives for reaching high fluidity at casting are undesirable, and since talc reacts with cement and provides high strength in along-term perspective.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 38.
    Hatem, Mohammed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Jonasson, Jan-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Pourbakhtiar, Alireza
    Proportioning of cement-based grout for sealing fractured rock-use of packing models2013Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 5, nr 10, s. 765-774Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fractured, very permeable rock hosting repositories for radioactive waste will require grouting. New grout types of possible use where long-term performance is needed should have a small amount of cement for minimizing the increase in porosity that will follow from the ultimate dissolution and erosion of this component. They have to be low-viscous and gain strength early after injection and packing theory can assist designers in selecting suitable proportions of various grout components. Optimum particle packing means that the porosity is at minimum and that the amount of cement paste needed to fill the voids between aggregate particles is very small. Low porosity and microstructural stability must be guaranteed for long periods of time. Organic additives for reaching high fluidity cannot be used since they can give off colloids that carry released radionuclides and talc can be an alternative superplasticizer. Low-pH cement reacts with talc to give high strength with time while Portland cement gives early but limited strengthening. The clay mineral palygorskite can be used for early gelation because of its thixotropic properties. Once forced into the rock fractures or channels in soil it stiffens and serves as a filter that prevents fine particles to migrate through it be lost. However, its hydrophilic potential is too high to give the grout a high density and high strength. According to the experiments carried out most of the investigated grouts are injectable in fractures with apertures down to 100 μm.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 39.
    Hatem, Mohammed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Study of cement-grout penetration into fractures under static and oscillatory conditions2015Inngår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 45, s. 10-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Grouting of the rock surrounding high-level waste (HLW) can serve to minimize groundwater flow around it and thereby to retard erosion of waste-embedding clay (buffer) and transport of possibly released radionuclides. Earlier attempts have shown the efficiency of superimposing the injection pressure with oscillations for bringing cement-rich grouts into narrow fractures using organic superplasticizers. However, these are short-lived and can produce radionuclide-bearing organic colloids, and should be replaced by inorganic agents. Portland cement in grouts is not long lived and low-pH cements are preferable as is also reduction of the cement content to an absolute minimum. The present study describes the composition and performance of candidate grouts in laboratory experiments with injection into plane-parallel slots with different aperture. The study included development of a simple and quick method for estimating the viscosity on the construction site for adapting the grout recipe to the injectability of the rock. A simple theoretical model for predicting grout penetration gives fair agreement with laboratory data. The longevity of the grout under various conditions is believed to be sufficient for use in HLW repositories implying waste placement in very deep holes

  • 40.
    Hatem, Mohammed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hellström, J. Gunnar I.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Rheological Properties of Cement-Based Grouts Determined by Different Techniques2014Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. 217-229Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The rheological properties of cement-based grouts containing talc or palygorskite were investigated for optimizing fluidity and quick strengthening at injection. The fluidity controls the ability of grout to penetrate fractures and can be determined by pipe flow tests, Marsh funnel tests, mini-slump cone tests and rheometer tests. The grouts were 1) Talc for fluidity and strength by reacting with cement, 2) Palygorskite (attapulgite) for early gelation by being thixotropic, and 3) Powdered quartz for chemical integrity. The freshly prepared grouts behaved as Bingham fluids with viscosities from 0.151 to 0.464 Pas and yield stresses 5.2 Pa to 36.7 Pa. Statistical analysis of the flow test data converted Marsh flow time into viscosity. The pipe flow tests gave 26.5% higher values than the viscometer for grout with Portland cement and talc, and about 13.7% lower than the viscometer data for the grout with low-pH cement and talc. The big Marsh funnel gave valuesdiffering by 5.2% - 5.3% from those of the viscometer for grout with talc and Portland, and Merit 5000 cements. For grout with palygorskite the viscosity was at least twice that of the other grouts. Grout fluidity was positively affected by talc and negatively by palygorskite and early cement hydration

  • 41.
    Hatem, Mohammed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Jonasson, Jan-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Performance of Cement-poor Concrete with Different Superplasticizers2014Inngår i: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences, ISSN 2076-734X, E-ISSN 2076-7366, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 163-172Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete can be used for casting plugs in deep boreholes where fracture zones are intersected. They will be exposed to flowing groundwater and be in contact with very tight seals of smectite clay installed where the surrounding rock is tight. The cast concrete must be able to carry the clay segments placed over it after a few days. Its bearing capacity does not have to be very high after that since the clay soon adheres to the rock and carries itself. The concrete must be poor in cement for minimizing the risk of creation of voids caused by dissolution of the cement and it should have “inert” aggregate of quartz-rich material. Inorganic superplasticizers instead of conventional organic ones should be used for eliminating the risk of degradation and loss by formation of colloids that can carry radionuclides to the biosphere from holes bored in repository rock. The two concrete types discussed in the present study had Portland and Merit 5000 low pH cement as binders and crushed quartzite as aggregate. Talc mineral powder and ordinary organic Glenium 51 were used as superplasticizers for comparing their impact on the physical properties. The matrix of the cement-poor talc concrete gave ductile behaviour during initial hardening. The very dense matrix of either of the concretes would not lead to compression of the system even after complete loss of cement, which will happen over a longer period of time. The overall conclusion was that talc as superplasticizer and conditioner of the concrete can make the concrete sufficiently fluid for constructing seals at depth in boreholes, and react with cement to provide high strength with some delay. pH is much lower in Merit than in Portland concrete, which causes less impact on the clay seals. Portland concrete has five times higher strength than Merit concrete after a week but three times lower strength after 28 days.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 42. Hatem, Mohammed
    et al.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Warr, Laurence
    Greifswald University, Geographical & Geological Department, Germany.
    Hydrothermal alteration of clay and low pH concrete applicable to deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste: A pilot study2016Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 104, s. 1-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the very deep borehole (VDH) concept for high level radioactive waste disposal, the combined usage of clay and concrete provides an attractive way of achieving both high strength and low permeability required for sealing the various sections of the hole. The concrete is required for mechanical stability where water-bearing fracture zones are intersected, whereas the clay effectively seals sections in stable rock masses. As both the clay and concrete may be exposed to temperatures in the range of 60–150 °C in various parts of the hole, there is a need to address the stability of these materials under thermally enhanced aqueous conditions. In this pilot study, a new type of organic-free, low pH concrete based on granulated blast furnace slag is tested, which is hardened and altered under hydrothermal conditions in the laboratory. The results presented show that both adequate compressive strength (up to ∼9 MPa) and low hydraulic conductivity (down to ∼5.6 × 10−10) is attained at elevated temperatures ranging up to 150 °C, indicating that clay-concrete sealing can be a successful method used to prevent radionuclides from migrating vertically up through the borehole repository.

  • 43.
    Hatem, Mohammed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Warr, Laurence
    Institute of Geography and Geology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University of Greifswald.
    Kasbohm, Jörn
    Institute of Geography and Geology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University of Greifswald.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Interaction of clay and concrete relevant to the deep disposal of high-level radioactive waste2015Inngår i: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053, Vol. 118, s. 178-187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A concept for the disposal of highly radioactive waste at depth in the Earth’s crust using very deep bore-holes requires that the upper 2 km’s of the 800 mm diameter, steeply drilled holes, be effectively sealed. This can be achieved by using dense smectitic clay where the rock is weakly fractured and strengthening with concrete when fracture zones are encountered. Earlier investigations have shown that chemical reactions between the clay and concrete can be expected both in the upper part where the temperature is lower than 90oC and in the deeper section where the temperature reaches up to 150oC. To study further this interaction, hydrothermal experiments were conducted using mixed-layer (illite/smectite) Holmehus clay and a low pH slag-based concrete placed in contact under isothermal conditions at 21°C, 100oC and 150oC for a period of 8 weeks. The sample sets, which consisted of two clay discs separated by concrete cast on the lower clay disc, were extracted in undisturbed form and exposed to uniaxial pressure for measuring the compressive strength at successively increasing pressures. Compression tests underenhanced thermal conditions led to strengthening of both the clay and concrete. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy analysis of the material revealed an increasing degree of cation exchange at higher temperatures with the cement, whereby Ca replaced Na in the interlayer sites of smectite layers. Dissolution of illite/smectite was also evident occurring at enhanced temperatures, with a decrease in K, Mg and Fe content with advanced alteration. The enhanced strength of clay can be partly attributed to the precipitation of cement phases from circulating fluids, including precipitation of gypsum.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 44.
    Kasbohm, Jörn
    et al.
    Institute of Geography and Geology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University of Greifswald.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nguyen-Thanh, Lan
    Institute of Geography and Geology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University of Greifswald.
    Hoang-Minh, Thao
    Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi.
    Lab-scale performance of selected expandable clays under HLW repository conditions2013Inngår i: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 69, nr 8, s. 2569-2579Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Smectite clay has been proposed for embedding canisters with highly radioactive waste in deep repositories because of its isolating capacity. Montmorillonite-rich bentonite is a premier buffer candidate for many national organizations that are responsible for disposal of such waste. Experience from the use of drilling mud at large depths indicates that other smectite clay minerals are more stable chemically and saponite is one of them. The physical properties of smectitic mixed-layer minerals like Friedland clay are known to be less sensitive to high salt contents and such clay may also be a buffer candidate. Montmorillonite-rich MX-80 clay, Greek saponite with a minor amount of palygorskite, and Friedland clay were investigated in hydrothermal tests with dense samples confined in oedometers with 95 °C temperature at one end, which was made of copper, and 35 °C at the other, for 8 weeks. A 1 % CaCl 2 solution was circulated through a filter at the cold end. At the end of the tests, the samples were sliced into three parts, which were tested with respect to expandability, hydraulic conductivity, and chemical composition. The tests showed that while the saponite was hardly changed at all and did not take up any copper, MX-80 underwent substantial changes in physical performance and adsorbed significant amounts of copper. The Friedland clay sample was intermediate in both respects

  • 45.
    Minh, Thao Hoang-
    et al.
    Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University.
    Nguyen-Thanh, Lan
    Institute of Geography and Geology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University of Greifswald, Technical University of Darmstadt.
    Nguyen, Thuy-Duong
    Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University.
    Nguyen, Duc-Thanh
    Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute.
    Lai, Le Thi
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology.
    Thuyet, Nguyen Thi Minh
    Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University.
    Kasbohm, Jörn
    Institute of Geography and Geology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University of Greifswald, University of Greifswald, GeoENcon Ltd.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mineralogical Characterization of Di Linh Bentonite, Vietnam: A Methodological Approach of X-ray Diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy2014Inngår i: Proceedings of 13th International Symposium on Mineral Exploration (ISME-XIII): Toward Sustainable Society with Natural Resources - Frontiers in Earth Resources Technologies and Environmental Conservation / [ed] Noriyoshi Tsuchiya; Mai Trong Nhuan; Thao Hoang-Minh; Tatsu Kuwatani, Hanoi: Vietnam National University Press, Hanoi , 2014, s. 143-148Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vietnam has decided to establish nuclear power as further energy option. In order to develop a Vietnamese reference bentonite as potential barrier in a final repository for high radioactive waste, a detailed mineralogical investigation of Di Linh bentonite (Lam Dong province), lacustrine clay, was carried out by different methods especially transmission electron microscopy (TEM) linked with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). From a sample homogenized from 5 tones of the bentonite, mineral formulae of clay particles was calculated The calculation also focuses on randomly interstratifications of two and three members. The fraction <2 μm of Di Linh bentonite is composed mainly by montmorillonite (Ca0.06Mg0.03Na0.09K0.03Al1.39Fe0.25Mg0.26(OH)2 Si3.96Al0.04O10) and regular ordering (R1) illite-smectite interstratifications with K- and charge-deficiency (Ca0.04Mg0.07Na0.18K0.16Al1.76Fe0.08Mg0.16(OH)2Si3.62Al0.38O10). Additionally, Fe-poor kaolinite-smectite-vermiculite interstratifications and trace of Fe-rich chloritesmectite- vermiculite interstatifications were identified. TEM-investigations showed analytical proofs of the sedimentary character of smectite formation in the Di Linh deposit. Parent muscovite was weathered in several steps in two different environments: (i) K-leaching and layer-wise alteration into kaolinite; (ii) further edge- controlled alteration of mica into lathlike montmorillonite particles under dissolution of kaolinite layers from former kaolinite-mica intergrowths. Mineralogical composition of the Di Linh bentonite with mainly montmorillonite and illite-rich illite-smectite interstratifications shows that the Di Linh bentonite can be a suitable barrier candidate in final repositories.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 46.
    Nakano, Masashi
    et al.
    University of Tokyo.
    Yong, Raymond N.
    McGill University.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Cyclic water transfer in the top soil of a landfill2013Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 53-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the changes of water content and the kinetics of water flow under infiltration, redistribution, evaporation, transpiration and freeze and thaw of water in top soils of a landfill, which are needed for the assessment of contaminant transfer. The discussion focuses on (a) infiltration in layered soil and sloping layered soil, and one caused by water flow through channels in soils, (b) the changes of water content under evaporation, which occur in different water flow modes under different evaporation conditions, and (c) water depression due to transpiration, in which water flow originates from a deeper layer below the root zone of vegetation. It is concluded that the theoretical prediction of the changes of water content profiles requires (a) a full understanding of the characteristics of individual water flow in cyclic water transfer and (b) a careful setting of the boundary conditions specified at the soil surface since soil properties such as soil structure and especially unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at surface will easily change over the course of time.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Nakano, Masashi
    et al.
    Agriculture and Life Science, University of Tokyo, Japan .
    Yong, Raymond N.
    Geoenvironmental Engineering, Canada .
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mathematical Method Re-examined for Assessment of Ground Contaminated by Radioactive-Contaminated Groundwater2019Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 227-235Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we re-examined the transfer equation of radioactive substances in the ground and offer a more realistic transfer equation and other equations available for assessment of the ground contamination from radioactive-contaminated groundwater. The transfer equation takes into account kinematic and hydrodynamic considerations on mass conservation of mobile radioactive substances in a porous medium that typifies the ground. The other equations available for contamination assessment are concerned with deposition in contaminated areas and discharge flow of contaminants to the areas contiguous to contaminated area. The equations are derived on the understanding that disintegration of the radioactive substances adhering onto solids in the ground porous medium occurs as a sink term during the transfer of mobile radioactive substances. Finally, it is noted that the discharge of groundwater due to advective flow will be predominant in comparison to the discharge by diffusion

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48.
    Popov, Viktor
    et al.
    Ascend Technologies, ac, UK.
    Adey, Robert
    Computational Mechanics Centre, Southampton, UK.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Kasbohm, Jörn
    Greifswald University, Germany.
    Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Abandoned Mines2019Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 1-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Countries using nuclear energy tend to favour disposal of Low-Level and Intermediate-Level radioactive waste in mined repositories consisting of series of tunnels or drifts connected to disposal tunnels at a few hundred meters depth. Abandoned mines can serve as repositories for such waste and the present study indicates that this would be possible also for High-Level Waste in the form of spent reactor fuel. The technique implies encapsulation of such waste in metal canisters surrounded by densely compacted smectite clay in relatively shallow mined repositories as well as in very deep bored holes. Intermediate-Level radioactive waste can be disposed of in caverns in the form of packages of metal containers cast in low-pH concrete and embedded in dense smectitic clay.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    A technique to delay hydration and maturation of borehole seals of expansive clay2011Inngår i: Engineering Geology, ISSN 0013-7952, E-ISSN 1872-6917, Vol. 121, nr 1-2, s. 1-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sealing of deep boreholes for site selection of repositories for high-level radioactive waste can be made by inserting perforated copper tubes containing strongly compacted smectite-rich clay. The clay expands out through the perforation holes and ultimately forms a tight "skin" around the tubes at a rate that depends on the perforation geometry and the chemical composition of the water. The placement of the seals implies that they are moved through water in the borehole which can cause erosion and loss of clay if the expansion of the clay is too fast. The paper describes a method that retards the hydration and expansion of the clay sufficiently much to complete the installation before significant loss of clay has taken place. It involves addition of fine-powdered talc to the smectite grains in preparing a coating of the tubes

  • 50.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Bentonine shielding of rock-deposited redioactive wastes1983Inngår i: Nuclear Waste Management Program: summary report / [ed] Riley M. Chung, Washington, 1983, s. 112-124Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish KBS concepts for final deposition of canisters with nuclear wastes from reactors, imply that the canisters be placed in deposition holes which are bored from the floors of tunnels at about 500 m depth in Swedish crystalline bedrock. The canisters are isolated from the rock by a ″buffer mass″ consisting of pure bentonite in the case of unreprocessed wastes, and the deposition plant is finally sealed by backfilling shafts and tunnels with bentonite/sand mixtures. The bentonite, which surrounds the canisters, is applied in the form of blocks of highly compacted bentonite. The blocks are produced by isostatic compaction of commercial bentonite powder under pressures in the range of 50-100 MPa, which yields block densities of 2. 1-2. 2 t/m**3 when using Wyoming Na bentonite MX-80 powder. The compacted bodies are cylindrical and they can be manufactured by sawing, drilling etc. so that cylindrical discs, rods, annuli, and practically any shape can be obtained. The particularly attractive properties of the highly compacted Na bentonite are reported

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