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  • 1.
    Asif, Muhammad
    et al.
    University of Twente.
    Searcy, Cory
    University of the Punjab, Lahore.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Ahmad, Niaz
    National Textile University, Faisalabad.
    Including sustainability in business excellence models2011Ingår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 22, nr 7, s. 773-786Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the adequacy of business excellence models (BEMs) to address corporate sustainability, which is conceptualised in terms of economic, social, and environmental bottom lines. How organisations may manage corporate sustainability in the absence of a comprehensive sustainability management system standard is also explored. A survey of literature has been carried out. The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) excellence model and the Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence (BCPE) are analysed with regard to their considerations of sustainability. The findings reveal that while triple bottom-line considerations are addressed to some extent in the studied BEMs, the models per se do not comprehensively address sustainability issues and economic prosperity remains a dominant consideration. Suggestions for the improvement of the EFQM excellence model and BCPE are discussed. To provide a comprehensive approach for addressing corporate sustainability, an integrated quality-sustainability framework is proposed. The essence of the framework is that sustainability indicators, such as those provided in the Global Reporting Initiative framework, could be integrated with core business processes using the structures and infrastructure provided by BEMs. The proposed improvements should be considered in future revisions of the EFQM excellence model and BCPE.

  • 2.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Analysis of an unreplicated 2^2 factorial experiment performed in a continuous process2015Ingår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 26, nr 9-10, s. 1083-1094Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a tentative analysis method for unreplicated factorial designs where regular statistical experimental analysis cannot be used. The methodology is demonstrated through the analysis of an unreplicated two-level, two-factor factorial experiment performed in a continuous production process where the process was not in statistical control and where changes in the experimental design made conventional experimental analysis impossible. The first step of the analyses included screening of the sampled data. Principal component analysis and factor analysis were then used to create an overview of how the various responses and experimental factors were related. Carbon monoxide efficiency was selected as the most important parameter to be analysed further. Elastic net regression was used as a screening tool to remove non-significant factors, interaction, and covariates. Finally, the carbon monoxide efficiency variation was modelled using an intervention analysis. Two experimental factors were found to actively influence the response. The experiment that from other perspectives can be considered to be unanalysable, did thus reveal causal effects. The results imply that for processes where the process dynamics may be monitored, observations of the process dynamics may reduce the needs for repeated experimental runs, thus reducing the experimental costs.

  • 3.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Some ideas why factorial designs are not used in full-scale experiments in continuous processes2015Ingår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 26, nr 11-12, s. 1242-1254Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents ideas and observations about the infrequent use of factorial experimental designs; although the ideas presented are inspired by a case study, the paper is also conceptual in nature. The ideas build on the experimental practices at a large Swedish process industry manufacturer, where these practices were discussed with engineers using in-depth interviews. Factorial design is not used because, for example, statistical rigor is seldom required and because design of experiments methods are seen as too restrictive to accommodate and adjust to events occurring during long experimental campaigns. The interview results indicate that, while the scepticism of many respondents may be justified, lack of training, interest, and learning time are major obstacles to applying improved methodologies. Some ideas for overcoming these obstacles are suggested.

  • 4.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Albing, Malin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Statistical methods - does anyone really use them?2006Ingår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 17, nr 8, s. 961-972Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Students taking courses in quality management at Luleå University of Technology receive extensive education in statistical methods. To improve the education and to understand what kind of competence students need when they graduate, a survey was preformed examining how and to what extent the methods Statistical Process Control, Capability Analysis and Design of Experiments are used by organisations hiring the alumni. The result shows that the students employed in the Swedish industrial sector witness a modest use of statistical methods, while use of statistical methods in other sectors hiring the alumni is uncommon. Lack of competence and resources within the organizations are stated as hindrances to expanded use. Conclusions from the study are that implementation techniques must be emphasized in the curriculum and that different types of courses should be given - practical, hands-on courses for engineers, managers and others working in organizations. Furthermore, courses offered at universities must have a strong focus on practical problems such as difficulties randomizing experiments and that graphical methods should be favoured.

  • 5.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Testing for motivation to engage in improvements: a conceptual framework and an initial empirical test2014Ingår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 25, nr 11-12, s. 1224-1235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to develop a conceptual framework for testing the motivation to engage in improvement work. The framework is based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB), that we suggest can be used to facilitate the implementation of improvement programmes. By using the model and probing intentions, attitudes, norms and perceived ability related to improvement work, we believe hindrances for implementation of improvement programmes will be exposed. When operationalising the framework we developed a survey instrument based on TPB and then made an initial empirical test by distributing it to 124 employees (response rate 67%) of three manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises. Factor analysis and regression were used to analyse the survey and follow-up interviews with employees and managers were used to validate the results. This initial test of the instrument showed that it has sound measurement properties, indicated by clear factor structure and good internal consistency. Interview data also validated that the instrument was able to capture important aspects related to implementation of improvement work. Based on the result, we conclude that TPB may be useful for guiding management actions. However, since our study only draws on a limited empirical sample, future research is needed to test the contextual validity.

  • 6.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Klefsjö, Bengt
    Creating social change in a municipality using a Total Quality Management approach2009Ingår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 20, nr 12, s. 1375-1393Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel beskriver ett projekt som gemensamt startades av medborgare, handel och myndigheter i Jokkmokk för att skapa en positiv samhällsutveckling baserad på offensiv kvalitetsutvecklings grundläggande värderingar. Projektet löpte under två år, och även ett parallellt arbete i Mansfield, Storbritannien ingick i projektet. Detta dokument beskriver enbart Jokkmokkdelen av projektet. Utvärderingen av projektet är baserad på enkäter och intervjuer som analyserats med hjälp av Soft Systems Methodology. Analysen visar att de flesta tillfrågade tyckte att projektet lyckats förändra attityden hos folket i Jokkmokk och skapa värdefulla nätverk. Projektets målsättning var också att skapa delaktighet för medborgarna och många aktiviteter riktade sig att låta medborgarna utveckla och generera idéer och delta i samhällets verksamhet och beslutsfattande. Utvärderingen visade att ledare och politiker i Jokkmokk inte var redo för det använda projektets underifrånperspektiv. Analysen understryker också vikten av att kommunicera uppdraget och projektets mål. Mot bakgrund av den korta projekttiden anser vi att betydande och värdefulla lärdomar, såväl positiva som negativa, kan dras utifrån ett samhällsutvecklingsperspektiv.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Effects of in-company quality awards on organizational performance2003Ingår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 235-242Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between total quality management (TQM) practices and improved performance has been frequently discussed in the literature. In this paper, the costs and the effects of in-company quality awards on performance are discussed and analysed. The paper covers a survey of Swedish companies that use or have used in-company quality awards to stimulate TQM efforts and thereby to improve performance. The study cannot show any strong evidence of improved performance for units that applied for the in-company quality award. However, in contrast to units that have not applied, some units that have applied for the in-company quality award considered that the results related to performance have improved greatly. One large positive effect perceived by the participating units was increased customer orientation while the largest costs were put on the description of activities and the improvement work itself.

  • 8.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    A cooperation model for the third sector based on Total Quality Management2005Ingår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 16, nr 6, s. 693-706Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Societal and economic changes generate problems with unemployment and decreased public services, in particular in rural areas. Therefore, different solutions to the problems are of interest to policy-makers. In this qualitative study, with data sampling methods chiefly in the form of interviews and questionnaires, the results show that values, methodologies and tools from Total Quality Management (TQM) are applicable to community issues, especially when establishing cooperation between residents, authorities, business, and other organizations. Based on these results, a cooperation model for the third sector based on Total Quality Management is presented. The model consists of a proposal for organizing improvement work seen from two so-called dimensions.

  • 9.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    TQM as a support for societal development: experiences from a Swedish community2003Ingår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 225-233Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Total quality management (TQM) is a management philosophy traditionally connected with business, and industry. Today's society is complex but with a strong connection between business, public and private spheres. One example is the impact that negative economic and demographic trends have on communities. Implementing improvements can also be a way of improving life in a local community by its residents. There are communities that have transferred parts of the TQM philosophy to community issues. The outstanding example in Sweden is the community of Åseda. Here, non-profit organizations, companies and the public sector have collaborated. They have established common core values, worked with quality methodologies, and achieved positive results during the last few years. The residents are organized in a form of improvement groups, working according to the PDSA cycle, and covering all situations a resident might be confronted with in a community. In this paper, results from a study of the experiences from Åseda are presented. The author discusses how the work is organized and how residents in the community work with improvements, and also illustrates the experienced benefits and difficulties. Some indicators for successfully implementing TQM on community issues have been observed and are presented, such as the roles of leadership and of the improvement groups.

  • 10.
    Garvare, Rickard
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Johansson, Peter
    Management for sustainability: a stakeholder theory2010Ingår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 21, nr 7, s. 737-744Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the present paper are, to present a conceptual model of stakeholder management and to expand upon the relationship between organisational sustainability and global sustainability. The theoretical discussions have been inspired and deducted from theory on stakeholders, quality management and sustainability. A model is developed that takes account of practical and theoretical implications of stakeholder-oriented management in pursuit of organisational and global sustainability. The model might be used to explain actual behaviour of organisations and to distinct between organisational and global sustainability.

  • 11. Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Vinberg, Stig
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Leadership, quality and health: using McGregor's X and Y theory for analyzing values in relation to methodologies and outcomes2007Ingår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 18, nr 10, s. 1147-1168Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has experienced an increase in sickness absenteeism, stress-related health problems and a deterioration of psychosocial working conditions. Several researchers have emphasized that leadership with a focus on developing human resource practices is a necessary component of a high organizational performance. The purpose of this article is to explore whether there are patterns in leadership values and methodologies associated with subordinates' views of leadership, health outcomes and quality aspects. Four public and four private organizations in northern Sweden were studied. McGregor's X and Y hypotheses, plus three other hypotheses, were used as a base for the analyses. Data were gathered through in-depth interviews with the leaders, questionnaires (completed by leaders and co-workers), and assessment of selected human resource accounting data (sickness absenteeism). The leader views were mirrored with the co-worker views through a comparison of qualitative and quantitative results in a stepwise analysis process. The study's main findings were that leaders with more X hypotheses get lower results concerning employee-judged leadership and quality aspects and, to some extent, lower results concerning health outcomes. The explanatory analyses concerning leadership and health are complex with many influencing factors.

  • 12.
    Lilja, Johan
    et al.
    Mitthögskolan.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    A two-dimensional perspective on attractive quality2007Ingår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 667-679Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Attractive quality has for two decades been accentuated as a strong driver of loyalty, word-of-mouth and saleability. Recent elaborations of the concept of attractive quality however point to obstacles to the development of quality practices, such as engineering methods, to support the creation of attractive quality in practice. One obstacle is the lack of explanations as to why certain aspects of an offer are perceived as an attractive quality. There is a need to understand why attractive quality occurs. This paper aims to address these obstacles by presenting the results of a search for mechanisms claimed to cause attractive quality in literature. As a result, the paper identifies and relates two fundamentally different mechanisms considered important for the generation of attractive quality. The need-based roots of attractive quality point at an explanation in terms of the satisfaction of high-level needs. This is in sharp contrast to the currently dominant explanation of attractive quality as the exceeding of expectations. The two mechanisms are further distinguished and related to each other resulting in the classification of three different types of attractive quality. The three types are designated as 'Surprisers', 'Life Enrichers', and 'Attraction Boosters'. The 'Life Enrichers', which are defined as satisfying high-level needs of the customer, are highlighted as an important and promising area for future research.

  • 13.
    Naude, Peter
    et al.
    Manchester Business School.
    Ashnai, Bahar
    Tarbiat Modares University.
    Chaharsooghi, Kamal
    Tarbiat Modares University.
    Perzon, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    An analysis of B2B relationship quality among Iranian managers: a comparison between Iranian and English managers2007Ingår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 18, nr 8, s. 861-874Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to understand the characteristics of relationship quality within a business-to-business (b2b) setting, and also to understand how these characteristics vary in importance between countries. Replicating an earlier study, conjoint analysis was used to study how a sample of 48 Iranian managers trade off different attributes of relationship quality. Overall, the most important attribute to the sample was profit, followed by trust and power. However, there was significant variance within the sample. When compared with an earlier study of UK managers in which an identical methodology was used, it was found that while profit was important for both groups, it was more so for Iranian managers. Trust was also important in both samples, in line with what was expected from the literature. Power was found to be important for Iranian managers whereas in the UK, power was reported as the least important attribute.

  • 14. Prinsloo, Mélani
    et al.
    Bäckström, Lars
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    The impact of incentives on interfunctional relationship quality: views from a South African firm2007Ingår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 18, nr 8, s. 901-913Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Interfunctional relations and their impact on organizational performance have long been a concern of management and marketing scholars. Similarly, the use of incentives, and how they motivate individuals toward performance, has been a perennial focus of management researchers. Curiously, the effect of incentives on interfunctional relations has not received the same attention in the literature. The research in this paper sought to discover the extent to which the incentives an organization offers its personnel are perceived as being 'fair' by different functional groupings. The results of a study are presented in which the perceptions of a large sales function of the fairness of a series of incentives are compared with those of the rest of the organization. The implications of these findings for the quality of interfunctional relationships are discussed.

  • 15. Söderholm, Peter
    Continuous improvements of complex technical systems: a theoretical quality management framework supported by requirements management and health management2004Ingår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 511-525Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous Improvements are a core value of Quality Management. This work is often a response to changed stakeholder requirements. However, the increasing complexity and criticality of many of today's technical systems require that the improvement work is systematic in order to manage properly the changes and avoid unwanted effects. This paper explores how Requirements Management and Health Management can support Quality Management, in order to systematize the management of continuous improvements of complex technical systems in response to changed stakeholder requirements. The result is a theoretical management framework based on a combination of the three management areas. The framework is intended to facilitate a systematic work with continuous improvements of complex technical systems, in the context of dynamic stakeholder requirements.

  • 16. Wreder, Åsa
    Successful management methodologies for achieving co-worker health in a large organization2007Ingår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 18, nr 7, s. 823-844Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, many organizations experience problems with high levels of sick leave. This has negative implications on the organizations' ability to compete on the market, but also means suffering for the individual employees. The leadership of the organization is considered by several researchers to impact on employee health and competitive advantage. However, it is argued that the larger an organization gets, the harder it is to apply good leadership. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to describe how management in a large Swedish bank, awarded as 'Sweden's best workplace', has successfully worked to transform increasing levels of sick leave into co-worker health and profitability. The paper also includes suggestions that managers in other organizations might consider adopting. Through interviews, with managers at different organizational levels of the bank, management methodologies and success factors have been identified. The commitment of the bank's managers seems to have been central to achieve a healthy and efficient organization. Executive managers have had a conspicuous strategic focus on health issues and set objectives thereafter. These objectives have been deliberately supported by the managers' methodologies and successfully passed on throughout the organizational hierarchy to the bank offices. Dialogues, delegation and clear goal setting seem to have been important methodologies. Middle managers in addition have been lucid coaches to office managers, who in turn have put focus on building relationships and encouraging employees.

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