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  • 1.
    Bolldén, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Pedagogik och vuxnas lärande.
    Materialities and Virtualities of Online Teaching: A Practice Theory Perspective2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Various kinds of information and communication technologies (ICT) are common elements for educational purposes in higher education. Researchers have found that educational issues have been put in the background in favor of technology when it comes to teaching with ICT. Investments and efforts have been prioritised concerning hardware and software, and teachers' skills development have been focused on learning how to use specific software programs technically. However, teachers are also asking for skills development concerning pedagogical issues in relation to ICT. Mishra and Koehler (2006) argue that one of the reasons pedagogy has not been given more space is lack of theories that can help us understand the integration of technology in education.

    In order to use ICT teachers have to step into them to show presence and to conduct their teaching. Research has emphasised that presence is important in online learning and thus it becomes an issue of pedagogical interest. Embodiment as a way of showing presence has not been highlighted as other aspects of presence has been. Therefore this study sets out to study teachers' embodiments online. The study has an online ethnographical approach where the analysis is based on data from two case studies where different ICT are used; It's learning and Second Life. Each focuses on a course at university level that is held entirely online. Practice theory (Schatzki, 2002; Schatzki, 1996) and concepts of being a body, having a body and instrumental body have been used for analysing how teachers are stepping into embodied presence.

    Bodily presence implies choices where personalisation of teacher embodiment is afforded by the systems but not demanded. The embodiment is ranging from a default to a personalised one. This study shows that it is possible to customise the embodiment which happens but not always. Further, both the online and offline body is actualised in the online setting. What happens in the practice online is not cut off from what happens offline. Teaching in a virtual world is a matter of managing several bodies that overlaps to a more or lesser degree. There is a need to consider that being a body includes several bodies, not just one. To teach in a virtual world comprises knowledge and skills of manoeuvring the bodies and of teaching subject matter, with both of them in the foreground from time to time. Teachers' bodies online could be understood as instrumental, used for doing teaching in the online setting. The border between the bodies and the ICT is blurred and it is difficult to discern where one ends and the other begins.

    Mishra, P. & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge. Teachers College Record 108(6), 1017-1054.

    Schatzki, T. (2002). The site of the social: A philosophical account of the constitution of social life and change. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

    Schatzki, T. (1996). Social practices: A Wittgensteinian approach to human activity and the social. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • 2.
    Bolldén, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Pedagogik och vuxnas lärande.
    Online teaching practices: Sociomaterial matters in higher education settings2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att beskriva och analysera undervisningspraktiker online i svensk högre utbildningskontext. Studien har en onlineetnografisk ansats och baseras på empiriska data av undervisningen i två kurser på universitetsnivå. Studien stödjer sig främst på observationsdata men även intervjuer och dokumentstudier ligger som grund för analysen. Empiriska data har analyserats med ett praktikteoretiskt perspektiv – ett perspektiv inom sociomateriell teoribildning. Resultatet visar att undervisning online kännetecknas av en förkroppsligad sociomateriell praktik. Lärarkroppen kan förstås som både multipel och tätt sammanvävd med teknologi. Vidare används lärarkroppen i undervisningssituationen för att reducera komplexitet men även för att, tillsammans med annan materialitet, prefigurera vad det är för typ av undervisning som kommer att utspela sig. Vidare kan lärarinterventioner i onlinemiljöer förstås som relationella till både tekniken (det vill säga det virtuellt materiella arrangemanget) och lärares göranden och säganden (det vill säga undervisningspraktiken). Lärarinterventioner syftar till att göra arrangemanget begripligt för studenterna. Studien visar att lärarinterventionerna arrangerar både studenter och informations- och kommunikationsteknologi (IKT) i syfte att få dem att fungera som en undervisningspraktik. Den undervisningspraktik som uppstår är inte given på förhand utan emergent. Den karaktäriseras av ett samspel mellan virtuell materialitet och social praktik där asymmetriska relationer mellan lärare och IKT råder.

  • 3.
    Bolldén, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Pedagogik och vuxnas lärande.
    Teachers' embodied presence in online teaching practices2016Ingår i: Studies in Continuing Education, ISSN 0158-037X, E-ISSN 1470-126X, Vol. 38, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine teachers’ embodiments online. The analysis is based ononline ethnographic data from two online courses in higher education settings usingdifferent information and communication technologies. The perspective of practicetheory and the concepts of being a body, having a body and the instrumental body wereused to analyse how teachers step into an embodied presence. The embodied presencedepends on both teacher judgements and what the technology offers. The finding addsto the understanding of the concept of teacher presence online, in showing that teacherembodiment occurs online and furthermore that the body could be understood asmultiple. The result also shows how online and offline bodies hang together,actualising the offline body in the online setting, which in turn raises questions onthe dualism of online and offline. Teachers also deliberately used their embodimentsand bodily traces online in order to sustain presence and to bring about certain teachingpractices. Their bodily positioning signalled what kind of teaching that would takeplace. A deliberate positioning of the online body in a virtual world also helped toreduce the complexity of the arrangements for the students.

  • 4.
    Bolldén, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Pedagogik och vuxnas lärande.
    The emergence of online teaching practices: A sociomaterial analysis2016Ingår i: Learning, Media & Technology, ISSN 1743-9884, E-ISSN 1743-9892, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 444-462Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article was to analyse relations between online teaching practices and their virtual material arrangements. Two higher education online settings were studied using an online ethnographic approach in which observation of the teaching process was of central importance. The first setting was a course in education carried out on itslearning© (a learning management system) and the second setting was a language course in Second Life® (a virtual world). A sociomaterial perspective based on practice theory was used in the analysis, and the focal point was the co-constitutive relation between teaching practices and material arrangements in online settings. A number of relations between practice and arrangement were identified and analysed in the results section. It is argued that the relation between online arrangements and practice is not fixed and determined beforehand, but emerges and alters as the teaching unfolds.

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