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  • 1.
    Tole, Ilda
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Rajczakowska, Magdalena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Humad, Abeer
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Kothari, Ankit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Geopolymer Based on Mechanically Activated Air-cooled Blast Furnace Slag2020Ingår i: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, nr 5, artikel-id 1134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient solution to increase the sustainability of building materials is to replace Portland cement with alkali-activated materials (AAM). Precursors for those systems are often based on water-cooled ground granulated blast furnace slags (GGBFS). Quenching of blast furnace slag can be done also by air but in that case, the final product is crystalline and with a very low reactivity. The present study aimed to evaluate the cementitious properties of a mechanically activated (MCA) air-cooled blast furnace slag (ACBFS) used as a precursor in sodium silicate alkali-activated systems. The unreactive ACBFS was processed in a planetary ball mill and its cementing performances were compared with an alkali-activated water-cooled GGBFS. Mixes based on mechanically activated ACBFS reached the 7-days compressive strength of 35 MPa and the 28-days compressive strength 45 MPa. The GGBFS-based samples showed generally higher compressive strength values.

  • 2.
    Humad, Abeer
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand. University of Babylon/ Iraq.
    Alkali Activation of High Mgo Bfs with Sodiumcarbonate Added Dry Vs. Wet2019Ingår i: Proceedings of theInternational Conference on Sustainable Materials, Systems and Structures (SMSS2019): New Generation ofConstruction Materials / [ed] Marjana Serdar, Nina Štirmer, John Provis, Rovini / Croatia 20-22 March 2019, 2019, Vol. Pro128, s. 354-361, artikel-id session 8Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The use of sodium carbonate to alkali activate blast furnace slag has several advantages over

    the typically used sodium silicate, including for example easier, safer handling and less negative environmental impacts. In this study, sodium carbonate (SC)-activated blast furnace slag (BFS) pastes and concretes were produced using a high MgO content BFS activated with 3, 5, 10 and 14 wt.% (by binder) of SC. The activator was added either as a dry powder or dissolved in water one hour before mixing. The setting time, workability and compressive strength after 1,7 and 28 days were determined. Concrete cubes were cured in two setups: sealed specimens at 65 ˚C for 24 hours followed by storage at laboratory conditions (20±2˚C), or simply sealed storage at laboratory conditions (20±2˚C and 50-55% RH), until testing. The results showed that, increasing the dosage of SC decreases the initial and the final setting time regardless of whether the mixing procedure was dry or wet. However, addition of the SC dissolved in water increased the slump at higher SC dosage, while increasing addition of the dry SC resulted in a lower slump. A higher dose of SC increased the 28d compressive strength when added as a dry powder

    or wet, with higher values in laboratory curing compared with heat curing.

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  • 3.
    Orosz, Katalin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Humad, Abeer
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Hedlund, Hans
    Skanska Sverige AB, SE-405 18 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Autogenous Deformation of Alkali-Activated Blast Furnace Slag Concrete Subjected to Variable Curing Temperatures2019Ingår i: Advances in Civil Engineering / Hindawi, ISSN 1687-8086, E-ISSN 1687-8094, Vol. 2019, artikel-id 6903725Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Deformations of alkali-activated slag concrete (AASC) with high MgO and Al2O3 content, subjected to variable curing temperature were studied. Sodium silicate and sodium carbonate were used as alkali activators. The obtained results showed development of deformations consisting of both shrinkage and expansion. Shrinkage appeared not to be affected by the activator type, while the expansion developed after the cooling down phase in stabilized isothermal conditions and did not stop within the duration of the tests. X-ray diffraction analysis performed shortly after the cooling down phase indicated the formation of crystalline hydrotalcite, which was associated with the observed expansion. A mixture with a higher amount of sodium silicate showed less expansion, likely due to the accelerated hydration and geopolymerization leading to the increased stiffness of the binder matrix.

  • 4.
    Humad, Abeer
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand. Civil Engineering Department, University of Babylon, Hillah, Iraq.
    Provis, John L.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Effects of Curing Conditions on Shrinkage of Alkali-Activated High-MgO Swedish Slag Concrete2019Ingår i: FRONTIERS IN MATERIALS, ISSN 2296-8016, Vol. 6, artikel-id 287Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to determine the effects of curing regime on shrinkage of alkali-activated concretes produced from a Swedish high-MgO blast furnace slag. Sodium carbonate (SC), sodium silicate (SS), and their combination were used as alkali activators. The studied curing procedure included heat-treatment, no heat-treatment, sealed and non-sealed conditions. The heat curing increased the compressive strengths of the concretes activated with SS and with the combination of SS and SC. Sealed-curing applied for a period of 1 month reduced the measured drying shrinkage by up to 50% for all studied heat-treated samples. Conversely, the same curing procedure significantly increased the development of the drying shrinkage once the seal was removed after 28 days of curing in the case of the SC-activated concretes non-heat treated. Higher degree of reaction/hydration reached by the binders in these concretes was indicated as the main factor. All of the concretes studied had showed a significant microcracking of the binder matrix, with the most extensive cracking observed in the sealed lab-cured mixes. The heat-cured mixes activated with SS and combination of SC and SS showed the most homogenous microstructure and low extensive micro cracking comparing with lab-cured ones.

  • 5.
    Humad, Abeer
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Effects of fineness and chemical composition of blast furnace slag on properties of alkali-activated binder2019Ingår i: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, nr 20, artikel-id 3447Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The effects of fines and chemical composition of three types of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) on various concrete properties were studied. Those studied were alkali activated by liquid sodium silicate (SS) and sodium carbonate (SC). Flowability, setting times, compressive strength, efflorescence, and carbonation resistance and shrinkage were tested. The chemical composition and microstructure of the solidified matrixes were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with EDX analyser. The results showed that the particle size distribution of the slags and the activator type had significantly stronger effects on all measured properties than their chemical composition. The highest compressive strength values were obtained for the finest slag, which having also the lowest MgO content. SC-activated mortar produced nearly the same compressive strength values independently of the used slag. The most intensive efflorescence and the lowest carbonation resistance developed on mortars based on slag containing 12% of MgO and the lowest fineness. The slag with the highest specific surface area and the lowest MgO content developed a homogenous microstructure, highest reaction temperature and lowest drying shrinkage. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated the presence of C-(A)-S-H, hydrotalcite HT, and carbonate like-phases in all studied mortars.

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  • 6.
    Humad, Abeer
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Shrinkage and Related Properties of Alkali-Activated Binders Based on High MgO Blast Furnace Slag2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete is the second most used material in the world just after water. A drawback is that it is mostly based on Portland cement, which has an extremely high carbon footprint reaching a staggering 900 kg/tonne. The carbon dioxide emissions related to the production of the Portland cement accounts for nearly 8 % of the global total. Consequently, the construction sector is engaged in an active search for sustainable alternatives. Over the past few decades, alkali-activated materials (AAMs) emerged as one alternative and attracted strong scientific and commercial interests. Many industrial by-products produced in large volumes can be used as precursors for the AAMs system. The most common include blast furnace slag, fly ash, mine tailings, metallurgical slags, and bauxite residues. So far, products based on ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) showed the best price/performance ratio. Still, there are a number of unresolved issues, which must be addressed to ensure the economical and safe full-scale utilisation of that material. The research work presented in this thesis focuses on alkali-activated concretes based on Swedish water-cooled high-MgO ground granulated blast furnace slag. The objective of this work was to identify experimentally factors that are controlling the shrinkage and the creep of concretes made with this type of GGBFS and to understand their influence on various physical and chemical properties of fresh and solidified systems. Liquid sodium silicate, powder sodium carbonate and a combination of both were used to activate the binder chemically. Two curing procedures were followed; laboratory curing and heat curing at 65°C applied for 24 hours. Various properties were determined including workability, setting time, hydration heat development, shrinkage, creep, efflorescence, carbonation, compressive strength, microstructure and phase composition. Additionally, the effects of the activator type, dose, binder fines, binder composition and curing regime were investigated. The results revealed that the particle size distribution of the binder as well as the activator type and its dosage have strong effects on the produced materials. Increasing the activator amount or decreasing the alkali modulus of the used sodium silicate activator improved the early-age compressive strength and accelerated the hydration reaction. Alkali-activated high-MgO slag concrete showed higher autogenous and drying shrinkage, as well as higher creep in comparison to the Portland cement-based reference concrete. The sodium silicate increased the slump, shortened the setting time, increased the compressive strength and shrinkage but lowered the creep in comparison with the sodium carbonate-activated mixes. Replacing 20% of the slag with fly ash and decreasing the alkali modulus of the sodium silicate activator increased the autogenous shrinkage but decreased the ultimate drying shrinkage. Application of a heat treatment produced in general a higher early age compressive strength, a lower VI later strength development, a more porous microstructure and a decreased ultimate measured shrinkage. Sealed curing decreased the ultimate shrinkage by up to 50%. Some of the produced mixes showed strong efflorescence. Two years of curing in laboratory conditions resulted in an extensive carbonation of some of the mixes. This weakened the silicate binding of the gel and produced a coarser porosity due to the decalcification of C-(A)-S-H. The heat-cured samples activated with sodium silicate were the most affected. Many mixes showed an extensive microcracking of the binder matrix. However, the within this study newly developed mixes were substantially less effected. These optimised mixes were based on a combination of sodium silicate and sodium carbonate activators, combined with a heat treatment and partial replacement of the slag with fly ash. The main hydration phase that formed was C-(A)-S-H, with gaylussite, calcite, nahcolite and hydrotalcite as secondary phases. The partial replacement of slag with fly ash resulted in a dominant formation of N-(A)-S-H and C-(A)-S-H.

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  • 7.
    Humad, Abeer
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand. Civil Engineering Department, Babylon University, Hillah, Iraq.
    Kothari, Ankit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Provis, John L.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    The Effect of Blast Furnace Slag/Fly Ash Ratio on Setting, Strength, and Shrinkage of Alkali-Activated Pastes and Concretes2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Materials, ISSN 2296-8016, Vol. 6, nr 9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of partial fly ash substitution in to a series of alkali-activated concrete based on a high-MgO blast furnace slag BFS. Mixes were activated with various amounts of sodium silicate at alkali modulus (mass ratio SiO2/Na2O) values of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25. The results showed that, an increase in the fly ash content extended the initial setting time but had very little effect on the final setting time, although the early age compressive strength was decreased. The fly ash addition had no effect on the drying shrinkage but lowered the autogenous shrinkage. The mixes activated with sodium silicate at a lower alkali modulus showed a significantly higher autogenous shrinkage but lower drying shrinkage values. Severe micro cracking of the binder matrix was observed only for mixes without fly ash, activated with sodium silicate solution at higher alkali modulus. Decreasing the alkali modulus resulted in a higher autogenous shrinkage, less micro cracking and a more homogenous structure due to more extensive formation of sodium-aluminate-silicate-hydrate gel (N-A-S-H), promoted by the addition, and more extensive reaction of the fly ash.

  • 8.
    Humad, Abeer M.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand. Babylon Univ, Civil Engn Dept, Babylon, Iraq.
    Provis, John L.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Alkali activation of a high MgO GGBS: fresh and hardened properties2018Ingår i: Magazine of Concrete Research, ISSN 0024-9831, E-ISSN 1751-763X, Vol. 70, nr 24, s. 1256-1264Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, concretes and pastes were produced from a high magnesium oxide (MgO) ground granulated blast furnace slag (magnesium oxide content 16.1 wt%) by alkali activation with various amounts and combinations of sodium carbonate and sodium silicate. Sodium carbonate activators tended to reduce slump compared to sodium silicate at the same dose, and, in contrast to the literature for many blast furnace slags with more moderate magnesium oxide, to shorten the initial and final setting times in comparison with concretes activated by sodium silicate for dosages less than 10 wt%. Higher heat curing temperatures and the use of larger dosages of alkali activators resulted in higher early-age compressive cube strength values. The X-ray diffraction analysis of 7 and 28 d old pastes activated with sodium carbonates revealed formation of gaylussite, calcite, nahcolite and calcium-aluminium-silicate-hydrate (C-A-S-H) gel. Curing at 20 degrees C appeared to promote dissolution of gaylussite and calcite, while heat curing promoted their replacement with C-A-S-H, which also resulted in higher ultimate cube compressive strength values. Conversely, mixes activated with sodium silicate contained less crystalline phases and more disordered gel, which strengthened the binder matrix.

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