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  • 1.
    Lohilahti Bladfält, Sanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Gear Shifter Design: Lack of Dedicated Positions and the Contribution to Cognitive Load and Inattention2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Assessment selection in human-automation interaction studies: The Failure-GAM2E and review of assessment methods for highly automated driving2018In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 66, p. 182-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly automated driving will change driver's behavioural patterns. Traditional methods used for assessing manual driving will only be applicable for the parts of human-automation interaction where the driver intervenes such as in hand-over and take-over situations. Therefore, driver behaviour assessment will need to adapt to the new driving scenarios. This paper aims at simplifying the process of selecting appropriate assessment methods. Thirty-five papers were reviewed to examine potential and relevant methods. The review showed that many studies still relies on traditional driving assessment methods. A new method, the Failure-GAM2E model, with purpose to aid assessment selection when planning a study, is proposed and exemplified in the paper. Failure-GAM2E includes a systematic step-by-step procedure defining the situation, failures (Failure), goals (G), actions (A), subjective methods (M), objective methods (M) and equipment (E). The use of Failure-GAM2E in a study example resulted in a well-reasoned assessment plan, a new way of measuring trust through feet movements and a proposed Optimal Risk Management Model. Failure-GAM2E and the Optimal Risk Management Model are believed to support the planning process for research studies in the field of human-automation interaction.

  • 3.
    Öhrling, Therese
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Normark, Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Visual communication for improved safety learning and safety culture in mining industry2017In: Proceedings of the Nordic Ergonomic Society (NES) conference 20-23 August 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work related accidents do occur in heavy industry even though written safetyinstructions and routines exist. In order to improve work safety, the impact ofdifferent artefacts for visually communicating safety aspects is explored. Posters,short animated movies, a longer documentary movie, and a game-like interactivetraining environment prototype were explored with interviews and questionnaires.The documentary movie showed the best effect for increasing risk awareness andmotivation for applying safety routines. Results also revealed a discrepancybetween knowing the safety routines and actually applying them. A conclusion isthat visual communication improves learning and increases motivation to followsafety routines

  • 4.
    Johansson, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Fältholm, Ylva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Wykowska, Agnieszka
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Work and Organization in a Digital Industrial Context2017In: Management Revue, ISSN 0935-9915, E-ISSN 1861-9908, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 281-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are clear signs that digitalization attempts such as Industry 4.0 will becomemore apparent in workplaces. This development requires reflections and considerationsso we do not create more problems than we solve. In our paper, we have raisedseveral questions related to the Industry 4.0 that need answers: Is Industry 4.0 a discourse,an organizational model, or just technology? Does the requirement for flexibilitycall for a new labour market? How will Industry 4.0 affect competence andskill requirements? Will Industry 4.0 encourage a new gender order? Will Industry4.0 take over dangerous routine work or will old work environmental problems appearin new contexts and for other groups of workers? Can we rely on robots aswork mates or will they spy on us and report to management? Based on our analysis,we addressed four knowledge gaps that need more research in relation to thedigitalization of work: The relationship between new technology, working conditions,qualifications, identity, and gender; the future of the workers' collective;crowdsourcing in an industrial context; and human-machine interaction with a focuson integrity issues.

  • 5.
    Normark, Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Öhrling, Therese
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    AIM4s 2: Attitudes, Insights and Motivation for Safety : DEL 2 - Ett interaktivt läromedel för att minska arbetsplatsolyckor2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redogör för andra delen av förstudien AIM4S (Attitudes, Insights andMotivation for Safety). Studiens syfte och mål har varit att undersöka hur eninteraktiv träningsmiljö, som med hjälp av s.k. gamification, skulle kunna fungerasom verktyg för att förmedla säkerhetsrutiner. Inom ramen för studien har 43personer testat en prototyp av en interaktiv spelliknande miljö för träning avsäkerhet och efter det besvarat en enkät. Några av testpersonerna har ävenintervjuats. Resultatet av denna studie visar att den interaktiva träningsmiljönupplevs positiv och att den har förutsättning att kunna utgöra ett bra verktyg förlärande av säkerhetsrutiner.Den interaktiva träningsmiljön anses förmedla information och regler på ettlättillgängligt, roligt och tydligt sätt. En interaktiv träningsmiljö tycks kunna fungerabåde för inlärning, påminnelse och ökad riskmedvetenhet. Det är dock oklarthuruvida inlärningsformen kan bidra till minskat risktagande och till att sänkaantalet arbetsplatsolyckor i realiteten. För att detta ska ske tycks det vara viktigt attden interaktiva träningsmiljön inte upplevs som för lätt utan att den kan utmana ochmotivera till fortsatt ”spelande”. Många respondenter önskar även att träningsmiljönska uppmuntra till ”upptäckarglädje” och inte bestraffa en användare som önskarutforska träningsmiljön genom att ibland välja fel svarsalternativ. Vidare efterfrågasäven tydliga visualiserade konsekvenser av felaktiga val i den interaktivaträningsmiljön som kan verka som avskräckande exempel vid bristandesäkerhetsrutiner. Detta resultat har likheter med den första delen av förstudienAIM4S och det kan rekommenderas att utbildningsmaterial bör utvecklas så att de påemotionell påverka kan påverka brukaren till minskat risktagande för att därmedkunna bidra till färre arbetsplatsolyckor i industrin.

  • 6.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Öhrling, Therese
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    AIM4s 2: Attitudes, Insights and Motivation for Safety : DEL 2 - Ett interaktivt läromedel för att minska arbetsplatsolyckor : Rapport till Gränsöverskridande Konst och Teknik2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redogör för andra delen av förstudien AIM4S (Attitudes, Insights andMotivation for Safety). Studiens syfte och mål har varit att undersöka hur eninteraktiv träningsmiljö, som med hjälp av s.k. gamification, skulle kunna fungerasom verktyg för att förmedla säkerhetsrutiner. Inom ramen för studien har 43personer testat en prototyp av en interaktiv spelliknande miljö för träning avsäkerhet och efter det besvarat en enkät. Några av testpersonerna har ävenintervjuats. Resultatet av denna studie visar att den interaktiva träningsmiljönupplevs positiv och att den har förutsättning att kunna utgöra ett bra verktyg förlärande av säkerhetsrutiner.Den interaktiva träningsmiljön anses förmedla information och regler på ettlättillgängligt, roligt och tydligt sätt. En interaktiv träningsmiljö tycks kunna fungerabåde för inlärning, påminnelse och ökad riskmedvetenhet. Det är dock oklarthuruvida inlärningsformen kan bidra till minskat risktagande och till att sänkaantalet arbetsplatsolyckor i realiteten. För att detta ska ske tycks det vara viktigt attden interaktiva träningsmiljön inte upplevs som för lätt utan att den kan utmana ochmotivera till fortsatt ”spelande”. Många respondenter önskar även att träningsmiljönska uppmuntra till ”upptäckarglädje” och inte bestraffa en användare som önskarutforska träningsmiljön genom att ibland välja fel svarsalternativ. Vidare efterfrågasäven tydliga visualiserade konsekvenser av felaktiga val i den interaktivaträningsmiljön som kan verka som avskräckande exempel vid bristandesäkerhetsrutiner. Detta resultat har likheter med den första delen av förstudienAIM4S och det kan rekommenderas att utbildningsmaterial bör utvecklas så att de påemotionell påverka kan påverka brukaren till minskat risktagande för att därmedkunna bidra till färre arbetsplatsolyckor i industrin.

  • 7.
    Bladfält, Sanna Lohilahti
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Friström, Jon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Field study investigating gear shifter usability in car rental scenario2016In: NES2016 - Ergonomics in theory and practice: Proceedings of 48th Annual Conference of Nordic Ergonomics and Human Factors Society / [ed] Susanna Järvelin-Pasanen, Kuopio: Publications of the University Eastern Finland. Report and Studies in Health Sciences No 22. 2016. , 2016, p. 201-205Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shift-by -wire technology enables new gear shifter designs in cars. Highly innovative gear shifter designs might confuse drivers and have a negative impact on usability. However, new designs might also be more intuitive and easy to use. The purpose of the study was to identify possible usability profits and concerns with different types of gear shifters with shift-by -wire technology during natural interaction, as in a car rental scenario. Four gear shifter types were tested: a button, rotary, joystick, and a stalk shifter, from a usability perspective. The joystick shifter was the most preferred shifter, it felt familiar. The button shifter was the easiest to understand and use. The rotary shifter had also high ease of use apart from one task, the activation of the manual driving mode. The stalk shifter was the least preferred and also the most difficult to use

  • 8.
    Bodin, Ulf
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Lööw, Joel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Teknisk rapport BASIE: Bärbara sensorer för ökad personsäkerhet2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Industriella arbetsmiljöer utgör trots omfattande säkerhetsarbete fortfarande en risk för hälsa och välbefinnande för arbetstagarna. Moderna sensorer och tekniker möjliggör att upptäcka risker och olyckor i tid och därmed öka säkerheten inom industrier. Industriella miljöer utrustas idag ofta med vältäckande trådlösa kommunikationsnät som möjliggör positionering och kommunikation med sensorer som bärs av personal. Den här rapporten beskriver aktuella tillämpningar och tekniklösningar. Förstudien har inte identifierat någon särskild tillämpning som kraftfullt driver utveckling av bärbara sensorer för industriella miljöer. Däremot har ett flertal lovande tillämpningar hittats som för närvarande provas av industrier eller finns kommersiellt tillgängliga som tidiga produkter. Några initiativ kan stödja flera tillämpningar och/eller funktioner med samma arkitektur och hårdvara. Flera lösningar bygger på positionering och i viss mån kontextanpassning.

     

    För fortsatt arbete föreslås utvärdera tillämpningar såsom (1) insamling av information för bättre uppföljning och analys av tillbud och olyckor, (2) stöd för genomförande av säkerhetsförbättrande åtgärder, baserat på analys av tillbud/olycka eller av annan anledning, samt (3) automatisk larmning vid ensamarbete och/eller särskilt riskfyllt arbete. Som ansats för fortsatt arbete föreslås att (A) definiera en flexibel arkitektur som möjliggör tester med olika typer av sensorer för olika tillämpningar, och etablera ett sådant testsystem, (B) identifiera existerande system till vilka integration behövs, samt (C) definiera återanvändbara funktioner för att säkert skydda den personliga integriteten efter behov som styrs av aktuell tillämpning och överenskommelse med företrädare för personal (dvs. fackföreningar), samt (D) hitta tydliga och väl avgränsade tillämpningar som kan provas praktiskt i målmiljöer.

  • 9.
    Öhrling, Therese
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Normark, Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    AIM4S: Attitudes, Insights and Motivation for Safety : Visuella representationer och gamification som verktyg för att minska arbetsplatsolyckor i gruvindustrin2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redogör för förstudien AIM4S (Attitudes, Insights and Motivation for Safety). Studiens syfte och mål har varit att undersöka hur LKAB-anställda och entreprenörer uppfattar olika typer av nya visuella representationer av säkerhetsrutiner, som tagits fram av företagshälsan vid LKAB, samt att undersöka hur interaktiv träningsmiljö, som med hjälp av s.k. gamification, skulle kunna fungera som verktyg för att förmedla säkerhetsrutiner. Enkätsvar och intervjuer bland LKABs anställda och LKABs entreprenörer visar att det finns ett behov av visuella representationer i verksamheten som kan påminna och uppmana till ett säkert handlande. Det upplevs positivt att det påminns om säkerhet på flera sätt, hellre en gång för mycket än en gång för lite. Studien visar att många avställda ofta tummar på säkerhetsföreskrifterna av bekvämlighetsskäl, men många tror att de visuella representationerna till viss del kan bidra till att de påminns om rutinerna och om riskerna de utsätter sig för om de bryter mot reglerna – vilket också ökar motivationen att följa dem. Den faktor som flest av de tillfrågade anser vara den mest kritiska orsaken till varför det ibland slarvas med säkerhet är en brist på lättillgänglig säkerhetsutrustning. Om säkerhetsutrustningen inte finns nära till hands utför man det man upplever som mindre riskfyllda arbeten utan säkerhetsutrustning. Skälet uppges vara bekvämlighet snarare än tidspress. En osäkerhet för gällande rutiner finns hos de anställda. De efterfrågar material i form av checklistor eller träningsprogram att gå tillbaka till vid säkerhetsronder och upplärning av nyanställda. Bland de entreprenörer som deltagit i studien finns en önskan om mer kunskap om given arbetsplats och dess eventuella risker då de inte har samma kunskap om detta som LKABs anställda.Denna studie visar att bilder och filmer i verksamheten uppfattas positivt av anställda eller entreprenörer. Visuellt material anses förmedla information och regler på ett lättillgängligt sätt. Materialet fungerar både för inlärning, påminnelse, ökad riskmedvetenhet och ändrat handlande. Det är dock oklart huruvida bilderna och filmerna fyller sitt syfte med att sänka antalet arbetsplatsolyckor. Den visuella representationen som samtliga tillfrågade ansåg bidra mest till ett minskat risktagande var dokumentärfilmen, som genom att anspela på känslor, emotion, påverkade de anställda och entreprenörer. Dokumentärfilmen skapade en förståelse för hur lätt olyckor kan hända och gav en riskmedvetenhet som flera bar med sig under det egna arbetet. Tysta tavlor och tysta filmer ansågs bra för att ständigt påminna om rutiner. Samtliga personer som deltog i studien förhöll sig neutrala eller försiktigt positiva till en interaktiv träningsmiljö, dvs. gamification av säkerhetsföreskrifterna. De ansåg att det skulle kunna vara bra för inlärning av rutiner genom att bidra till ett mer aktivt tänkande. Aktiviteten fick dock inte bli för enkel och barnspelslik och de ingående exemplen kändes svåra att bedöma utan att ha testat dem. En prototyp av spelet skulle behövas för en bättre utvärdering av åsikter kring detta. Affischer med LKAB anställda ansågs trevliga. En del associerade affischerna med säkerhet på fritiden eller bibehållen hälsa medan de flesta hade svårt att se syftet. Konst på fasader upplevdes fint och önskvärt men ansågs inte bidra till att sätta säkerheten först.

  • 10.
    Öhrling, Therese
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    AIM4S: Attitudes, Insights and Motivation for Safety : Visuella representationer och gamification som verktyg för att minska arbetsplatsolyckor i gruvindustrin : slutrapport2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redogör för förstudien AIM4S (Attitudes, Insights and Motivation for Safety). Studiens syfte och mål har varit att undersöka hur LKAB-anställda och entreprenörer uppfattar olika typer av nya visuella representationer av säkerhetsrutiner, som tagits fram av företagshälsan vid LKAB, samt att undersöka hur interaktiv träningsmiljö, som med hjälp av s.k. gamification, skulle kunna fungera som verktyg för att förmedla säkerhetsrutiner. Enkätsvar och intervjuer bland LKABs anställda och LKABs entreprenörer visar att det finns ett behov av visuella representationer i verksamheten som kan påminna och uppmana till ett säkert handlande. Det upplevs positivt att det påminns om säkerhet på flera sätt, hellre en gång för mycket än en gång för lite. Studien visar att många avställda ofta tummar på säkerhetsföreskrifterna av bekvämlighetsskäl, men många tror att de visuella representationerna till viss del kan bidra till att de påminns om rutinerna och om riskerna de utsätter sig för om de bryter mot reglerna – vilket också ökar motivationen att följa dem. Den faktor som flest av de tillfrågade anser vara den mest kritiska orsaken till varför det ibland slarvas med säkerhet är en brist på lättillgänglig säkerhetsutrustning. Om säkerhetsutrustningen inte finns nära till hands utför man det man upplever som mindre riskfyllda arbeten utan säkerhetsutrustning. Skälet uppges vara bekvämlighet snarare än tidspress. En osäkerhet för gällande rutiner finns hos de anställda. De efterfrågar material i form av checklistor eller träningsprogram att gå tillbaka till vid säkerhetsronder och upplärning av nyanställda. Bland de entreprenörer som deltagit i studien finns en önskan om mer kunskap om given arbetsplats och dess eventuella risker då de inte har samma kunskap om detta som LKABs anställda.Denna studie visar att bilder och filmer i verksamheten uppfattas positivt av anställda eller entreprenörer. Visuellt material anses förmedla information och regler på ett lättillgängligt sätt. Materialet fungerar både för inlärning, påminnelse, ökad riskmedvetenhet och ändrat handlande. Det är dock oklart huruvida bilderna och filmerna fyller sitt syfte med att sänka antalet arbetsplatsolyckor. Den visuella representationen som samtliga tillfrågade ansåg bidra mest till ett minskat risktagande var dokumentärfilmen, som genom att anspela på känslor, emotion, påverkade de anställda och entreprenörer. Dokumentärfilmen skapade en förståelse för hur lätt olyckor kan hända och gav en riskmedvetenhet som flera bar med sig under det egna arbetet. Tysta tavlor och tysta filmer ansågs bra för att ständigt påminna om rutiner. Samtliga personer som deltog i studien förhöll sig neutrala eller försiktigt positiva till en interaktiv träningsmiljö, dvs. gamification av säkerhetsföreskrifterna. De ansåg att det skulle kunna vara bra för inlärning av rutiner genom att bidra till ett mer aktivt tänkande. Aktiviteten fick dock inte bli för enkel och barnspelslik och de ingående exemplen kändes svåra att bedöma utan att ha testat dem. En prototyp av spelet skulle behövas för en bättre utvärdering av åsikter kring detta. Affischer med LKAB anställda ansågs trevliga. En del associerade affischerna med säkerhet på fritiden eller bibehållen hälsa medan de flesta hade svårt att se syftet. Konst på fasader upplevdes fint och önskvärt men ansågs inte bidra till att sätta säkerheten först.

  • 11.
    Lohilahti Bladfält, Sanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Friström, Jon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Field study investigating first time interaction with four automatic gear shifter concepts and their impact on safety2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Öhrling, Therese
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Project: AIM4S2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Karlsson, Malin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Stahre, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    ICT usage and benefits in Swedish manufacturing and process companies2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools could be used to enable the operators to perform their tasks as efficiently as possible. This paper investigates ICT use among Swedish industry operators in six companies representing both manufacturing and mining industry. It was concluded that the availability and usage of these tools is lower in industry than at leisure time. Many operators saw possible benefits with having more ICT tools available in their work.The results suggest both efficiency and economical gains through an increased usage of ICT tools.

  • 14.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Lundkvist, Andre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Nykänen, Arne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Project: Human Factors LAB2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Krupenia, Stas
    et al.
    Scania, Södertälje.
    Selmarker, Anna
    Scania, Södertälje.
    Fagerlönn, Johan
    Interactive Institute – Sonic Studio, Piteå.
    Delsing, Katarina
    Interactive Institute – Sonic Studio, Piteå.
    Jansson, Anders
    Uppsala University.
    Sandblad, Bengt
    Uppsala University.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    The Methods for Designing Future Autonomous Systems (MODAS) project: Developing the cab for a highly autonomous truck2014In: Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation: Part II / [ed] Neville Stanton; Steve Landry; Giuseppe Di Bucchianico; Andrea Vallicelli, Louisville, KY: AHFE Conference , 2014, p. 70-81Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Automated driving put new demands on driving evaluation methods2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Grane, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Driving performance during visual and haptic menu selection with in-vehicle rotary device2013In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 18, p. 123-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An in-vehicle haptic rotary device developed to interact with secondary tasks can provide haptic support to a visual interface and reduce the need to look away from the road. However, added haptic information intended to support interaction may distract the driver by adding cognitive load. This study examines how visual and haptic interfaces affect driver performance and if visual–haptic information could reduce effects of driver distraction. Four menu selection interfaces were compared: visual-only, visual–haptic with partly haptic support, visual–haptic with full haptic support, and haptic-only. The Lane Change Test was used with four measures. Interaction with the interfaces while driving caused increased driving deviation and delayed lane change initiation. The visual-only and the visual–haptic interface with partly haptic support caused erroneous crossed lanes. The haptic-only interface caused missed road signs. Full haptic support had the least negative effect on driver performance. In conclusion, haptic support could reduce effects of visual load without adding effects of cognitive load.

  • 18.
    Grane, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Alm, Håkan
    Project: Life on Board2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    New generation of gear shifters in cars

  • 19.
    Grane, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Alm, Håkan
    Project: MODAS - Methods for Designing Future Autonomous Systems2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Research project with Scania. My research will focus driving simulation methods for evaluating driver safety and driver system functionality.

  • 20.
    Grane, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Haptic addition to a visual menu selection interface controlled by an in-vehicle rotary device2012In: Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1687-5893, E-ISSN 1687-5907, Vol. 2012, article id 787469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, several vehicles are equipped with a visual display combined with a haptic rotary device for handling in-vehicle information system tasks while driving. This experimental study investigates whether a haptic addition to a visual interface interferes with or supports secondary task performance and whether haptic information could be used without taking eyes off road. Four interfaces were compared during simulated driving: visual only, partly corresponding visual-haptic, fully corresponding visual-haptic, and haptic only. Secondary task performance and subjective mental workload were measured. Additionally, the participants were interviewed. It was found that some haptic support improved performance. However, when more haptic information was used, the results diverged in terms of task completion time and interface comprehension. Some participants did not sense all haptics provided, some did not comprehend the correspondence between the haptic and visual interfaces, and some did. Interestingly, the participants managed to complete the tasks when using haptic-only information.

  • 21.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Haptic perception, attention, and effects on performance in a driving context: use of a haptic rotary device in a menu selection task2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In-vehicle driving interfaces have become increasingly complex with added secondary task functions designed to make driving enjoyable and comfortable. A single display solution in combination with a haptic rotary device has the potential to reduce the clutter of buttons. With well-designed haptic information (i.e., cues that could be explored by touch), drivers should be able to find and select functions without taking their eyes off the road. However, when this thesis work started, few studies focused on the effects of adding haptic information to secondary tasks in cars. Clearly, research is needed that examines how adding more information to secondary tasks supports or distracts drivers. This thesis investigates haptic perception, attention, and effects on secondary tasks and driving performance for an interaction menu selection interface controlled by an in-vehicle haptic rotary device. The research questions addressed how and why performance would be affected by added haptic information. The causes of selective attention in a visual and haptic menu selection task were also investigated. Three experimental studies complemented with interviews and questionnaires were performed. Two of the studies included a simulated driving task. It could be concluded that an addition of haptic information to a visual menu selection interface could increase secondary task performance and were preferred with respect to usability issues. However, more complex haptic additions could also confuse the driver. This result depends on the context and differed between persons. From a driving performance perspective, both visual and cognitive demand affected the driving, but differently. These effects were less pronounced when both visual and haptic information was provided. Selective attention to haptic information seemed to be an effect of lacking expectations. By simply mentioning the haptic information before the test, a driver would pay closer attention to the haptic information. This result implies that drivers might learn to use more flexible and informative multimodal interfaces in the future if the interfaces emphasize and communicate the haptic cues. This implication would be interesting to study further. In addition, future studies may apply these results to more ecologically valid driving situations.

  • 22.
    Berlin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Chamlers.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fasth, Åsa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Johansson, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Stahre, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Keyword mingling workshop: a method for identifying and consolidating industrially perceived needs and requirements of future operators2012In: Swedish Production Symposium, SPS12: Proceedings, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investments into the technology of the future require a firm basis in the needs of production industry. However, gathering, sorting and ranking cross-industrial future needs remains a steep challenge to technology developers. Gathering feedback from just one or a few case companies can result in a biased set of priorities, since feedback from specific industrial sectors may often be highly influenced by their industry- and product-specific challenges. The workshop method presented in this paper resolves this by using a highly interactive "mingling" technique to get participants in a large group workshop (between 15 - 20 people) to answer a specific question. The participants discuss ideas in smaller groups, share their findings to the group at large, co-operatively organize the input from all participants into functional categories, and finally perform a 'ranking' of the results. The outcome is a prioritized list of concerns to focus research efforts on, providing workshop analysts with a finished structure for reporting the results. The method was tested in two workshops within the project "The Operator of the Future" and resulted in plenty of positive feedback from participants, who felt that the input was relevant, well-structured, and easy to agree with due to the consensus categorizing.

  • 23.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Methodological considerations when adding new measures to the Lane Change Test2012In: NES 2012 Proceedings: Erconomics for sustainability and growth / [ed] Ann-Beth Antonsson; Göran M. Hägg, Kungl. Tekniska Högskolan , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Grane, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Lundkvist, Andre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Alm, Håkan
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Broström, Robert
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sverige.
    Davidsson, Staffan
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Project: EFESOS - Environmental Friendly efficient Enjoyable and Safety Optimized Systems2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    EFESOS is a Swedish Vehicle HMI (Human Machine Interaction) FFI research project. The overall ambition is to make driving of future cars more environmental friendly, enjoyable and safer by means of optimized systems. The project is managed by Volvo Car Corporation (VCC) and it is a collaboration between VCC and seven other research partners including Luleå University of Technology.

  • 25.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Project: OPTIVe - Optimised system integration for safe interaction in vehicles2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of new warning and information systems in vehicles places high demands on the interaction between the driver and the vehicle. An HMI that exceeds customer expectations, that is transparent to the user, and that fully supports the users in accomplishing their goals provides a foundation for minimizing driver workload. Not only is the packaging of HMI devices essential to improve safety while interacting with a car. Also regulating the flow of information to a level that will not interfere with the primary task, driving the car, is crucial for product development. The purpose of this project is to develop methods and technical concepts that supports integration of HMI systems in vehicles

  • 26.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Johansson, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Projekt: Framtidsoperatören2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta projekt syftar till utveckla en verktygslåda som ger vidgade sinnen, ökad styrka och virtuell förmåga att röra sig fritt i tid och rum för framtidens operatör (process- och produktionsnära personal). Projektet syftar även till att omdefiniera roller, kompetenskrav och organisationsformer för att skapa ökad kommunikation, stöd och förbättrade förutsättningar för decentraliserat beslutsfattande. Projektet inleddes som ett ”A-projekt” 2011-2012 (600 000 kr) och pågår nu som ett ”B-projekt” 2012-2014 (10 milj. kr) med finansiering från VINNOVA. Projektet är ett samarbete med Chalmers. Från LTU medverkar Lena Abrahamsson (forskningsledare), Jan Johansson och Camilla Grane. Forskargruppen vid Chalmers leds av Johan Stahre som också är övergripande projektledare. I projektet ingår även företag som Volvo, LKAB, AstraTech, Boliden, Sandvik, SKF mfl.

  • 27.
    Grane, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Berlin, Cecilia
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fasth, Åsa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Johansson, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Stahre, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    The operator of the future – a key to competitive industry in a future information society2012In: Swedish Production Symposium, SPS12: Proceedings, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased global competition and forthcoming demographic changes is expected for the Swedish industry. The process and manufacturing industry needs to develop solutions that can provide increased flexibility and production efficiency. A key for the future competitiveness is the operator of the future who works closest to the value adding processes. In the project “The operator of the future”, “Framtidsoperatören” in Swedish, the overall aim is to increase the competiveness of Swedish industry by developing an advanced toolbox that meets future needs. In a pre-study, the tasks and needs of the operator of the future were investigated through workshops with 25 representatives from 15 Swedish process and manufacturing industries and system developers. The results had similarities across industries and suggest solutions that support communication, control and constant learning. The tools should be intuitive and situation adapted with use of strengthened senses. These results give the direction for a continued development of a future toolbox. Through a combination of new supporting technologies and new ways of collaboration the operators of the future might find their work more interesting, stimulating, and developing, leading to enhanced competiveness of Swedish industry.

  • 28. Rydström, Annie
    et al.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    Driver behaviour during haptic and visual secondary tasks2009In: 1st International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications 2009: (AutomotiveUI 2009) ; Essen, Germany, 21 - 22 September 2009 ; [proceedings], Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, p. 121-127Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been an increasing interest for in-vehicle interfaces that make use of haptic information. A simulator study was conducted to investigate whether haptic information can facilitate the interaction with an interface while driving. The conceptual in-car interface consisted of a visual menu of four textures displayed on a screen and corresponding haptic information displayed through the interaction device - a rotary device. The experimental conditions included either visual or haptic or both visual and haptic information. One advantage of the condition including only haptic information was that the participants' eyes remained on the road during the interaction. However, since the haptic interaction necessitated serial processing, the experimental task took longer when using only haptic information. Therefore the participants seem to have relied more on the visual information when it was available. The degradation in driving performance and mental workload assessment did not differ between the conditions.

  • 29.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Do ridge sizes in a rotary device for menu selection influence driving performance?2008In: 2008 AHFE International Conference: 2nd International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics / [ed] Waldemar Karwowski; Gavriel Salvendy, Louisville, KY: USA Publishing , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30. Grane, Camilla
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Serial or parallel search with a multi-modal rotary device for in-vehicle use2008In: 2008 AHFE International Conference: 2nd International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics / [ed] Waldemar Karwowski; Gavriel Salvendy, Louisville, KY: USA Publishing , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Grane, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    Menu selection based on haptic and/or graphic information2005In: HCI International 2005: 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 22-27, July 2005, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA, Mahwah, NJ, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today's vehicles the human-machine interaction (HMI) is becoming increasingly complex. Haptic interfaces are a realistic approach to improving HMI. However, to what extent haptic interfaces can replace visual interfaces still remains an unresolved issue. The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to measure task completion time, error rate, and workload in an easy menu selection task for three different types of interface providing: haptic information, graphic information, or combined haptic and graphic information. The haptic interface used was a rotary device that could be turned and pushed. The results suggest that the combined haptic and graphic interface was preferable to the graphic interface regarding accuracy, i.e. fewer turn errors, while both interfaces were fundamentally equal concerning completion time. The workload results indicated that the combined haptic and graphic interface was less mentally demanding than either the graphic or the haptic interface. Solely haptic feedback produced, without exception, worse results than the other cases, as could be expected.

  • 32.
    Grane, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    Menu selection with a rotary device founded on haptic and/or graphic information2005In: First Joint Eurohaptics Conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems: WHC 2005, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2005, p. 475-476Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to compare three different types of interfaces providing: haptic information, graphic information, or combined haptic and graphic information in an easy menu selection task. The results suggested that the combined haptic and graphic interface was preferable to the graphic interface regarding accuracy, while both interfaces were fundamentally equal concerning completion time. The results also indicated that the combined haptic and graphic interface was less mentally demanding than either the graphic or the haptic interface. Solely haptic feedback obtained, without exception, worse results than the other cases.

  • 33. Rydström, Annie
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Grane, Camilla
    Broström, Robert
    Agardh, Johannes
    Volvo.
    Nilsson, Jennie
    Volvo.
    Multifunctional systems in vehicles: a usability evaluation2005In: Proceedings of CybErg 2005: The Fourth International Cyberspace Conference on Ergonomics, International Ergonomics Association , 2005, p. 768-775Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Car Human-Machine Interaction (HMI) is becoming increasingly complex as the extension of functionality necessitates new interface concepts. Various multifunctional systems operated by haptic rotary switches, touch screen, and voice control have been developed. A usability study of multifunctional systems available on the market was carried out to evaluate and compare different manual interaction principles. The systems used in the study were the BMW iDrive and the Audi MMI, both operated by a rotary switch, and the Jaguar touch screen interface. Firstly, a usability test was conducted where two naive and two trained participants tested each system during driving. Ten tasks, comprising CD, radio and navigation were solved by the participants. Secondly, six evaluators carried out a usability inspection, heuristic evaluation, to find possible problems in the systems. The results from the usability test indicated that the naive users interacted more rapidly with the touch screen interface. Trained users, on the other hand, had more even results over the systems. The problems found in the usability inspection gave explanations to some of the longer task times in the usability test.

  • 34.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Grane, Camilla
    Isaksson, Jessica
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Haptic/graphic interface for in-vehicle comfort functions: a simulator study and an experimental study2003In: Proceedings: the 2nd IEEE International Workshop on Haptic, Audio and Visual Environments and their Applications, HAVE 2003, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2003, p. 25-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today's vehicles, the human-machine interaction (HMI) is becoming increasingly complex. The number of in-vehicle comfort functions is increasing as are the number of maneuverable buttons in the vehicle. Haptic interfaces for in-vehicle functions are now commercially available. Thus, haptic interfaces are a realistic approach to an aesthetically and ergonomically improved HMI. That is, without increasing the visual load on the driver. However, as often is the case with new technologies, some haptic interfaces might have been put into operation before being studied and evaluated sufficiently, e.g. being potentially "safety critical". The objective of this paper is to contribute in bridging the gulf between application and research concerning implementation of haptic interfaces for in-vehicle comfort functions. Two studies are reported in the paper. Firstly, a simulator study where a haptic/graphic interface is evaluated against a traditional interface with maneuverable buttons for in-vehicle comfort functions. Secondly, an experimental study that still is in the planning phase. The study aims at investigating the interaction effects between haptic and visual feedback in a haptic/graphic interface.

1 - 34 of 34
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