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  • 1.
    Verbist, Maxime
    et al.
    ISISE, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, Guimarães, Portugal.
    Nunes, Lina
    LNEC, Structures Department, Lisboa, Portugal;cE3c, Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes, Azorean Biodiversity Group and University of the Azores, Angra do Heroísmo, Portugal.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik. DJ Timber Consultancy Ltd., Neath, United Kingdom.
    Branco, Jorge M.
    ISISE, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, Guimarães, Portugal.
    11 - Service life design of timber structures2019Ingår i: Long-term Performance and Durability of Masonry Structures: Degradation Mechanisms, Health Monitoring and Service Life Design / [ed] Bahman Ghiassi and Paulo B. Lourenço, Elsevier, 2019, s. 311-336Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood has been widely used by humans for millennia as a construction material and can be easily found in everyday life, anywhere around the world. Since wood is a natural, sustainable, and organic composite material, it can be affected by several wood-deteriorating agents under suitable climate exposure conditions, which may threaten the long-term performance of timber structures in their service life. In that context, this chapter covers the background, guidelines, and current research that can help engineers and architects when designing timber structures. It provides extended knowledge about different wood-deteriorating agents, the natural durability of wood, and the use class concept. Based on this, durability models can be established, taking into account the potential presence over time of wood deterioration agents and allowing design for improved service life. Preventive measures and protection systems can be defined from the beginning, whereas on-site monitoring and maintenance of timber structures should be continuously performed.

  • 2.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    COST FP1303 “performance of bio-based building materials”2019Ingår i: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 14, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Gaff, Milan
    et al.
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Kačík, František
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic;Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technologies, Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology, Technical University in Zvolen, Zvolen, Slovakia.
    Gašparík, Miroslav
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Todaro, Luigi
    School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Corleto, Roberto
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic;School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy.
    Makovická Osvaldová, Linda
    Department of Fire Engineering, Faculty of Security Engineering, University of Žilina, Žilina, Slovakia.
    Čekovská, Hana
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
    The effect of synthetic and natural fire-retardants on burning and chemical characteristics of thermally modified teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) wood2019Ingår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 200, s. 551-558Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the effect of various temperatures of thermal modification and fire retardants on selected burning characteristics and chemical wood components of teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) wood. The thermal modification was carried out at temperatures 160 °C, 180 °C and 210 °C. Subsequently, thermally modified wood was treated by natural (arabinogalactan) and synthetic (ammonium phosphate) fire retardants. The effect of thermal modification as well as fire retardant was detected by burning characteristics such as weight loss, burning rate, maximum burning rate, ratio of the maximum burning rate and time to reach maximum burning rate. The chemical changes caused by the influence of these factors were determined by changing the content of cellulose, hemicelluloses, holocellulose, lignin and extractives. The relationship between burning characteristics and chemical changes in the thermally modified wood was analyzed using Spearman’s correlation. The results showed that the thermal modification of teak wood had a negative effect on its ignition and burning properties. Synthetic fire retardant had the highest retardation effect in all cases. The natural fire retardant caused a better retardation effect on thermally modified wood at temperature 180 and 210 °C. The relative content of lignin, extractives and cellulose increased, while the amount of holocellulose and particularly hemicelluloses decreased.

  • 4.
    Bekhta, Pavlo
    et al.
    Ukranian National Forestry University.
    Sedliacik, Jan
    Technical University in Zvolen.
    Jones, Dennis
    DJ Timber Consultancy Ltd.
    Effect of short-term thermomechanical densification of wood veneers on the properties of birch plywood2018Ingår i: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 76, nr 2, s. 549-562Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels made from pre-compressed birch (Betula verrucosa Ehrh.) veneer were evaluated. Veneer sheets underwent short-term thermo-mechanical (STTM) compression at temperatures of 150 or 180 ⁰C and at pressures of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 or 3.5 MPa for a period of 1 minute before being adhesive applied and pressed into panels using phenol formaldehyde adhesive at 100 g/m2 spread rate; this was one third less than the adhesive spread used for the control panels (150 g/m2). The pressing pressure was 1.0 MPa that was almost half of the pressure used for the control panels (1.8 MPa); and pressing time was 3 min, also half of the pressing time used for the control panels (6 min). The results showed that surface roughness of compressed veneer, water absorption and thickness swelling of plywood panels made from compressed veneer were significantly improved. The shear strength values of plywood panels made from compressed birch veneer even with reduced adhesive spread were higher than those of plywood panels made from un-compressed veneer. The findings in this study indicated that compression of birch veneer would be considered as an alternative to produce more eco-friendly (owing to smaller adhesive spread) value-added material with enhanced properties.

  • 5.
    Ugovšek, Aleš
    et al.
    M SORA d.d., Žiri, Slovenia.
    Šubic, Barbara
    M SORA d.d., Žiri, Slovenia.
    Starman, Jernej
    M SORA d.d., Žiri, Slovenia.
    Rep, Gregor
    Silvaprodukt d.o.o., Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Humar, Miha
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Lesar, Boštjan
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Thaler, Nejc
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Brischke, Christian
    Department of Wood Biology and Wood Products, Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany.
    Meyer-Veltrup, Linda
    Institute of Vocational Sciences in the Building Trade, Faculty of Architecture and Landscape Sciences, Leibniz University Hannover, Hannover, Germany.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik. DJ Timber Consultancy Limited, Neath, UK.
    Häggström, Urban
    Research Institute of Sweden, Built Environment/Building Technology, Skellefteå, Sweden.
    Lozano, Jose Ignacio
    Tecnologías Avanzadas Inspiralia S.L., Madrid, Spain.
    Short-term performance of wooden windows and facade elements made of thermally modified and non-modified Norway spruce in different natural environments2018Ingår i: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 42-47Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermally modified wood is becoming an increasingly popular material for different applications in buildings. Laboratory tests indicated a positive effect of thermal modification on durability, dimensional stability and thermal conductivity of wood. Therefore, windows and facade elements made of thermally modified Norway spruce and non-modified Norway spruce were tested in the field and installed in different test objects which were exposed at five locations in Europe (Slovenia, Germany, Sweden, and Spain). Results from monitoring showed that elements and windows made of thermally modified spruce (TMS) had considerably lower wood moisture content compared to the ones made of non-modified spruce and that wax further positively influenced moisture performance. Colour changes of TMS were more intensive compared to non-modified spruce but were successfully retarded by adding pigments to the wax. Mould and stain growth was largely dependent on the location, amount of precipitation and relative humidity.

  • 6.
    Karlsson, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Elustondo, Diego
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Thermally modified wood treated with methacrylate2018Ingår i: Proceedings IRG Annual Meeting IRG49 Scientific Conference on Wood Protection Sandton, Johannesburg, South Africa 29 April-3 May, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermally modified timber (TMT)from Scots pine sapwood similar to Thermo-D quality was impregnated with methacrylate resin by the hot-and-cold method and subsequently cured at elevated temperatures. The results showedthat methacrylate resin could be used to reduce colouring of painted TMT wood during accelerated weathering probably by hindering the migration of extractives. The resin itself did not reduce greying of the unpainted wood. Hardness was only slightly improved by treatment with the resin probably due to a higher density of the material. Formation of blisters occurred but wasreduced by treatment with the resin. Resistance to mould growth by a mixture of Aureobasidium pullulans, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium purpurogenumwas performed by applying EN-15457:2014. Treatment with methacrylic resin hindered the colonisation of the three last mouldfungi.

  • 7.
    Sandberg, Dick
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Wood modification ‒ different processes and their use in Europe.2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the 8th hardwood conference with special focus on "new aspects on hardwood utilization - from science to technology" / [ed] Németh R, Teischinger A, Rademacher P, Bak M., Sopron, 2018, s. 12-13Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, wood modification is referred to as a process used to improve the physical, mechanical, or aesthetic properties of sawn timber, veneer or wood particles used in the production of wood composites. Though many aspects of these treatments are known, the fundamental influence of the process on product performance, the environment, and end of life scenarios remain relatively unknown. It is essential to integrate interactive assessment of process parameters, developed product properties, and environmental impacts. To optimize modification processing to minimize environmental impacts, much more information must be gathered about all process related factors affecting the environment. Wood modification represents an assortment of innovative processes currently being adopted in the wood protection sector or are at different stage of development (Fig. 1). These processes produces a material that can be disposed at the end of a product's life cycle without presenting any environmental hazards greater than those that are associated with the disposal of unmodified wood. 

  • 8.
    Jones, Dennis
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Wood modification in Sweden2018Ingår i: Procedings of COST Action FP1407 WG1 and WG4 meeting.: Wood modification in Europe : processes, products, applications / [ed] Goli G and Todaro L., Florence, 2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Jones, Dennis (Redaktör)
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik. DJ Timber Consultancy Ltd.
    Brischke, Christian (Redaktör)
    University of Goettingen.
    Performance of Bio-Based Building Materials2017Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance of Bio-based Building Materials provides guidance on the use of bio-based building materials (BBBM) with respect to their performance. The book focuses on BBBM currently present on the European market. The state-of-the-art is presented regarding material properties, recommended uses, performance expectancies, testing methodology, and related standards.

    Chapters cover both ‘old and traditional’ BBBM since quite a few of them are experiencing a comeback on the market. Promising developments that could become commercial in the near future are presented as well.

    The book will be a valuable reference resource for those working in the bio-based materials research community, architects and agencies dealing with sustainable construction, and graduate students in civil engineering.

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