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  • 1. Björnfot, Anders
    et al.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Lindbäck, Hans
    Lindbäcks Bygg, Sverige.
    Projekt: Installationssamordning2010Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet syftar till att arbeta fram en modell för hur modularisering kan utnyttjas praktiskt i byggsammanhang. Specifikt handlar det om att definiera och avgränsa moduler samt att redogöra för hur en teknisk plattform kan skapas som stöds av en individuell utveckling av moduler för tekniska installationer. Medverkande parter Universitet: Luleå tekniska universitet (LTU) Företag: Lindbäcks Bygg AB Norvag Byggsystem AB Moelven ByggModul AB Setra Group AB Martinsons Byggsystem AB

  • 2.
    Holmlund, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Simu, Kajsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Lean i praktiken: en studie av produktionen på Englundshus AB2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till projektet som resulterat i denna rapport, ligger i ett behov att förbättra effektiviteten i fabriken hos Englundshus AB. Syftet är att se över fabrikslayouten, hitta flöden, flaskhalsar och slöseri. Den teoribas som använts, finns inom ramen för Lean Production även kallat Lean Construction inom byggbranschen. Studien har genomförts i tre steg med lika många företagsbesök. Vid det första besöket studerades hela fabrikslayouten och samtliga delprocesser. Besöket resulterade i ett konstaterande att det som i teorierna beskrivs som 5S snabbt skulle skapa mervärde till hela fabriksprocessen. I samband med det andra besöket fokuserades på de två största processerna som är vägg- och golvtillverkning. Ur företagets tidsuppföljning konstaterades att väggtillverkningen var flaskhalsen för delprocesserna. Under besöket drogs även slutsatsen att materialflödet är kritiskt och bör ses över.För att hitta aktiviteten som orsakar flaskhalsen i väggtillverkningen gjordes under besök tre en värdeflödeskartläggning. Den visade att den sista stationen, där panel monteras, är flaskhalsen inom delprocessen.För att minska slöseriet och få ett bättre flöde genom fabriken och därmed minska effekten av flaskhalsen har ett förslag på ny fabrikslayout tagits fram. Förslaget innebär att borden omplaceras så att varje station ges möjlighet till ett bättre materialflöde.

  • 3.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Modularity in industrialised timber housing: a lean approach to develop building service systems2009Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Modularity has been applied in various disciplines, e.g. manufacturing, computer, cognitive science and education. General advantages are platform thinking and module variants which provide a range of product variants using a small number of components. However, the field has not been fully explored within construction.Sweden has taken a leading role within industrialised timber housing. Much effort has been put in research and development of the timber structural system. Thereby, the building service systems (electrical and HVAC systems) has fallen behind in development. Currently, there are several actors involved, (e.g. consultants, subcontractors, wholesalers) that are individually procured on shortterm agreements. The actors remain in the traditional culture with dispersed views on value. To be able to break this dependency, enhanced industrialised practice for the building services is sought. Modularity is argued to aid in reducing the variation in production, lowering lead times and achieving control of material supply. Through modularity, production control can be achieved and value can be better managed, issues which are prevailing in industrialised timber housing. The purpose of the research is to evaluate the feasibility of modularity for building service systems within industrialised housing in Sweden. The thesis is based on two appended papers, discussing how modularity can be applied to industrialised housing, considering value generation and production control. The research strategy has been to follow previous case conclusions in the design of the next case. Empirical data have been gathered from five case studies ranging from a market survey to a consultant procurement. Five industrial housing companies have participated and data have also been collected from consultants and subcontractors. The results show that influence from traditional culture is particularly evident for the building service systems, as much work is still located on-site and actors in the supply chains act individually to optimise their own values, leading to lack of production control through e.g. faulty drawings. Further, the importance of cooperation within the trade is underlined in order to shield from the protectionism in the building service trade. The implication is the development of industry-wide common modules capturing internal values, and a company driven development process for management of company specific external values. The data have been analysed with a generic set of module drivers and the relation to value and production control, to identify forces for modular division. The findings point out the importance of drawing validation, possibility to isolate the process for parallel assembly and purchasing control through reduction of articles.The general conclusion is to design base module components only comprising necessary systems, which can be adapted to a generic building system. The suggestion is the development of a building service shaft and a building service inner ceiling. The analysis results emphasise the importance of interface design. In this sense are also included interfaces within the process and the supply chain, i.e. between activities and actors in the production process.

  • 4.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    The transition of industrialised house-building towards improved production control2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Production control is the coordination of supply chain and production activities within manufacturing systems to achieve specific delivery flexibility and delivery reliability with a minimum of cost. Swedish industrialised house-building is a part of housing construction, employing an engineer-to-order production strategy, meaning that products (buildings) are engineered (designed) and produced to order. The building system is used as a strategic asset, giving flexibility to the client and aiming for production standardisation (e.g. operations, material) and predictability (e.g. quality and delivery times) of the production. Still, the operational platform encounters problems resulting in severe rework, which impact on quality and time frames.This thesis describes the transition for industrialised house-building towards improved production control by assessing tools from other manufacturing typologies than industrialised housing and engineer-to-order. The aim of the assessment was to identify barriers against the transition. When assessing tools from other fields it is important that the analysis relates to the business model employed i.e. avoid the risk that measures introduced to the operational platform compromise the flexibility of the end product (the building).The tools were decided from a decision base methodology, which is a combination of a model for competitive capabilities and the three areas product, process and supply chain. The investigated tools were modularity, Systematic production Analysis (SPA) and Failure mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). Empirical data were gathered from the production process of an industrialised house-builder and one of their first-tier suppliers. The results show that the tools have to be changed to fit in the industrialised house-building company. SPA was for example deconstructed with the idea to iteratively add back removed parts. In the FMEA study, the tool was also revised by suggesting new ranking systems to prioritise failure modes in production and the idea to reflect the industrial context of the house-builder and engineer-to-order. Especially indicative was the interaction between the severity and detection classes and the length of the supply chain.The most prominent barriers for production control identified in the assessment were product design in terms of interfaces and their tolerances, lack of testing in the production (exacerbated by the process length), choice of wood as the structural material, orders dispatched to the factory project-by-project, and lack of vertical integration among consultants and suppliers. Also, in the investigation of the transition towards improved production control, the assessment of the tools showed that it should be managed in a stepwise manner. Consequently, the impact from the tools on both the operational platform but also the business model can be monitored.

  • 5.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Björnfot, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Production resource management in the industrialised house-building supply chain2012Inngår i: Journal of Engineering, Project, and Production Management, ISSN 2221-6529, E-ISSN 2223-8379, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 78-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialised house-building suppliers must learn to see how the lack of resource management disrupt the synchronisation of their production processes both upstream (e.g. capability to forecast material consumption) and downstream (e.g. order delivery Just-in-Time). In contrast to focus on workflow as is more common in construction, Systematic Production Analysis (SPA) is a tool capable of providing a more robust production process in terms of better resource characterisation and predictability. A roadmap model, composed of six steps, has been developed for simple introduction of SPA. The model is a straightforward way of classifying the production system in terms of impacting resource and parameters attributing to production loss (scrap or downtime). The applicability of SPA is analysed through a pilot case study at a patio door manufacturer. Two main response parameters emerged related to scrap; surface and dimension errors of the work piece material (wood). An objective function was formulated to reduce the scrap without increasing the total cost of the work piece material. It was suggested that the case company evaluates Engineering Wood Products (EWP) leading to a more robust production process (less scrap), but in turn increasing the initial cost of the work piece material. Other potential measures are purchasing new processing tools, investing in new machinery or educating workers which all, directly or indirectly, lead to reduced scrap. Consequently, proper management of production resources will improve their predictability and in turn improve production control.

  • 6.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Björnfot, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Step-by-step modularity: a roadmap for building service development2010Inngår i: Lean Construction Journal, ISSN 1555-1369, E-ISSN 1555-1369, Vol. 2010, nr 1, s. 17-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7. Lennartsson, Martin
    et al.
    Björnfot, Anders
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Lean modular design: value-based progress of industrialised housing2008Inngår i: IGLC 16 Proceedings: 16th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction / [ed] Patricia Tzortzopoulos; Mike Kagioglou, University of Salford, U.K. , 2008, s. 541-551Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the core ideas of Lean Construction is that the process of designing and producing a construction product should progress continuously and create value for both the customer and the delivery team. The hypothesis in this paper is that modularisation has potential as a method for value management. The aim is to describe how modularisation, in a lean context, can be used as a tool to facilitate the management of internal and external values in industrialised housing. The paper will explore the theory of modularisation and its drivers and examine how the method can promote value management. Modularisation is then explored in practice, using empirical knowledge from the building service systems (HVAC, electricity, etc.) development process at five Swedish multi-storey timber housing producers. The analysis point out the importance of decomposing the modularisation process into a jointly performed industry phase where modules are designed, followed by a company internal product development process that complies to the modules. This paper concludes that it is not the product decomposition into modules that is of importance, rather the process that strives to balance internal and external values.

  • 8.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Björnfot, Anders
    Stehn, Lars
    Production control through modularisation2009Inngår i: Proceedings IGLC 17: 17th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction, 2009, s. 453-464Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the industrial housing trade has developed for many years with the salient idea of improving production control through an increased level of prefabrication. However, production variability is a consistent issue as work is still sub-optimised, resulting in a fragmented production process. Consequently, problems arise when prefabricated parts and components are assembled. The building services are often a source of high variability (many different components and subcontractors), leading to reduced production control. The aim of this paper is to present how modularisations can provide prerequisites for production control in service system design.So far, modularisation has only rendered little attention in Lean construction. In this paper, a modularisation development effort of five Swedish industrial housing ompanies is reported. To generate a relevant set of modules, several workshops were held together with company representatives and building service consultants. The Design Structure Matrix (DSM) was used to detect the lowest common geometrical denominator of the building service systems as well as crucial connection points and interfaces. Combining the DSM with qualitative module drivers generates a design for service system modules facilitating improved production control.

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