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  • 1. Williams, Trenton
    et al.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Lindh, Ida
    Rising from failure, staying down, or more of the same?: An inductive study of entrepreneurial reentry2020Ingår i: Academy of Management Discoveries, ISSN 1523-2867, E-ISSN 1084-6654Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on a multi-year qualitative study, we explore the phenomenon of reentry into venturing after a failure. The primary discovery of this study is a pathway by which interactions of failure attributions and emotions lead to effective entrepreneurial reentry in the aftermath of a failure. Specifically, we discover three trajectories of reentry: separation (reentry with minimal modifications), reinforcement (no reentry), and metamorphosis (reentry with substantial modifications). We describe the differences between the trajectories and detail three dimensions of primary discovery: negative emotions are not necessarily an obstacle to reentry, as previously thought; perceived controllability is critical in explaining reentry; and the evolution of attributional/emotional responses over time as a result of the interplay between these concepts is central to explaining effective reentry.

  • 2.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Handbok för examensarbeten2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Sjödin, David
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    How Individuals Engage in the Absorption of New External Knowledge: A Process Model of Absorptive Capacity2019Ingår i: The Journal of product innovation management, ISSN 0737-6782, E-ISSN 1540-5885, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 356-380Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers a process model of how individuals engage in the absorption of new external knowledge. Data collection is centered on the experiences of knowledge workers in recognizing, assimilating, and applying external knowledge. The process model delineates how individuals engage in the absorptive capacity (AC) process through: (1) valuing knowledge potential by assessing the motivation to assimilate knowledge and by evaluating technological feasibility, which together constitute the recognition of value; (2) corroborating knowledge value by ensuring legitimacy and demonstrating a shared understanding of the business value in achieving knowledge assimilation; and (3) championing knowledge integration by lobbying for support and securing resources in order to integrate and apply the knowledge within the organization, ultimately ensuring that knowledge is exploited. The process model clarifies how an individual’s proficiency in external knowledge absorption activities can result in three possible outcomes: knowledge is exploited, knowledge is terminated, or knowledge gets “stuck” in limbo. These findings contribute to the AC literature by underscoring the pivotal role of individual engagements in recognition, assimilation, and application of external knowledge and add new elements and a process perspective to the understanding of the path from potential to realized AC. The paper also provides insights into how individuals and firms can better manage knowledge absorption in practice.

  • 4. Stroe, Silvia
    et al.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    The Outcomes of Passion in Entrepreneurship2019Ingår i: Passion for work: Theory, research, and applications / [ed] Robert J. Vallerand and Nathalie Houlfort, Oxford University Press, 2019Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]
    • Provides a thorough review of most empirical work from the last 15 years on the topic of passion at work
    • Presents new and unpublished results and studies
    • Argues that being passionate is not the end of the story; the type of passion, harmonious or obsessive, will determine the outcomes experienced
  • 5.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Caiman, Elin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    The Role of Psychological Safety in Implementing Agile Methods across Cultures2019Ingår i: Research technology management, ISSN 0895-6308, E-ISSN 1930-0166, Vol. 62, nr 2, s. 31-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Overview: This paper emphasizes the cultural challenges of implementing Agile methods. We applied a psychological safety framework in an empirical case where Agile methods were implemented across workplace cultures, which helped define challenges related to psychological safety in three areas: (1) cultural differences related to attitudes toward inclusiveness, (2) cultural differences related to perceptions of and trust in collective responsibility, and (3) cultural differences related to openness in communication. These findings suggest that working across cultural boundaries adds to the challenges with Agile implementation found in other studies. 

  • 6.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Cardon, Melissa S.
    Murnieks, Charles Y.
    Passion2018Övrigt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an article in the collection of Oxford Bibliographies. Each article addresses a topic within a single discipline (in this case Passion), and provides expert recommendations to works on the topic in question. Each bibliography provides a selective list of the best and most useful resources available on the topic, annotations indicating what each work captures, and the article author’s commentaries to guide readers through the citations. The purpose of the bibliographies is to increase students’ and researchers’ productivity, save time, and elevate the quality of research by providing a reliable roadmap into the topic. Please read more here: https://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/

    This is a revised and updated version of the previously published bibliography entry:

    http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-23878

  • 7.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Omorede, Adesuwa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Passionate Leaders in Social Entrepreneurship: Exploring an African Context2018Ingår i: Business & society, ISSN 0007-6503, E-ISSN 1552-4205, Vol. 57, nr 3, s. 481-524Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonstate actors such as social enterprises are increasingly influential for addressing pressing social needs in sub-Saharan Africa. Moving responsibility from the state to private entrepreneurs calls for a greater understanding of how single individuals achieve their social mission in a context characterized by acute poverty and where informal institutions, such as trust and collective norms, are strong governance mechanisms. This study recognizes the role of leader passion as a key element for gaining people’s trust in the social enterprise leader and the social mission. Qualitative data were collected on 37 leaders of Nigerian social enterprises in arenas such as health, women’s rights, children’s rights, AIDS/HIV care and education, and sustainable development. Drawing on 100 semistructured interviews, the authors develop an inductive model illustrating how leader passion interrelates with the social enterprise organizing and outcomes.

  • 8.
    Sirén, Charlotta
    et al.
    Global Center for Entrepreneurship & Innovation, Institute of Technology Management, University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Järlström, Maria
    Department of Management, University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    Self-directed career management and mobility: the risk of lock-in effects from person–job fit2018Ingår i: International Journal of Human Resource Management, ISSN 0958-5192, E-ISSN 1466-4399Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomy and fit with the job are important reasons why employees thrive at work, yet surprisingly little research has examined the implications this may have on how employees perceive their career opportunities, both within and outside the organization where they currently work. Drawing on self-determination theory, we propose that the more employees manage their career in a self-directed manner, the more likely they are to consider themselves to have good career opportunities both within and outside their current organization. However, we propose that, while good person–job fit may push an employee to see increasing opportunities within their current organization, it is equally likely to make the employee less inclined to see opportunities for career advancement outside the organization. Analyses on data gathered from a sample of 902 knowledge workers support our model. We conclude that person–job fit strongly influences the degree to which employees perceive opportunities for internal and external career mobility. The results have implications for research on self-directed career management, person–job fit, and the dynamics of the career mobility issue

  • 9.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    The Telephone Game, or Clear as Crystal? How to Effectively Craft Responses to Reviewer Comments2018Ingår i: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 239-243Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This brief note focuses on how to communicate with reviewers through the response letter. Specifically, we elaborate on how to minimize the risk that reviewers underestimate the quality of the study because of poor communication in the response letter. We outline ideas for how to plan and organize a revision, and then crafting the response letter. We organize the discussion around how common writing rules, such as “Make it simple to read” and “Write for the target audience”, may apply to response letters but need adaptation to be effective. In summary, while the changes made in the actual paper are most important in any revision, this note provides an additional resource to use in order to increase the chances that the revised paper reaches its greatest potential. 

  • 10.
    Vesalainen, Jukka
    et al.
    University of Vaasa.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Rossi, Timo
    University of Vaasa.
    Toward Cross-Border Engineering Management: Development and Test of a Practice for Idea Generation in Customer–Supplier DFM Teams2017Ingår i: Engineering Management Journal, ISSN 1042-9247, E-ISSN 0960-7919, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 278-286Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing inter-organizational dependence within business ecosystems necessitates more intensive cooperation between various organizational functions, not only sales and purchasing. Engineering management is one of the functions typically regarded as an in-house activity. Prior research acknowledges certain cooperative forms such as early supplier involvement, but it falls short on identifying practices of grass-roots level cooperation. However, it is the quality of the interaction between supplier and customer that is decisive if the advantages of collaboration are to materialize. This study aims to fill this obvious gap in both theory and practice by developing and testing an inter-organizational practice for co-ideation in a supplier-customer relationship. Specifically, a way of working for idea generation to improve inter-organizational learning within specific Design for Manufacturing meetings between an industrial corporation and two of its important suppliers is developed. The evaluation of the tested co-ideation practice indicated that, in comparison to the traditional way of working, the new practice contributed to a greater number of generated ideas, was found useful in practice, and expert ratings suggested that the ideas generated were of adequate quality. The implication for practice is the proposed procedure that aims to build a safe psychological environment and help participants to transcend existing behavioral roles as representatives of suppliers and customers.

  • 11.
    Jonsson, Linnea
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Trainee programs: an emerging model on psychological contract reciprocity2017Ingår i: Personnel review, ISSN 0048-3486, E-ISSN 1758-6933, Vol. 46, nr 8, s. 1738-1754Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a deeper understanding of the organization-trainee relationship through a psychological contract lens, by exploring the psychological contract between the trainee and organization during and after the program and what factors may account for contract reciprocity.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Inductive qualitative study design.

    Findings

    Data suggested that factors accounting for contract reciprocity during the program included: trainees’ responsibilities, trainees’ personal and professional development, trainees’ commitment, trainees’ delivery, and managerial and supervisory support. Factors identified accounting for contract reciprocity after individuals completed the program were: career opportunities, future-oriented dialogue between former trainees and managers, wage-setting, job tasks, and working conditions.

    Originality/value

    This exploratory research is original in that it identifies different factors accounting for the reciprocity during and after the program, and how this may be particularly relevant when talents are recruited externally to specifically participate in the program.

  • 12.
    Wincent, Joakim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    Department of Marketing and Entrepreneurship, Kent State University, Kent State University, Kent, OH.
    Costly Ties: Social Capital as a Retardant of Network-Level Entrepreneurial Orientation2016Ingår i: Journal of small business management (Print), ISSN 0047-2778, E-ISSN 1540-627X, Vol. 54, nr 1, s. 229-243Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Challenging social capital research, we argue that network top management teams (TMTs) established to support entrepreneurship in strategic multipartner networks should be careful in developing ties to outside organizations and networks. We suggest that such ties limit the network TMT's ability to engage in the strategy-making processes needed to facilitate entrepreneurial orientation on a network level. Based on five-year panel data from 53 formalized networks of small and medium-sized enterprises, we demonstrate that homogenous and highly educated network TMTs can compensate the negative effects of TMT ties to other organizations, but not the negative effects of interlocking directorates.

  • 13.
    Lindh, Ida
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Critical event recognition: An extended view of reflective learning2016Ingår i: Management Learning, ISSN 1350-5076, E-ISSN 1461-7307, Vol. 47, nr 5, s. 525-542Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This inductive case study extends existing reflective learning theory by introducing the concept of critical event recognition. We define this as the cognitive process through which individuals conclude that they are facing a critical learning point that demands a change of thoughts and actions. Extant theory has described reflection and learning as processes of interaction among an individual’s various experiences and has emphasized that critical events are important for these processes. Yet, theory has largely ignored how learners develop task-specific cognitions from such critical events when they lack previous task-specific experiences to which they can relate the reflection. This study proposes an extended perspective on reflective learning by shedding light on event recognition and by illustrating how cognitive development may progress when the individual has little prior experience with which to integrate the reflection from critical events

  • 14.
    Lindh, Ida
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Entrepreneurship education: the role of local business2016Ingår i: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 28, nr 5-6, s. 313-336Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship education is high on political agendas for its contributions to cultural change and economic growth. Scholars have suggested that the local context may influence the results of entrepreneurship education, and have recommended that educators strengthen their relationships with local businesses and help students learn from actual business settings. By combining policy analysis with empirical data, the present qualitative study explores two issues. First, we look at how the role of local business is expressed in entrepreneurship education policy documents. Second, we explore how local entrepreneurial activity and culture may influence how policies are understood and translated into practice at the local level. The findings indicate that collaboration between schools and business life may strengthen, rather than change, existing local development paths. The present paper contributes to the literature and understanding of the interplay between entrepreneurship education policy and the local context and proposes several policy recommendations emerging from the empirical study.

  • 15.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Sirén, Charlotta
    University of Vaasa , Global Center Entrepreneurship & Innovation, Institute of Technology Management, University of St.Gallen.
    Nordström, Carin
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Dalarna University.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Hybrid entrepreneurs' second-step choice: The nonlinear relationship between age and intention to enter full-time entrepreneurship2016Ingår i: Journal of Business Venturing Insights, ISSN 2352-6734, Vol. 5, s. 14-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurs who run venture startups parallel to wage employment engage in so-called hybrid entrepreneurship. Not all hybrid entrepreneurs, however, eventually leave the wage employment to become a full-time entrepreneur (second-step entrepreneurship). Significant research has focused on first-step entrepreneurial choice (to engage in a business start-up), but much less has focused on a second-step entrepreneurial choice, which captures the transition to full-time entrepreneurship. The present study, which examines the second-step entrepreneurial choice, reveals a U-shaped relationship between age and the intention to enter full-time entrepreneurship. Interestingly, this contrasts with prior studies on the effects from age in the first-step entrepreneurship choice, demonstrating an inverted U-relationship between age and venture startup.

  • 16.
    Kohtamäki, Marko
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Organizational identity and behaviors in strategic networks2016Ingår i: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 36-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this study is to develop and test a framework describing the interplay between collective organizational identity, network behaviors and performance in strategic networks. Design/methodology/approach– The study uses data from 141 firms that participated in strategic networks. Structural equation modeling is used to test the hypotheses. Findings– This study demonstrates how a firm’s collective organizational identity directs managerial perceptions toward partner’s opportunism in strategic networks; how these views shape interactions with network partners; and how these interactions facilitate firm adaptations within strategic networks. Moreover, it demonstrates how network adaptations affect the satisfaction with strategic network performance and how this ultimately loops back to influence organizational identity. Research limitations/implications– Given the limits of quantitative research to capture the mechanisms driving network collaborations, further case-based research on the role of organizational identity for network behaviors is needed. Practical implications– The results highlight the importance of collective organizational identity for network behaviors and positive performance outcomes. Firms that intend to engage in strategic networks should develop a collective organizational identity that supports implementing the network strategy. The results emphasize the importance of developing a collective organizational identity.

  • 17.
    Westman, Christoffer
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Partner Conflicts in International Joint Ventures: A Minority Owner Perspective2016Ingår i: Journal of International Management, ISSN 1075-4253, E-ISSN 1873-0620, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 168-185Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Partnering through international joint ventures (IJVs) is heralded as a key for smaller firms to gain access to resources and knowledge and expand into new geographic markets. Although it is well-known that IJVs rarely survive over an extended time, little attention has been given to partner conflicts as a source of IJVs terminating. The present article approaches partner conflicts in IJVs with unequal equity ratio and argues that being a minority partner in an IJV requires certain precautions. The authors report on a longitudinal case study of how conflicts emerged, grew, and exploded in an IJV that operated from 2005 until 2014 by identifying ten critical events that occurred and conditions that exacerbated the partners' conflicts and the IJV's demise. The authors conclude by discussing how companies entering an IJV as a minority owner can proactively use the insights gained and by providing suggestions for future IJV research.

  • 18.
    Nordström, Carin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund.
    Sirén, Charlotta A.
    University of Vaasa, Department of Management, University of St.Gallen.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Passion in hybrid entrepreneurship: the impact of entrepreneurial teams and tenure2016Ingår i: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 167-186Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeThe present study draws on the theory of choice overload to examine how entrepreneurial tenure and involvement in entrepreneurial teams influence passion for engaging in entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approachA survey was administered to 262 Swedish hybrid entrepreneurs, which refers to individuals who engage in entrepreneurship while also maintaining wage work; this arrangement is becoming more and more common in the Nordic economies. Hypotheses proposed associations between the entrepreneurial tenure (the length of engagement in the side business) and entrepreneurial teams (leading the business with one or more team members) with passion for entrepreneurship. Logistic regression was used to test the hypotheses.FindingsResults from logistic regression support the hypotheses with three findings: 1) the longer the individual has had the side business, the less likely passion to be the main motive behind entrepreneurship; 2) passion is less likely to be the main motive behind entrepreneurship among those who are part of an entrepreneurial team, and 3) involvement in an entrepreneurial team strengthens the negative association between entrepreneurial tenure and passion for entrepreneurship.Research limitations/implicationsThe data are limited to the creative sector in Sweden and to the hybrid entrepreneurship context.Practical implicationsThe results support the impact of choice overload and the notions that entrepreneurship passion will decrease the longer the business is up running and if the venturing occurs with another team member. In practice, this means that interventions for re-kindling passion in entrepreneurship should focus on dealing with choice overload under conditions of long-term tenure and team-funded ventures. If entrepreneurs want to maintain high levels of passion, quick and isolated entrepreneurial processes reduce the choice overload that may threaten maintaining a high passion for entrepreneurship.Originality/valueThis study is the first to apply choice theory to an entrepreneurship context and to find support for possible negative effects of choice overload on passion for entrepreneurship.

  • 19.
    Omorede, Adesuwa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Entrepreneurship psychology: a review2015Ingår i: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 743-768Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a literature review of entrepreneurship psychology, and a specific highlighting of the subareas personality, cognition, emotion, attitude, and self, this article presents a review of this field’s past and current issues in terms of topics, theories, and methods. In combination with survey results from entrepreneurship psychology researchers’ current work and opinions on the research frontier on those aspects, this article provides insights and suggestions for future research directions

  • 20.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    How and Why Individuals Contribute to Organizational Absorptive Capacity2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    At the organizational level absorptive capacity (ACAP) has been shown to lead to increased innovativeness, sales growth and competitive advantage. However, most studies adopt abstract firm level measures for absorptive capacity (e.g. R&D intensity) which provides little insight on how firms can work proactively to build ACAP. Therefore, recent literature calls for more in-depth research of the micro-foundations of ACAP at individual and team levels. This study seeks to contribute to such insights by focusing on the mechanisms that direct individual involvement in activities that contribute to ACAP. By means of multiple case studies with multi-national engineering firms we uncover key drivers, hinders and inhibitors toward individual contributions to absorption of new knowledge. Our results provide significant implications for literature as well as management practice.

  • 21.
    Patel, Pankaj C
    et al.
    Miller College of Business, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, Kelley School of Business, Indiana University, Ball State University.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Leadership, Passion and Performance: A Study of Job Creation Projects during the Recession2015Ingår i: British Journal of Management, ISSN 1045-3172, E-ISSN 1467-8551, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 211-224Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the aftermath of the economic recession that began in 2008, governmental bodies have been assisting private sector companies to create jobs. To increase financial performance under greater economic uncertainty and liquidity constraints, this study proposes that a leader's type of passion could explain why some project leaders who receive government funding succeed in creating jobs whereas others do not. Harmonious passion, a voluntary but not overpowering urge to engage in an activity, leads to higher job creation, especially under greater environmental complexity. Obsessive passion, an uncontrollable urge to engage in an activity, also leads to higher job creation, particularly under increasing environmental dynamism. Using survey data from 105 European Union projects and archival data on job creation from the EU funding agency, we find support for the proposed framework. The findings provide a basis for acknowledging the relevance of a leader's passion for environmental adaptation.

  • 22.
    Lindh, Ida
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Learning and teaching entrepreneurial mindsets: bridging research in business and education2015Ingår i: Goal Setting and Personal Development: Teachers' Perspectives, Behavioral Strategies and Impact on Performance, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2015, s. 35-60Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Passion2015Övrigt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an article in the collection of Oxford Bibliographies. Each article addresses a topic within a single discipline (in this case Passion), and provides expert recommendations to works on the topic in question. Each bibliography provides a selective list of the best and most useful resources available on the topic, annotations indicating what each work captures, and the article author’s commentaries to guide readers through the citations. The purpose of the bibliographies is to increase students’ and researchers’ productivity, save time, and elevate the quality of research by providing a reliable roadmap into the topic. Please read more here: https://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/

    This publication also exist in a revised and updated versionURL: http://urn.kb.s

    /resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72360DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199846740-0086

  • 24.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Passion and habitual entrepreneurship2015Ingår i: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 33, nr 2, s. 216-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the differences between habitual entrepreneurs (serial and portfolio entrepreneurs) and novices in terms of their passion for entrepreneurial activities. Using the Dualistic Model of Passion as a conceptual framework, the hypotheses were tested using a random sample of entrepreneurs that registered a limited company in 2008. Results of logistic regression analyses showed that habitual entrepreneurs experience extra high passion for entrepreneurial activity. However, of the two passion dimensions proposed in the Dualistic Model of Passion – harmonious passion and obsessive passion – the obsessive component is particularly evident among habitual entrepreneurs. A closer analysis, comparing novice, serial and portfolio entrepreneurship, suggests that portfolio entrepreneurs score highest on the harmonious dimension of passion.

  • 25.
    Wincent, Joakim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    Kent State University, Kent, OH.
    Entrepreneurial orientation and network board diversity in network organizations2014Ingår i: Journal of Business Venturing, ISSN 0883-9026, E-ISSN 1873-2003, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 327-344Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study extends the concept of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) to the network level to investigate how diversity among officers serving on network organization boards affects network-level entrepreneurial orientation (NEO). Using data from 53 strategic network organizations across five years, we found that insider/outsider and functional diversity among network board members promotes NEO. The results also demonstrate that board group tenure moderates the influence of diversity in opposite ways. The impact of board insider/outsider diversity is stronger in networks in which board members lack long tenure. On the contrary, the effect of functional diversity on network entrepreneurial orientation is stronger in network organizations with tenured boards.

  • 26.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Nordström, Carin
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Hybrid entrepreneurship: the importance of passion2014Ingår i: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 314-329Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the motives behind individuals’ choice to have parallel business-employment careers (hybrid entrepreneurship) with a particular focus on passion (i.e. to work with something one is passionate about) as the main motive. Design/methodology/approach – A survey was administered to 262 Swedish hybrid entrepreneurs. Hypotheses proposed associations of the individual's age at business start-up and weekly hours spent on the business with passion as the main motive for the hybrid form. Logistic regression was used to test the hypotheses. Findings – The results indicated that first, the ability to work with something one is passionate about is the top motive for combining employment with a side business; second, passion is more likely to be the main motive behind the hybrid form among individuals who are older at business start-up; third, passion is less likely to be the main motive behind the hybrid form among individuals who spend more time on the business. Research limitations/implications – The study focusses on passion as motive for hybrid entrepreneurship, and in doing so, it does not test the extent to which hybrid entrepreneurs experience passion. Practical implications – The results support the popular notion that passion drives people to have parallel business-employment careers. Findings indicating that passion as a motive is more common among those who are older at start-up and less common among those who spend more time on the business suggest the importance of acknowledging hybrid entrepreneurs’ various profiles when approaching them in research and practice.

  • 27.
    Omorede, Adesuwa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Small Scale Entrepreneurs’ Potential for Driving Community Development2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim of the paperThe purpose of this study is to examine and illustrate the interplay between individual entrepreneurs and the organization in social entrepreneurship towards achieving community development. The study focused on addressing two research questions to achieve this aim. First, what role can passionate individuals play in social entrepreneurship? Second, how does the social entrepreneur’s personal performance feed back to the individual? Contribution to the literature The findings make a series of contributions to research. Foremost, the present study provides empirical evidence on how the leader as an individual is important for the social venture. Little previous research has focused on this aspect of organizational management. Instead, theoretical research has focused on conceptualizing social entrepreneurship (e.g., Haugh, 2007; Lumpkin et al., 2013; Weerawardena & Mort, 2001), and empirical studies have focused on social entrepreneurs as change agents (Partzsch & Ziegler, 2011), entrepreneurial models (Mair et al., 2012), and ranking success factors (Sharir & Lerner, 2006). To shed light on the social entrepreneur’s behavior, as we do, adds an active and vivid element to the interplay between the social entrepreneur and the social organization. It does not merely confirm that the individual is important, but helps us develop a tentative model regarding how the leader is important. In doing so, we offer a greater. Second, although social entrepreneurship is a global phenomenon, African countries are underrepresented in the research (for exceptions see Ndemo, 2006; van Rensburg, Veldsman, & Jenkins, 2008; Nwankwo, Phillips, & Tracey, 2007). By drawing on data from entrepreneurs working in Nigeria, the present study contributes to building richer theory.Methodology We used an inductive study to gain greater understanding of the individual−organizational interplay in social venturing. Our sample included 37 individuals leading nonprofit NGOs in Nigeria. In addition, data was collected from 63 individuals surrounding these social entrepreneurs. A semi- structured interview was conducted and lasted from 5-80 minutes. Data analysis followed three steps. First We engaged in open coding. Second, the open coding was used for axial coding, meaning that conceptually similar codes were grouped into more abstract constructs. And finally, we identified dimensions underlying the constructs through axial coding (“organizational power, “community development,” and “personal performance”)Results and implications Findings suggest that social entrepreneurs play significant roles in the organizational power of the enterprise such as engaging in mobilizing resources; promoting in-house commitment within and between members of the organization and also promoting the attractiveness of the enterprise. In addition, promoting community development was another significant role played by social entrepreneurs to promote social impact. Specifically, building organizational power resulted in community development leading to the development of the communities through empowerment; raising awareness; and role modeling. Finally, the findings revealed that the social entrepreneurs perceived how they were performing in terms of both organizing (organizational power) and creating social value (community development). Specifically, the data indicated that their perceived personal performance, which impacted their future behavior and commitment for the social cause was represented by the three indicators: (1) organizational success, (2) affecting others’ lives, and (3) needs that remained unmet.

  • 28.
    George, Nerine Mary
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    How are opportunities recognized?: An overview of the field2013Ingår i: Uddevalla Symposium 2013. Innovation, High-Growth Entrepreneurship and Regional Development: Revised papers presented at the 16th Uddevalla Symposium 13-15 June, 2013, Kansa City, MO, USA / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2013, s. 325-344Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 29.
    Wincent, Joakim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    Kent State University, Kent, OH.
    Managing maturing government-supported networks: the shift from monitoring to embeddedness controls2013Ingår i: British Journal of Management, ISSN 1045-3172, E-ISSN 1467-8551, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 480-497, artikel-id 18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In formal inter-firm networks backed with significant financial support by policy-makers, network boards are typically established to monitor network activities and to manage the tension between organizational and collective interests. This approach to network governance, however, builds mainly upon agency logic. We integrate agency with embeddedness theory to offer insights into the effectiveness of monitoring as a governance mechanism as networks mature and member firms become embedded. The analyses focus on two issues: (1) how network board characteristics typically associated with monitoring – board independence, board size and board compensation – influence network performance; and (2) how these effects are moderated by network age. The model is tested with longitudinal data on 53 government-supported networks. In addition to the direct effects of board characteristics, network board size and board compensation have a stronger positive impact on network performance in younger networks than in more mature networks. This study provides insight into why the instituting of boards may prove successful for network-level performance in newly formed government-supported networks, but also explains why the positive effects from network board monitoring may diminish as networks grow older.

  • 30.
    Omorede, Adesuwa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Obsessive passion, competence, and performance in a project management context2013Ingår i: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 31, nr 6, s. 877-888Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Obsessive passion is when people have a strong inclination toward an activity that they like, find important, and in which they spend significant time, but also feel internal pressure to engage in. Prior research has demonstrated that obsessive passion typically brings several negative consequences. The present study nuances the picture by showing that there are indeed conditions when obsessive passion can be beneficial and that it has an important role for project management. It develops and tests hypotheses on the role of project leaders' obsessive passion for project goals. Results support that challenging goals are attained to a greater extent if the project leader scores high on obsessive passion. Such obsessive passion, in turn, is a result of the project leader's competence (positive relationship) and the team's competence (inverted U-shaped relationship). These results have important implications for theory and future research on passion, goal theory, and competence in projects.

  • 31.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Passion and challenging goals: drawbacks of rushing into goal-setting processes2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 43, nr 11, s. 2318-2329Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study shows that passion may have a potential downside for setting challenging goals. Hypotheses are developed by drawing on self-determination theory and goal-setting theory. Data is collected from a sample of 134 team leaders and hypotheses are tested using ordinary least squares regression analyses. Findings demonstrate that in a project context, team leaders' own competence positively influences their obsessive passion, while their perceptions of team members' competence positively influence their harmonious passion. Goal-setting speed is included as a mediator in the relationship between passion and degree of goal challenge, proving both harmonious passion and obsessive passion ultimately negatively influence the ability to develop challenging goals because they increase the likelihood of rushing into the goal-setting process.

  • 32.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Passion and role opportunity search: Interfering effects of conflicts and overloads2013Ingår i: International Journal of Stress Management, ISSN 1072-5245, E-ISSN 1573-3424, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 20-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals' search for various opportunities within the context of their job (role opportunity search) is an important yet demanding characteristic of today's work environments. This study tests the effects of harmonious passion and obsessive passion on role tensions (i.e., role conflict and role overload), which are posited to influence the search for new role opportunities. The results of structural equation modeling (goodness-of-fit statistic = .92; incremental fit index = .90; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .07) on survey data from Swedish owner–managers (n = 704) supported that harmonious passion has a negative relationship with role conflict (β = −.14), which in turn has a negative relationship with role opportunity search (β = −.21). This results in a positive, indirect relationship between harmonious passion and role opportunity search. In contrast, the positive relationship between obsessive passion and role conflict (β = .44) results in a negative indirect relationship with role opportunity search. The relationships applied for passion were also applied to role overload (harmonious passion: β = −.26; obsessive passion: β = .41, p < .001), but no significant influence was found from role overload to role opportunity search. This study provides insight into the importance of considering role tension in passion models, especially when explaining role opportunity search. As demonstrated, whether role opportunity search will be facilitated or hindered by passion originates based on whether the passion is harmonious or obsessive.

  • 33.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Sirén, Charlotta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design. University of Vaasa.
    The influence of passion and work–life thoughts on work satisfaction2013Ingår i: Human Resource Development Quarterly, ISSN 1044-8004, E-ISSN 1532-1096, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 469-492Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dualistic Model of Passion has gained increasing attention in social psychology in the past decade. Besides defining passion as “a strong inclination or desire toward an activity that one likes, finds important, and in which one invests time and energy” (Vallerand et al., 2003, p. 757), it acknowledges two types of passion, harmonious and obsessive, which develop according to how individuals internalize an activity in their self-concept. A growing body of empirical research, particularly in nonwork settings, has demonstrated that harmonious passion and obsessive passion have distinct outcomes. As such, this two-dimensional passion construct may be particularly useful for developing a more comprehensive understanding of how individuals engage with work compared to the existing one-dimensional constructs of job engagement used in organizational literature. The present study develops hypotheses and tests the direct effect of harmonious and obsessive passion with work satisfaction. It also aims to develop theory by connecting the dualistic passion approach with work–life conflict; in doing so, it tests how individuals' off-task thoughts at work and on-task thoughts off work may mediate this relationship. Using a quantitative survey, the hypotheses are tested on a random sample of individuals engaged in business start-ups in Sweden. Whereas harmonious passion exhibits a direct effect with work satisfaction, obsessive passion exhibits an indirect effect through on-task thoughts off work with work satisfaction

  • 34.
    Omorede, Adesuwa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Passionate project leaders: The impact on project outcomes2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 35.
    Wincent, Joakim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Projekt: Arbetspassionens utveckling och betydelse för individer med mer eller mindre tydligt definierade arbetsuppgifter i nätverksbaserade arbetsmiljöer2012Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 36.
    Wincent, Joakim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Projekt: Arbetspassionens utveckling och betydelse på dagens nätverksbaserade arbetsplatser2012Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Jan Wallanders och Tom Hedelies Stiftelser; Tore Browaldhs Stiftelser

  • 37.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Projekt: Entreprenörers passion: Studier av uppkomst, upplevelse och konsekvenser2012Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 38.
    Omorede, Adesuwa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Psychological factors in entrepreneurship: An assessment of the state of the field2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 39.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Boter, Håkan
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Small firms in multipartner R&D alliances: gaining benefits by acquiescing2012Ingår i: Journal of engineering and technology management, ISSN 0923-4748, E-ISSN 1879-1719, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 453-467Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study highlights how smaller firms gain advantages through exchange strategies in alliances. Based on a sample of 141 firms involved in multipartner alliances governed by cooperative exchange norms, our findings support the hypothesis that smaller firms are more likely than larger firms to comply with cooperative exchange norms. This finding is especially valid for firms in manufacturing industries and can positively influence new product development. This study is a starting point for additional research investigating how, when, and why firms can benefit from engaging in multipartner alliances, even if they are a relatively small player.

  • 40.
    Bergh, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Trust and self-efficacy in formal learning networks: the effects on entrepreneurs' capacity to act upon business opportunities2012Ingår i: International Journal of Innovation and Learning, ISSN 1471-8197, E-ISSN 1741-8089, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 197-216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In efforts to promote better realisation of business opportunities, government support of formal policy led learning networks among entrepreneurs has been a popular approach worldwide. This article uses survey data from 109 entrepreneurs who took part in formal learning networks to examine how trust in network partners influences the capacity to act upon business opportunities for entrepreneurs. Further, we examine how this influence is moderated by the entrepreneurs' own self-efficacy. Our results support a positive relationship between developing trust in other networking entrepreneurs and the capacity to act upon business opportunities. Self-efficacy was found to moderate this relationship. For entrepreneurs with low self-efficacy, results support an inverted U-shaped relationship, with the greatest outcomes reached with an intermediate level of trust. For entrepreneurs with high self-efficacy, a positive linear relationship is supported. We discuss implications for further research on trust and realisation of opportunities, and for learning network policy.

  • 41.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Unleashing synergies in strategic networks of SMEs: the influence of partner fit on corporate entrepreneurship2012Ingår i: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 30, nr 5, s. 453-471Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of firms participate in inter-firm networks to improve their innovation, renewal, and venturing; efforts that can be termed ‘corporate entrepreneurship’. This article contributes to the literature by developing and testing explanations for how partner fit (that is, complementary capabilities and organizational compatibilities) influences networking firms’ corporate entrepreneurship. Using survey data on SMEs engaged in strategic networks with multiple partners, we found support for an argument suggesting that partner fit requires mediating variables to unleash the potential synergies of partner fit for corporate entrepreneurship. Specifically, our results suggest partner fit triggers resource leverage through processes of both combining resources and accumulating resources from interaction with network partners. Thus, a positive indirect relationship between partner fit and corporate entrepreneurship is present.

  • 42.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    Kent State University, Kent, OH.
    Boards' advisory role in strategic SME networks2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the advisory role of network boards in stimulating network-level entrepreneurial orientation. Results from a longitudinal analysis of boards governing 53 strategic small-firm networks support the positive role that board functional diversity and board insider/outsider diversity play in supporting entrepreneurship. Further, board group tenure and network age moderate the diversity relationships (functional and insider/outsider) in opposite ways. The effect of functional background diversity on network entrepreneurial orientation is stronger in younger networks and networks with tenured boards. The impact of board insider/outsider diversity is weaker in tenured board groups and stronger in more mature networks.

  • 43.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    et al.
    Kent State University, Kent, OH.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Corporate venturing deal syndication and innovation: the information exchange paradox2011Ingår i: Long range planning, ISSN 0024-6301, E-ISSN 1873-1872, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 134-151Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many incumbent corporations make equity investments in young technological start-ups to enhance their innovation effectiveness, and the great majority syndicate at least some of their investments with other incumbents. While syndication is generally held to benefit incumbent corporations, this study demonstrates that it may also be detrimental to corporate innovation, by elaborating the notion of an information exchange paradox - essentially, that information exchanges within CVC networks must, somehow, be both open and closed at the same time. Corporations must try to appropriate the knowledge championed by their investees and fellow-investors, but also protect their own know-how from leaking to competitors. Unlike prior CVC research, we demonstrate that knowledge sharing in open innovation forums may be counterproductive. Using a unique data set of the investment decisions made by 163 corporations over four years we show that, for some, participating in syndicate networks may involve losses that outweigh their gains. Our analysis establishes two key findings. First, corporations need to consider the trade-off between the number of ventures they support and the position they take in their syndication networks. The best strategies appear to be maximizing isolationist (supporting many ventures but staying away from the network centre) or minimizing centralist (supporting few ventures, but occupying a central network position) - the other two options (maximizing centralist and minimizing isolationist strategies) are far less effective in converting CVC investments into corporate innovation. Second, this picture is particularly applicable to highly concentrated industries dominated by several powerful incumbents: in fragmented industries these strategy differences are far less pronounced, so the choice of CVC syndication strategy will depend on other considerations. This supports a contingency view of syndication, implying that ensuring incumbent corporations really benefit from equity investments in start-ups is a not a trivial task for their managers

  • 44.
    Bergh, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Entrepreneurs learning together: the importance of building trust for learning and exploiting business opportunities2011Ingår i: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 17-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal, qualitative case study examines trust-building processes and learning outcomes among entrepreneurs who participated in formal networks designed to develop competence and knowledge. This study is built on rich data collected through observation and video recordings made during network meetings and get-togethers. Additional data was gleaned from personal interviews with participating entrepreneurs. All data sources reveal on how trust develops and how entrepreneurs can use networks to learn and improve their capacity to exploit business opportunities. Studying how trust is built over time among entrepreneurs who demonstrate a low level of trust when they join the network, this study provides insights into micro-processes and important components of building trust. Findings suggest three processes that build commitment, companionship, and competence trust. Moreover, acknowledging the notion of social learning, the findings suggest that when entrepreneurs build trust with one another they can experience cognitive, emotional, and social changes by participating in a network. This may bring potential consequences for their exploiting opportunies. Implications for academics and managers are discussed.

  • 45.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Interorganizational trust: origins, dysfunctions and regulation of rigidities2011Ingår i: British Journal of Management, ISSN 1045-3172, E-ISSN 1467-8551, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 21-41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual paper extends research on the downsides of developing trust to partners in interorganizational relationships. The idea developed captures that, although interorganizational trust generates benefits, a parallel process also produces undesired rigidities. Firms' flexibility in meeting a changing environment may thus be hampered rather than enabled by the created interorganizational relationship. First, we theorize on the micro-processes of how and why such rigidities develop already at low levels of trust and accumulate in parallel to the positive trust effects as trust builds stronger over time. Second, we propose that the trust dysfunctions can be distinguished and moderated separately from trust benefits. In doing so, we identify and discuss the moderating potential of a set of handling tactics when trust develops rigidities in the relationship: competing, accommodating, avoiding, collaborating and compromising tactics. We discuss implications in relation to research on trust, inertia and interorganizational governance

  • 46.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Organizational identities and interorganizational relationships: hijacking of managers' views, approaches and interaction patterns2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A conceptual model on the reciprocal relationship between organizations’ identity and interorganizational relationships is developed in this paper. The rationale is that when organizational members, and particularly managers, are obligated to act on the behalf of the organization, as in engagement in interorganizational relationships, they cannot solely rely on their own assumptions but rather need to turn to the organization’s assumptions for guidance. This may explain why organizations differ in their approach of and interactions in interorganizational relationships beyond current explanations emphasizing the effects of partner complementarity, the influence from objective environmental demands or cost analyses. These traditional explanations can explain some of the differences in how organizations interact, but fall short when it comes to questions such as: “Why can we notice that managers in some organizations are overly restrictive toward interorganizational relationships, even if circumstances and conditions signal that the manager has reasons to be open for such involvement?”; and “How come that several managers from the same organization act as “givers” in exchanges in interorganizational relationships, whereas managers from another organization may all be “takers”, when the organizations display similarities on other aspects?”. This paper aims to target such questions by proposing how organizational identity influences managerial views on interorganizational relationships; the relationships between those managerial views on how interorganizational relationships are approached; how the approach influences the interaction in those relationships; and how the interaction provides feedback that influences the organizational identity.

  • 47.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Mary George, Nerine
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Omorede, Adesuwa
    Project: CiiR-Centre for Inter-Organizational Innovation Research2011Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 48.
    Arbuthnott, A.
    et al.
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Eriksson, J.
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Reduced opportunities for regional renewal: The role of rigid threat responses2011Ingår i: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 23, nr 7-8, s. 603-635Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article illustrates how opportunities for regional renewal in a peripheral region may be reduced by rigid threat responses undertaken by established firms operating within traditional regional industry. In an inductive case study of new biorefinery industry initiatives in a region where traditional pulp-and-paper and forestry industry was in decline, we used primary and secondary data to outline how a set of new industry players who created innovative ways of using existing regional infrastructures and resources sparked rigid threat responses among established firms from the struggling traditional industry. Established industry firms framed new industry initiatives as threats, and responded by (1) reducing new industry actors' possibilities for new business development, (2) engaging in entrenched resistance, (3) creating collaborative illusions and (4) undermining the fundamentals of the new industry. Consequently, this study contributes to existing literature by proposing the potential of applying the threat-rigidity thesis on a regional level. This is achieved by illustrating that conflicting behaviours between new and established regional industry actors constrain opportunities for regional renewal in a peripheral region. As such, relevant directions for future research and policy implications are outlined

  • 49.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Too small or too large to trust your partners in multipartner alliances?: The role of effort in initiating generalized exchanges2011Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 99-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes how smaller and larger firms face difficulties in establishing trust in multipartner alliances. Using survey data from a sample of 141 firms engaged in such alliances, we examine a curvilinear relationship between firm size and trust. Our results suggest an inverted U-shaped relationship between firm size and the degree to which a firm develops trust in partners. We also establish that effort to establish generalized exchanges is important for trust building. Specifically, we notice the inverted U-shape to be particularly prominent among firms that do not make the effort to establish generalized exchanges, which implies that smaller and larger firms depend upon concerted effort to establish generalized exchanges in developing high levels of trust in alliance partners. This has implications for explaining important influences on trust building in social exchange systems.

  • 50.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Synthesizing value creation in IORs for innovation: six studies and a stretch of perspective from the specific to the general2010Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation consists of six individual studies with the overall aim to contribute to understanding value creation in interorganizational relationships (IORs), which firms establish to achieve innovation. The six research papers address several specific research questions focusing on different aspects of IORs by using qualitative, quantitative and conceptual methods. The dissertation is divided into two parts. Part I is an introductory chapter to the six research papers. This part briefly introduces the research questions, methods, paper overviews, and provides some generaldiscussions not emphasized in the specific papers. Part II consists of the six research papers, each presenting a unique inquiry, literature framework, and method. In brief, the six papers of this dissertation are:Paper I presents the benefits of working with the same partners in multiple (different) innovative processes.Paper II tests the influence between relationship characteristics (knowledgetransfer, interorganizational trust, and relationship diversity) and networking firms' corporate entrepreneurship.Paper III tests the indirect effects of partner fit on networking firms' corporate entrepreneurship.Paper IV identifies and tests important factors for innovative performance in firm networks.Paper V tests the influence of compensating network board members on network performance.Paper VI theorizes how and why interorganizational trust can cause rigidities, which may be particularly bothersome in some kinds of IORs.Some general conclusions of the six studies are that they demonstrate the relevance of acknowledging social processes in studies of knowledge exchange; they also recognize that while literature suggesting that social aspects such as trust may be powerful in reducing perceived relational risks, research takes a biased path if it does not also properly acknowledge the risks and costs associated with it; and finally indicate that in discussions of trade-offs between flexibility and stability in IORs it may be useful to consider the dimension of exchange flexibility, that is, how flexible the partners are in what they exchange and when they do this. Some specific conclusions are that the studies demonstrate both antecedents to and consequences of corporate entrepreneurship (CE) in an IOR setting: in terms of antecedents, they explain why partner fit has an indirect effect on knowledge transfer and why CE has a direct effect on knowledge transfer, and in terms of consequences, they explain why knowledge transfer positively influences CE. The studies also suggest that when partners try to create conditions where they do not believe they might be exploited, there is a risk that rigidities in resources and routines develop. Further, they also show that design aspects, such as how the network is formed, configured, and governed, as well as compensation of network board members affect network performance.

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