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  • 1.
    Ferm Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Ekberg, Niclas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Evolving musical Bildung in streaming media – Spotify as a case: Reflections upon a pilot study2018Ingår i: Vart är musiken på väg?: Perspektiv från forskning, bransch och politiker, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolving musical Bildung in streaming media – Spotify as a case: Reflections upon a pilot study

    Cecilia Ferm Almqvist, Niclas Ekberg & Susanna Leijonhufvud (Luleå tekniska universitet)

    The presentation will share experiences of and reflections upon a pilot study based on stimulatedrecall interviews aiming to explore the meaning and function of streaming media as a facilitatorof musical Bildung. It can be stated that new technology has the possibility to provideinformation and education for everyone. Today, most people can access the same informationfor "free", which is interesting from a democratic perspective. Access to music in relation to thenew, transformed music industry has been studied from technological and economical 11perspectives. Even listening habits and listening frequencies, have been investigated throughanalyses of Big Data. Hence, we stated a need to reflect upon and discuss the meaning andfunction of streamed music in people's lives, taking as a starting point the affordances andconstraints of the music streaming services. Using Spotify as a case, based on phenomenologicalperspectives of Bildung, a cross disciplinary project was created. In the presentation we want toanswer share preliminary results from a pilot stimulated interview study. A netnographic orientedapproach where chosen, given its focus on distinguishing meanings and human practice in variedcontexts, and combined with shadowing and individual interviews, supported by stimulatedrecall. The participants gathered their user activities that took place during a limited period oftime, and also in what ways these were shared and expressed in varied social media. Thestimulated recall interviews were documented through the use of a web based videoconferenceapplication, transcribed and subjected to qualitative content analysis. The paper presentation aimsto share and discuss the use of methods as well as preliminary results, which hopefully cancontribute with insights when it comes to how streamed music functions, and can be usedconsciously, within the field of music education.

  • 2.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Vinge, John
    Norway Academy of Music, Oslo.
    Väkevä, Lauri
    Sibelius Academy of the University of the Arts Helsinki.
    Zandén, Olle
    Linnæus University, Sweden.
    Assessment as learning in music education: the risk of ‘criteria compliance’ replacing ’learning’ in the Scandinavian countries2017Ingår i: Research Studies in Music Education, ISSN 1321-103X, E-ISSN 1834-5530, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 3-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent reforms in England and USA give evidence that teaching methods and content can change rapidly, given a strong external pressure, for example through economic incentives, inspections, school choice and public display of schools’ and pupils’ performances. Educational activities in the Scandinavian countries have increasingly become dominated by obligations regarding assessment and grading. A common thread is the demand for equal and just assessment and grading through clear criteria and transparent processes. Torrance (2007) states that clarity in assessment procedures, processes and criteria has underpinned widespread use of coaching, practice and provision of formative feedback to boost achievement, but that such transparency encourages instrumentalism. He concludes that the practice of assessment has moved from assessment of learning, through assessment for learning, to assessment as learning, with assessment procedures and practices coming completely to dominate the learning experience and ‘criteria compliance’ replacing ‘learning’. Thus, formative assessment, in spite of its proven educational potential, threatens to be deformative (Torrance, 2012). In the article we will explore to what extent and how this development is visible in two cases, presenting music education in one Norwegian and one Swedish compulsory school setting. Three thematic threads run through this exploration: quality, power and instrumentalism. 

  • 3.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Gullberg, Anna-Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Hentschel, Linn
    Umeå universitet.
    Mars, Annette
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Nyberg, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Wachenfeldt, Thomas von
    Umeå universitet.
    Collaborative learning as Common Sense: Structure, Roles and Participation Amongst Doctoral Students and Teachers in Music Education – Beyond Communities of Practice2017Ingår i: Visions of Research in Music Education, ISSN 1938-2065, Vol. 29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article communicates an investigation of how collaborative learning is constituted in a PhD-course, namely Collaborative learning in music educational settings. The course was organized and run in a way that aimed to investigate, develop and encourage collaborative learning among students and teachers in the third circle. Material produced and analysed included log-books, assignments, peer-response, after-thoughts, and a Facebook discussion-thread. The results are presented as descriptions of the constituent parts of collaborative learning occurring in the “rooms” of the course. The results show the importance of structure as well as awareness when it comes to roles and kinds of participation.

  • 4.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Ekberg, Niclas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Allan, Jon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Burkhart, Patrick
    Evolving Bildung in the Nexus of Streaming Services, Art andUsers : Spotify as a Case 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The changed landscape of media, with digital distribution as a keyfactor, creates new conditions for people’s access to cultural expressions. This has mainly been studied through technical and financial perspectives, focusing on the record industry, file sharing, human–technology interaction, and click frequency. New questionsare necessary for an understanding of what functions streamed musicand art expressions can have in people’s lives, and how companies such as Spotify relate to these functions.The aim of the study is to explore Bildung in the nexus of streaming services, art and users, with Spotify as a case study. Research questions: How and to what extent do technical, legal, economic, and ethical factors control possibilities for meaningmaking in the interaction between streaming media such as Spotify, arts, and human beings? How does the quality of art/music distributed through streaming influence opportunites for Bildung? How do users make meaning in the specific contexts? To what extent is the user involved in her own Bildung via the algorithms making up the participation?

    To achieve this aim and address the research questions an interdisciplinary study is needed, which makes it possible to understand the complex phenomena of a streaming media platform in relation to Bildung. Technicians and researchers from the humanities and social sciences will approach the research problem and form a holistic understanding of streaming media in relation to human beings, art, and technology. Hence, combinations of methodological approaches are required. Big-data analysis will provide access to how varied demographics use Spotify. The Spotify users’ activities, experiences of streaming media interactions, and meaning-making will be accessed through qualitative netnographical observations, shadowing, and interviews. Sound quality analysis will clarify what aesthetic values are involved in the most appreciated listening experiences, which will be related to Bildung.

  • 5.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Christophersen, Catharina
    Bergen University College, Grieg Academy.
    Inclusive arts education in two Scandinavian primary schools: a phenomenological case study2017Ingår i: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 463-474Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies indicate that ideas related to special education could influence the way arts education is performed and motivated in schools. Further investigation is therefore required in order to raise awareness of how perspectives on inclusion can serve as a starting point for arts education, and vice versa. This article takes it starting point in an ethnographic double case study of arts education practices. Data were collected during the school year 2013/2014 in two Scandinavian schools (for pupils aged 6–13) with an articulated commitment to the arts. The methods used for data collection were observation and interviews. The material was analysed from a phenomenological point of view, and the analysis showed a predominantly holistic view of inclusion in the two schools. Five dimensions of inclusion were identified through the analysis: providing arts education for allbeing connected to something largerallowing access to different forms of expression and communicationestablishing preconditions for holistic inclusion, and developing special arts education. The results indicate that these schools have made considerable progress in developing an inclusive arts learning environment. Results also suggest that a holistic inclusive view of education encourages a functional and vivid arts education for ‘all’, both inside and outside the classroom.

  • 6.
    Ferm Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Benedict, Cathy
    University of Western Ontario .
    Kanellopoulos, Panagiotis A.
    University of Thessaly.
    Pedagogical encounters in music: Thinking with Hannah Arendt2017Ingår i: European Journal of Philosophy in Arts Education, E-ISSN 2002-4665, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 6-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper employs aspects of Hannah Arendt’s thought to explore different but interrelated questions that haunt contemporary music education. We see the importance of a return to Arendt now more than ever as we find ourselves, three authors in three different countries, trying to contribute to democratic music education practices and to researching the conceptual base of such practices, in countries where technocratic approaches to policy development prevail. More specifically in this article we address the following questions: how can we re-think the political and creative dimensions of music education pedagogies in the face of recent educational policy trends? How can we go beyond linearity in our everyday educational encounters? How can we create forms of music education practice and research that induce a continuous interplay between acting and thinking? We pursue these questions through reference to three specific forms of music education practice: research seminars for PhD-students and senior researchers, pre-service music teacher education, and teaching music improvisation. In the first part of the paper, Cecilia Ferm-Almqvist elaborates upon how Hannah Arendt’s thinking influences our teaching, taking an on-going research seminar in music education as an example of a common place. In the second part, Cathy Benedict writes of ‘meeting’ Arendt and coming to an awareness of how Arendt can help us interrogate practices we have come to assume as ‘the right ones’. Seeking to create together with her students an epistemological space of appearance she challenges common teaching strategies that seem to ‘work’. Working within a teacher preparation program she comes to realize that students must also reflect on these moments so as to name what has occurred; thus they need to engage in acts of performative listening, setting aside their own desire and need to speak and be heard first. Finally, in the third part, Panagiotis (Panos) A. Kanellopoulos raises the complex issue of how we should respond to the current deluge of entrepreneurial approaches to creativity, its use value, and its role in education. Based on the proposition that acts of musical improvisation belong to the realm of action, Kanellopoulos revisits Arendt’s notion of conservatism with the aim of outlining a possible way through which contemporary improvisation pedagogy might be re-thought. Taken together these three sets of reflections serve to offer a framing of Arendt’s thinking for music educators in different contexts, showing how Arendt's ideas might serve as a fertile ground for thinking over our own teaching, our curricular decisions, and the choices we daily make over space and time that connect us through our distinctness.

  • 7.
    Almqvist, Cecilia Ferm
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    The Music Teacher in the Nexus of Art Origin2017Ingår i: Finnish Journal of Music Education, ISSN 1239-3908, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 45-58Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Artists are not born – they become. Artists are created by art, art that they have created. This twisted helix is conceptualised as ‘the origin of art’ by Heidegger. If an artist is to originate within musical educational settings, we claim that the musical educator has an inevitable role to play in this art origin. The problem of the investigation at hand are a question of how the educator can relate to this involvement; guiding the student toward the nexus of this origin without standing in the way for the originating of art nor to become a part of the origin of art as a part of the artist’s artistry. The complex phenomenon consisting of relations between art, student(s) and teacher are investigated, and in order to understand how teachers can organize their teaching towards an artistry achievement of their students, we seek to explore a number of phenomenological concepts; Heidegger’s notion of a work of art, the idea of Lifeworlds, musical intersubjectivity, responsibility in asymmetrical relationships and finally, dwelling. The conclusion are that teacher can relate to this situation in three different modes; (i) by enriching the Lifeworld of the student, (ii) by preparing for the unexpected to occur and (iii) direct the intentionality towards the nexus of artness originating instead of the artness itself.

  • 8.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    The risk of unequal gender role conservation: Informal ensemble playing from the perspective of an upper secondary female guitarist2017Ingår i: 21st Century Music Education: Informal Learning and Non-Formal Teaching Approaches in School and Community Contexts / [ed] Ruth Wright, Betty Anne Younker and Carol Beynon, London Ontario: Canadian Music Educators' Association, 2017, s. 21-38Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Andersson, Ninnie
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    To offer dance as aesthetic experience and communication among people 65+2017Ingår i: NNMPF 2017, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Cross roads, crossing borders, and meetings in the common world: A sociological phenomenological view on cross boundary research – Spotify as a case2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation will enlighten and discuss the need and challenges of border-crossing research, when complex phenomena that include art, technology and Bildung are to be investigated. A developing project Evolving Bildung in the nexus of streaming services, art and users - Spotify as a case will function as a starting-point for a reasoning regarding what constitutes border-crossing research, and what dilemmas as well as new meeting points that appear in a process where border crossing is at stake. Material to make an analysis possible was gathered during a lunch-to-lunch symposium where scholars from music education, musicology, psychology, media and communication, English literature, management, Big-data, and sound engineering met and discussed collaboration in relation to the mentioned project. The material was analyzed from a sociological phenomenological perspective. The result of the analysis shows the challenges with, and importance of, meetings in the common world to make border-crossing research possible, at the same time as a belonging to a specific scientific world defines a researcher. Concepts, methods, attitudes, and theories have to, at least to some extent, be redefined based upon new common agreements. Such a process demands researchers to occasionally leave their own “truths” and be open and curios in the common world.

  • 11.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Cultural Citizenship through aesthetic communication in Swedish schools: democracy, inclusion and equality in the face of assessment policies2016Ingår i: European Journal of Philosophy in Arts Education, ISSN 2002-4665, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 68-95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current Swedish society differences are growing regarding who has the right to learn and use artistic forms of expression. Where a citizen comes from, socially and geographically, more and more determines her tools for handling life. A variety of steering documents state that all Swedish youths should have the right to learn and use artistic forms of expression. At the same time the demands on equal assessment and grading are growing stronger in Sweden, which force teachers to put efforts on documentation and grading, instead of musical learning. The aim of this article is to present and discuss possibilities for pupils to develop Cultural Citizenship through music in the school situation where different views of equality are competing. This article discusses to what extent it is possible to conduct democratic inclusive music education towards Cultural Citizenship in the current time of increased demands of documentation, assessment and grading. To come close to the phenomena of Cultural Citizenship in music educational settings, and to offer theoretical tools for understanding and reflection, the to some extent contradictory political and educational philosophies of Hannah Arendt was used. The philosophical exploration implies a need of teachers’ authority and responsibility when it comes to an agreed upon view of the musical world, and ways to organize meetings with that world in inclusive ways in schools towards a functional Cultural Citizenship.

  • 12.
    Ferm Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Examensarbete inom ramen för ämneslärarprogrammet: ett rundabordssamtal med musik som case2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I slutet av vårterminen 2016 examinerades de första ämneslärarna i musik inom ramen för de nya lärarutbildningarna som startades hösten 2011. Som avslutande kurs genomför studenterna ett självständigt arbete i musik på avancerad nivå, vilket vid de flesta institutioner med ämneslärarexamen i musik inneburit förändringar vad gäller tillexempel ämnesinriktning, ansvarsfördelning, och krav på handledarkompetens. I Vejbystrandsgruppen, som är ett nätverk med fokus på praktiknära musikpedagogisk forskning, ingår tolv medlemmar varav de flesta arbetar antingen med genomförande och examination av nämnda examensarbeteskurser, eller i (gymnasie- och kulturskole-)praktiken som kollegor till de blivande musiklärarna. Frågor som lyfts i nätverket, och som vi vill lyfta ytterligare med detta rundabordssamtal är: 1) Hur förbereds studenterna genom sin utbildning för att genomföra ett examensarbete på 30hp i musik på avancerad nivå? 2) Vilka kunskaper och erfarenheter har eller bör studenterna ha utvecklat under examensarbeteskursens gång som de tar med sig ut i arbetslivet? Teman som anknyter till dessa frågor är musikpedagogik i UVK- och inriktningkurser, praktiknära forskning, multimodala uttryck, och möjliga sätt att organisera examensarbeteskursen. Vi ser det som värdefullt att diskutera dessa frågor och teman med kollegor engagerade i lärarutbildning, såväl med estetisk ämnesinriktning, men också med fokus på hur estetiska ämnen kan finnas i förberedelser för och genomförandet av examensarbeteskurser. Efter en kort introduktion kommer några av Vejbystrandsgruppens medlemmar dela med sig av erfarenheter från respektive institution och därefter leder Cecilia Ferm Almqvist en diskussion kring bordet och ämnet.

     

  • 13.
    Ferm-Thorgersen, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Music education and Technology: The need and challenges of cross-boundary research – Evolving bildung through streaming media as a case2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Ferm-Thorgersen, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Music in Future Schooling: Towards Conservation or Reconstruction of Curriculum Structures and Rationale? :A Swedish Holistic Perspective2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Johansen, Geir
    Norges Musikkhøgskole.
    Juntunen, Marja-Leena
    Sibeliusakademien.
    Music teacher educators’ visions of music teacher preparation in Finland, Norway and Sweden2016Ingår i: International Journal of Music Education, ISSN 0255-7614, E-ISSN 1744-795X, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 49-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate the assumptions, ideals and beliefs of 12 professors who teach the courses in instrumental teaching and classroom music teaching, called instrumental Musikdidaktik and classroom Musikdidaktik. Drawing on Hammerness’ concept of teachers’ vision we concentrate on the professors’ visions of good teaching, an ideal graduate, and their subject as a whole as well as how those visions can be extended to denote some of the teaching traditions at play. This was examined by individual interviews that constituted one part of a varied set of data collection strategies. The professors’ visions were not necessarily consistent with those of their colleagues. Still they were strongly related to, steered, and limited by established teaching traditions. We suggest that vision might constitute a functional concept among music teacher educators and that clear program visions should be formulated in music teacher education institutions through collective collegial work.

  • 16.
    Ferm-Thorgersen, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Nordic research focusing composition education in relation to primary and secondary schools: What do we know and what do we have to investigate further?2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the focus on composition, as a part of compulsory and upper secondary music education, has become more clearly outspoken and valued in steering documents lately in the Nordic countries, the need of research has increased. The aim of the symposium is to give a picture of what is going on within the Nordic network when it comes to composition education research in schools, and connect that to existing curricula, as well as to music teacher education. After a short introduction of the situation mentioned above, six examples of ongoing or recent research will be shortly (11 min) presented, and connected to the theme of the symposium. In the end Jon-Helge Sætre will draw lines between the existing perspectives and findings, teaching and learning practices in Nordic schools, the field of music education research, and to what is needed to be investigated further according to his view of the situation (11 min). Finally a discussion between the participants and the audience will take place. Claiming semiotic space with classroom composing: meeting the challenge of the new Finnish national core curriculum Juha Ojala & Lauri Väkevä This conjoint presentation is based on the philosophical-theoretical rationale and practical cases described in our book Säveltäjäksi kasvattaminen ("Educating a composer”; Finnish National Board of Education 2013) that collected together Finnish practices of classroom composing under the theoretical frame of semiotic pragmatism. In the rationale of the book, we portrayed composing as a key practice in building musical lives. Instead of mere creative production of listenables, composing can be seen as quintessential way of claiming semiotic space in the social-cultural realm of sonic actions and transactions. Through several examples of Finnish classroom composing, we argue that such perspective can help us to build a comprehensive view of composing-based music pedagogy that is not stuck to genre-based distinctions between creative approaches, nor restricted to the specific agendas of teaching methods. This, we maintain, is the best way to realize the democratic and inclusive goals of the new Finnish core curriculum for the comprehensive school music. Some key findings from a PhD-study on composition education: The Dynamics of Collaborative Creative Music-Making: Reflection-in-action, facilitation and interaction Tine Grieg Viig This Ph.D.-project focuses on the educational perspectives of collaborative processes where children and young adolescents compose music together with professional artists. The study aims at making a contribution to an on-going discussion of creative processes in the field of music education. Through asking how creative competencies in creative music-making can be taught, learned and developed, this research is based on three case studies where professional artists and children collaborate in creative processes composing music. Interviews with focus groups and leaders of the projects, observations and video-recordings of the creative process along with the musical material make up the empirical data in all the cases. Through a sociocultural perspective on learning and interaction, important foci in the study are the reflection-in-action and facilitation of the creative process through scaffolds and dynamic interaction. The findings point at the important role of an expanded repertoire in these processes, as a basis for the reflection in- and through the musical material in for example aesthetic, artistic and structural modes of reflection-in-action. This includes a discussion of the facilitator role, and the different modes an experienced leader of composition workshops utilizes in the scaffolding of creative collaborative practices. Passed and now intertwining when learning is at stake. - Composing and learning in a musical theatre project Annette Mars This contribution presents a study investigating musical learning among 9th grade adolescents in a Swedish lower secondary school. The adolescents collaboratively composed songs for a self-written musical, which they taught to their peers. The purpose of the study was to explore the ways adolescents acquire musical knowledge in this specific setting. A sociocultural perspective was employed; and the method used was observation and interviews with the adolescents. The results demonstrated that the adolescents’ choice of tools when learning and peer teaching composition, were the same as their teachers’. The written score was distinct in all their musical learning, suggesting the dominance of the written paradigm. In conclusion, in order to support students’ musical learning, music teachers need to know how to create possibilities for peer teaching, and when to interfere and guide the adolescents in a Zone of Proximal Development. Composing with iPads in a 7th-grade music classroom Marja-Leena Juntunen Based on a recent study, this presentation discusses a case in which a music teacher in a Finnish lower secondary-level school explored the possibilities of using iPads in a 7th-grade music classroom (compulsory general music course) searching for opportunities for creative and integrated experimentation with movement, music and technology. The iPads were used to facilitate creative activities and production that included music and movement improvisation and composition, combined with a video recording, and its subsequent editing to match the composed music. The project was facilitated by the teacher’s willingness to incorporate mobile devices in the music classroom in a way that integrated bodily activities and creative production with the use of technology. The case has been examined from three perspectives: students’ experiences, development of agency, and embodied learning. In the presentation, the results of the study will be discussed shortly. Loose control, listen to each other, and create – understanding cooperative music making from a chiasmic perspective Cecilia Ferm Thorgersen In order to create democratic milieus for creative musical group work, relations between individuals and the musical world should be investigated. One way of coming close to the interaction between subjects and music in such environments is to use philosophy as a tool for understanding. In the current article the philosophy of flesh and chiasm as developed by Merleau-Ponty in his later works, is used to acquire knowledge about cooperative composition. Chiasm means criss-crossings between the perceiving and the perceived, self and other, and language and meaning. The aim of the study was to describe and understand the phenomenon of cooperative composing from a pupil’s point of view. The experiences of five 15 years old pupils involved in a New music project constitute the access to the phenomenon. Themes that describe the phenomenon of cooperative composing showed to be: To embody new areas, Intertwinement of ideas, The function of language and symbols in chiasmic communication, Challenges and wonders, and To grow into the field of contemporary composition. Exploring the boundaries of musical meaning making: Using a graphic programming environment to develop higher order thinking in composition Peter Falthin In music composition, manner and methods are often integral to the aesthetic position in which a piece is conceived. This is not to say that choice of method and tools will bring with them a predestination for musical form and expression but rather that a composition as a whole comprises also the process of its making. This paper will discuss some aspects of composition learning that has surfaced in different studies by the author concerning students first encounter with computer programming as a means for composition and development of musical thinking. Some critical issues are connected to, attitude that to varying degree can be sceptical or curious, difficulties to evaluate materials and ideas due to unfamiliarity with the medium, lack of cultural context which can be both confusing and liberating and the indirectness of the medium putting demands on a composer to operate on meta-levels when planning for structures, sound design, playing activities, expression and communication. Results show that the challenge is sometimes positively experienced, and there are several cases where this has meant a turning point for musical reconceptualization far beyond the scope of the original project. Other times the experience is more problematic and seems to cause anxiety and a sense of lack of orientation. The difference does not necessarily correspond with the ability to reach solid musical results in the sense of being able to realize one’s ideas. A number of questions emerge around the role of experience and attitude to learning and thinking in music composition and how it can be dealt with. What do we know and what is to be investigated further? Jon-Helge Sætre Will be formulated upon a reading of and reflection upon the short presentations sent to Jon-Helge in beforehand.

  • 17.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Zandén, Olle
    Department of Music and Art, Linnaeus University, Linnéuniversitetet.
    Swedish music teachers’ relations to an assessment reform: a national view: Specific focus on documentation demands and teachers’ autonomy2016Ingår i: Bulletin of empirical music education research, ISSN 2190-3174Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate Swedish compulsory school music teachers’ relations to a curriculum reform with specific focus on changes in teaching, documentation demands and professional autonomy. The research questions are: To what extent and in what ways have Swedish music teachers adapted to the new compulsory school curriculum (Lgr11)? What changes in documentation demands and practices are reported? To what extent do Swedish music teachers perceive a change in their professional autonomy during the implementation of Lgr11? To answer these questions, a survey was constructed and a random sample of 200 schools was drawn from the 3,252 Swedish schools with pupils in year 6 that were registered at that time by the Swedish National Agency of Education. The survey was completed by 201 music teachers at the 171 schools that agreed to participate, and it generated both quantitative and qualitative data. The findings are presented according to the following themes: Adaptation to the new curriculum, Approach to curriculum, Changes in documentation demands and practices, Possible causes for increased documentation, Documentation’s place in planning and teaching, and Perception of change in professional autonomy. The main outcomes state that the national criteria for grading rather than the aims of the curriculum are steering the teachers in their planning, performance and evaluation of teaching. The implications for practice is that teachers have to claim a space for discretionary power in order to be able to run their classrooms in ways that harmonise with both their conceptions of quality and with the documentation and grading demands.

  • 18.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Wennergren, Ann-Christine
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Utveckling av responskompetens: seminariet som träningsarena2016Ingår i: Det goda seminariet: Forskarseminariet som lärandemiljö och kollegialt rum / [ed] Marie Cronqvist & Alexander Maurits, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2016, s. 133-155Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Academic growth as Common Sense: braveness, trust, participation and structure in a Music Education text seminar2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hannah Arendt has influenced the engagements of scholars in every field. Herthinking on issues such as community building, feminist scholarship, anti-Semitism,epistemology, freedom and responsibility have been interpreted and readapted tocontexts much broader than Arendt might have imagined. For those philosophersspecifically grounded in issues of education Arendt has been particularly influentialand even controversial when it comes to education and the conservancy of such. Fromtheoretical contemplation to operationalization, Arendt continues to frame and guideconversations about agency, citizenship and moral and ethical responsibilities.Music educators have not been exempt from the lure and guidance of Arendt. We,however, face different sets of issues as we think through what it would mean tocreate the conditions for an Arendtian framing of action in musicing environments.Certainly one might note the same sets of issues and controversies played out in ourthinking, nonetheless as philosophers and educators we make, in this presentation, acommitment to consider those ways Arendt has influenced our teaching, ourcurricular decisions, and the choices we daily make over space and time that connectus through our distinctness.

  • 20.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Arts subjects in two Scandinavian primary schools: Aspects of inclusion and special education from a life world phenomenological perspective2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will present a part study of a research project, which explores arts education practices in two primary schools, one in Sweden and one in Norway. The large study aims to systematically examine how education in the arts subjects is carried out in the schools, and how the actors perceive, articulate and legitimate the educational practices in the arts subjects. The study was designed as an ethnographic double case study. This allowed for practical variations in the data collection process; while keeping the same object in view, i.e. the description of the schools and the arts education practices, the researchers could go about it differently to adjust to the daily life at each school. The schools were strategically selected based on the following criteria: They should be primary schools (including pupils age 6-13) with a clearly articulated commitment to the arts subjects. Two schools were selected: “Bayview” school in Norway (grades 1-7) and “Parkside” school in Sweden (grades F-6). In both schools, the subjects of music and arts and crafts for the 10-11-year-olds were selected as locus of the study.The methods selected for data collection were observation, individual interviews with teachers and school leaders, group interviews with pupils and teachers, and informal conversations with teachers, pupils, and school leaders, as well as the schools’ local policy and strategy documents. Data was collected during the school year 2013-2014. In addition, artefacts from the arts and crafts lessons were documented. We concentrated on activities in the music and arts and crafts classes, but also included interdisciplinary arts education activities, as well as incidents in everyday school life and community-directed activities. The retrieval of informed consent and the collection of data were carried out in accordance with Swedish and Norwegian official guidelines for research ethics, and have been recommended by the Norwegian Data Protection Official. In the first overarching analysis of the material regarding educational philosophies, aspects of inclusion and special needs showed to be crucial. Ideas related to special education were influenced how arts education was performed and how arts activities were offered and motivated. The schools’ holistic approach to arts education clearly implied an idea of inclusion: the arts are for all pupils. The concept of inclusion in schools is related to the concepts of integration and participation, and it was evident that these concepts impacted arts education in several ways: Both schools recognized that pupils communicate in different ways, and that the traditions of verbal expression associated with formal education do not suit all pupils. It was therefore considered essential in both schools to allow for various media of expression. Furthermore, all of the pupils were expected to participate and be involved. The concepts of integration and participation can thus be contradictory: Individual involvement in aesthetic learning processes - characterized by access, ownership, and belonging - may require small groups of pupils, explicit content and goals in the syllabuses for the current grade, and individual facilitation. Finally, the schools organize special arts activities for pupils with special needs, which imply an almost therapeutic view of arts education. To be able to grasp and explore the holistic holdings towards arts, education and inclusion, life-world-phenomenology, not at least based on the thoughts of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, could be functional and helpful.The paper will include a deeper analysis of the collected material from an inclusive and special needs perspective, where the philosophy of life-world-phenomenology will be used to illuminate relations between human beings, special needs, inclusion, and compulsory arts education.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Ninnie
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Bedömning av danskunnande: Uttryck, respons och värdering inom ett estetiskt ämne2015Ingår i: Kunskapande i dans: om estetiskt lärande och kommunikation, Stockholm: Liber utbildning , 2015, s. 171-187Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 22.
    Zandén, Olle
    et al.
    Department of Music and Art, Linnaeus University, Linnéuniversitetet.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro Universitet, Musikhögskolan, Örebro universitet.
    Thorgersen, Cecilia Ferm
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Bewertung von Schülerleistungen beim Klassenmusizieren: Ûber ein schwedisches System zur Unterstützung bei der angemessenen Bewertung musikpraktischer Kompetenzen2015Ingår i: Musikunterricht 2: Bildung Musik Kultur – Horizonte öffnen / [ed] Dorothee Barth; Ortwin Nimczik, Mainz: Bundesverband Musikunterricht , 2015, s. 58-64Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Cultural citizenship through musical dialogues: aspects of democracy, inclusion, equality and situated common sense2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current Swedish society differences regarding who have the right to internalize and use artistic forms of expression are growing. Where a citizen is coming from, socially and geographically, more and more determines her tools for handling life. A variety of steering documents state that all Swedish youngsters should have the right to learn and use artistic forms of expression. At the same time the demands on equal assessment and grading are growing stronger in Sweden, which force teachers to put efforts on documentation and grading, instead of musical learning. The aim of the paper is to present and discuss possibilities for pupils to develop Cultural Citizenship through music in the school situation where different views of equality are competing. Are musical dialogues involving all pupils in Swedish schools? Can the pupils express their thoughts and ideas, and are they heard and listened to, do they all really get the chance to internalize music as a form of expression? The presentation will discuss to what extent it is possible to conduct democratic inclusive music education towards Cultural Citizenship in the current time of increasing documentation, assessment and grading demands. To come close to the phenomena of Cultural Citizenship in the music educational setting, and to offer theoretical tools for understanding and reflection, the philosophies of Hannah Arendt, and Simone de Beauvoir will

  • 24.
    Thorgersen, Cecilia Ferm
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Den fortsatta resan: Varierade karriärvägar för deltagare i den nationella Forskarskolan i Musikpedagogik2015Ingår i: Knowledge formation in and through music: Festschrift in honor of Cecilia K Hultberg, Stockholm: Royal College of Music Stockholm , 2015, s. 37-46Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 25.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Evolving Bildung in streaming media – Spotify as a case: A border crossing research project within the field of music2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    It is clear that new technology has the possibility to provide information and education for everyone. Just a few decades ago only people with the financial means could invest in a good encyclopedia, record or art collection. Today, many people can access the same information for free, which is interesting from a democratic perspective. The new and transformed music industry with which digital distribution sets new preconditions for people’s access to music (and also other forms of art) has been studied from technological and economic perspectives, and also in relation to people’s listening behavior. Research has focused on streaming in relation to the music industry, file following, file distribution and aggregation, human-technology interaction, altered usage, the humanization of technology, broadband infrastructure, click frequency, distribution of specific music, playlists shared through social networks, and peer-to-peer streaming. Even listening habits and listening frequencies, such as causal links between music choice and people’s daily activities, or time of listening during the day, have been studied through analyses of Big Data. Now, however, we need to pose new questions to be able to understand the meaning and function of streamed music and other digital art expressions in people’s lives, and also how technological streaming companies interact with and relate to this. The aim of this project is to investigate possibilities for Bildung, given the current digital media situation, through studies of how Spotify is constructed, ideologically driven, and used.With its 40 million users, dominating the streaming media market, Spotify offers a unique possibility when it comes to Bildung within the Swedish context. In the present project Bildung is defined as a journey from the unknown to the known, in the field of tension between past and future, and between freedom and the unfree. Hence, Bildung can concern the broadening, as well as deepening of knowledge, socialisation, and existential experience. During the 60s, radio and TV media were used to promote Bildung, although directed towards a limited target group. Current technology makes it possible for streaming companies such as Spotify to offer individually adapted distribution through complex interplays between human beings, art, and technology. In a border-crossing project such as this, the breadth, range, and access, in interplay with technology at several levels, make Spotify as a case interesting to study from the perspective of Bildung. Leijonhufuvd holds that other factors than economical and technical influence how the mentioned interplay takes place and develops. The content of music files, for instance, cannot be separated in its relation to Spotify as aggregator, without the relationship with the music business, legal jurisdictions, or to connections between artists and fans, or other companies whose products are connected to the Spotify product. In addition, different ideologies govern what Spotify offers to whom, in what ways, and in which contexts. These ideologies, and also the idea of Bildung, influence how technology has to be used, and what economic resources that are needed. Moreover, there is a risk that human beings become passive receivers of arts expressions through participation in digital technology. From a democratic perspective it is important that the peril of co-dependency as a consequence of over-consumption is thoroughly researched.The present project aims to investigate the described complex interplay, from the overarching perspective of Bildung. In order to achieve this aim, a border-crossing interdisciplinary study is needed to provide access to and understand the multifaceted phenomena that Spotify presents as a case of streaming media in relation to Bildung. Consequently, technicians as well as researchers from both the humanities and social sciences can approach the proposed research problem. This interdisciplinary approach is necessary also in order to form a holistic understanding of the phenomenon being researched, and thus develop expert knowledge of streaming media and their relation to human beings, arts, and technology.The aim of the project is to explore the meaning and function of streaming media as a facilitator of Bildung, using Spotify as a case.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Ninnie
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    From a Dualistic Toward a Holistic View of Dance Knowledge: A Phenomenological Analysis of Syllabuses in Upper Secondary Schools in Sweden2015Ingår i: Journal of Dance Education, ISSN 1529-0824, E-ISSN 2158-074X, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 1-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    DANCE AS...BACKGROUNDA PHENOMENOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVEPHENOMENOLOGICAL TEXT ANALYSISDANCE KNOWLEDGE AS EXPRESSED IN LPF94DANCE KNOWLEDGE AS IT APPEARS IN GY11DISCUSSION.This article examines how dance knowledge is seen through syllabuses in Swedish upper secondary schools. A starting point is life-world phenomenology. A phenomenological way of thinking allows that human beings are intersubjective, linked with and within the world, which influences the view of dance knowledge and how research is elaborated. A basic rule and starting point for research within phenomenology is to turn toward the things themselves and to be adherent. Dance knowledge constitutes the phenomenon studied, as revealed in dance syllabus steering documents. Spiegelberg’s philosophical method is used as a base for phenomenological text analysis. The study is limited to syllabuses from two different curricula, labeled by The Swedish National Agency for Education as Lpf94 and Gy11. The analysis results in two images of how the essence of dance knowledge is manifested. Finally, the different constitutions are discussed and related to a life-world phenomenological view of dance knowledge.Summer wind subsides, the freshly cut lawn is replaced with the springiness of the floor of my dance studio, and my books are replaced with lesson plans and syllabuses. It’s time for the term to start. I realize that I am involved in many different courses this year and, in addition, there are new syllabuses with new goals and knowledge requirements, but is dance still dance? I have read the new syllabuses in Gy11, and what I usually do in my teaching can be linked to the syllabuses’ content. So what is new, according to the new syllabuses that my students should face? Does it require anything else of me as a teacher than it did before? As I said, the courses start now and the time to familiarize myself with the documents is limited, so I let the dance conduct me in the jungle of words and letters.This article presents a study with the research focus on assessment within the specialist dance programs in upper secondary schools and specifically how dance knowledge is seen through syllabuses in Swedish upper secondary schools. Teachers in upper secondary schools have to relate to steering documents, which include laws and guidelines for school activity. The steering documents specify what students should learn, for example, in the form of goals and grading criteria. Therefore, formulations in the steering documents have consequences for the content and structure of what is taught. In the higher grades of the Swedish school system, the teacher evaluates the students and must know what knowledge needs to be assessed. The purpose of this study isto analyze and describe dance knowledge as a phenomenon based on how it appears and is seen by the researchers through syllabuses used in upper secondary schools in the period 2011–2012. The documents are studied with a phenomenological method of text analysis, and the results are related to a life-world phenomenological way of thinking about knowledge and learning.One challenge for teachers is to relate to goals and achievement-level criteria that encourage and value holistic learning processes and at the same time encourage feelings of “I can dance” among students. The challenge concerns taking into account different dimensions of dance knowledge and the variety of possible types of dance experience. To be able to relate actively to steering documents requires a prior understanding of how to express performed achievements. We ask ourselves this: How is dance knowledge expressed in current steering documents and what dimensions of dance knowledge are included?

  • 27.
    Thorgersen, Cecilia Ferm
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Global musical activism towards equality among youths2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The session will bring up how young people in the changing 21st century perform social and political engagement outside traditional party politics through music globally. The scope will be how young people form their identities through musical activism, at the same time as they develop as members of a society that they wish to be more equal. In the currently changing world, young people are affected by and involved by in a variety of societal developments. The extent, and the ways in which they share their thoughts and engagements, as well as the extent and the ways in which their experiences are heard and listened to, decisively influence the future world. The session will bring light to and discuss in what ways youngsters’ growing mistrust regarding social policy encourages musical activism. What themes are engaging young people? In which fora are they communicating? What kind of musical expressions are used?

  • 28.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Grundskolelevers lärande som estetisk kommunikation: aspekter av översättning och delaktighet2015Ingår i: Kunskapande i dans: om estetiskt lärande och kommunikation /, Stockholm: Liber utbildning , 2015, s. 70-88Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 29.
    Christophersen, Catharina
    et al.
    Bergen University College, Grieg Academy.
    Thorgersen, Cecilia Ferm
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    “I think the arts are as prominent as any subject”: A study of arts education in two Scandinavian schools2015Ingår i: InFormation: Nordic Journal of Art and Research, ISSN 1893-2479, E-ISSN 1893-2479, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 3-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The arts seem to be under pressure in many educational systems, which is demonstrated by a general lack of recognition of aesthetic experience and learning, a lack of emphasis on the arts in education, and often also a lack of fully competent teachers. Despite the challenging situation facing the arts in schools in general, there are exceptions. Some schools do choose to focus on the arts. This article presents a ethnographic double case study that explored arts education practices in two such Scandinavian schools. The purpose was to systematically examine how education in the arts subjects was carried out in the schools, and how the actors perceived, articulated and legitimated the educational practices in the arts subjects. The results show that the educational leadership in the schools were of great importance. Further, the arts are integrated as a natural part of everyday school life, and both schools have taken a holistic approach to education, in which the arts are perceived to involve and contribute to learning in the broadest sense, as well as to the pupils’ social and personal growth. Also, the results show that arts education practices were carried out in a creative, but challenging tension between frames and freedom

  • 30.
    Thorgersen, Cecilia Ferm
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Kulturellt medborgarskap genom musikalisk dialog i skolan: aspekter av demokrati, inkludering, likvärdighet och bedömning2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Music as Art – Art as Being – Being as Music: A philosophical investigation of how Music Education can embrace the Work of Art based on Heidegger’s thinking2015Ingår i: Philosophy of Music Education Challenged: Heideggerian Inspirations: Music, Education and Personal Development / [ed] Frederik Pio, Øivind Varkøy, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2015, s. 113-128Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Martin Heidegger claims that a Work of Art contains an intrinsic power to open the space of Being. If a Work of Art can be a musical Work of Art, then music possesses the power to strike us and hence throw us into Being. The chapter communicates an investigation of the philosophical thinking in Heidegger’s book The Origin of the Work of Art and what consequences that thinking could generate for music educational practice. The chapter presents an examination of Heidegger’s thinking in relation to the new Swedish syllabus for the subject music. To structure the philosophical investigation two lines were drawn; one investigating Art as an opener to Being and the other line investigating the inescapable nexus of how the Artist makes the Work of Art simultaneously as the Work of Art makes the Artist. The results show that there is an overrepresentation of phenomena connected to what Heidegger refers to as Earth and an underrepresentation of what he refers to as World. According to Heidegger, the phenomenon of art will not reveal itself unless both Earth and World are present, connected to each other through strife; a state of tension where Being comes forth. Being, in the Heideggerian sense, has the power to change history and hence constitute history on both a collective and an individual level. Although not explicitly stated in the music syllabus, our results suggest that there are possibilities for art as Being to be expressed in the subject of music.

  • 32.
    Thorgersen, Cecilia Ferm
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Thorgersen, Ketil
    Brinck, Lars
    Rhythmic Music Conservatory.
    Kvaal, Camilla
    Hedmark University College.
    Musical activism towards equality among youths in Scandinavia2015Ingår i: Finnish Journal of Music Education, ISSN 1239-3908, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 88-101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 33.
    Thorgersen, Cecilia Ferm
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Musical activism towards equality among youths in the Nordic countries: Symposium2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 34.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Wennergren, Ann-Christine
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Skriftlig respons i fokus inför deltagarorientrade seminarier2015Ingår i: Seminariet i högre utbildning: Erfarenheter och reflektioner, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, s. 155-173Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 35.
    Zandén, Olle
    et al.
    Department of Music and Art, Linnaeus University.
    Thorgersen, Cecilia Ferm
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Teaching for learning or teaching for documentation?: Music teachers’ perspectives on a Swedish curriculum reform2015Ingår i: British Journal of Music Education, ISSN 0265-0517, E-ISSN 1469-2104, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 37-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses 10 Swedish music teachers’ descriptions of how a new music syllabus and a new credit scale have influenced their practice. In the new curriculum, grading is introduced in year 6 and not, as previously, in year 8. We have therefore focused on the effects of this change on school years 5–7. The new syllabus is much more precise and explicit than the earlier one, and it is reported to have strongly affected both teachers’ and pupils’ work in the classroom. Teachers are facing a number of dilemmas when trying to combine the demands of the syllabus with their conceptions of quality in music education.

  • 36.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    The music classroom – a local place and a public space: Democratic Education Towards Music as a Language of Us All2015Ingår i: Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning, ISSN 1653-9672, Vol. 97, s. 61-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several youngsters need and use art-based expressions to communicate their feelings, experiences and ideas. To be able to handle different forms of expressions is a human right. But even if this is something that we all can agree upon, several questions have to be formulated. The aim of the paper is to present the message of democracy in current curricula, and investigate Hannah Arendt’s thoughts about democracy as a guideline for organizing of music education in Swedish schools. What challenges and priorities do music educators achieve from Hannah Arendt’s writings in this respect? Arendt underlines that human beings become clear to them selves and to others through interaction in the social life. In those interactive activities we need different forms of languages to try, modify, and create ideas and insights. Questions that have to be elaborated upon when using Arendt’s view of democracy are for example; Who is expected to make their voices heard, who is seen as a possible participant, and who has access to the specific areas?

  • 37.
    Thorgersen, Cecilia Ferm
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro Universitet, Musikhögskolan, Örebro universitet.
    The Music Teacher in the Nexus of Art Origin2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 38.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Traversing the chiasm of lived teaching and learning experience: embodied practicum in music teacher education2015Ingår i: Nordisk musikkpedagogisk forskning: Årbok, ISSN 1504-5021, Vol. 15, s. 9-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies of educational quality in music teacher education have valued practicum as one of the most important parts of music teacher education. Not a least have those experiences in the field been appreciated by students. In order to develop high quality music teacher education, we have to understand what happens in practicum contexts: in the meeting between, teacher students, practicum supervisors, students, steering documents, culture, and music, when student teachers perceive that they learn how to teach music in adequate ways. This paper tries to understand such meetings and learning situations from a phenomenological perspective, namely based on the concept ”chiasm” as developed by Maurice Merlau-Ponty. Expressed by the Greek letter χ (chi), chiasm means a crisscrossing of the perceiving and the perceived, self and other, and language and meaning. Chiasm also signifies an inter-twining, an intersection, reversibility, or the process of flowing of phenomena one into another. By that, chiasm can symbolically represent practicum as an intertwining of theory and practice. Like the crosspiece, practicum within music teacher education can become an endless journey and the meeting place of a student teacher’s self with the world of different and unique music teaching and learning experiences, unpredictable turns, challenges and wonders. This article attempts to communicate a glimpse of such a journey, expressed through five music teacher students’ stories. The stories were produced through individual and group interviews performed within a larger Norwegian-Swedish research project focusing educational quality in music teacher education. Hopefully the analysed stories contribute with knowledge about how individuals and groups embody knowledge about their musical teaching and learning life-worlds. Key-words; music teacher education, practicum, educational quality, chiasm, flesh

  • 39.
    Zandén, Olle
    et al.
    Department of Music and Art, Linnaeus University, Linnéuniversitetet.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro Universitet, Musikhögskolan, Örebro universitet.
    Thorgersen, Cecilia Ferm
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Wie lassen sich Schülerleistungen beim Klassenmusizieren angemessen bewerten?: Über ein schwedisches System zur Unterstützung bei der Bewertung musikpraktischer Kompetenzen2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 40.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Aktivitet: Bundeskongress Musikunterricht2014Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 41.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Zandén, Olle
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Vinge, John
    Norges Musikkhøgskole.
    Nyberg, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Andersson, Ninnie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Väkevä, Lauri
    Sibeliusakademien.
    Assessment as learning in music education: The risk of ‘criteria compliance’ replacing ’learning’ in the Scandinavian countries2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment as learning in music education - the risk of ‘criteria compliance’ replacing ’learning’ in the Scandinavian countriesRecent reforms in England and USA give evidence that teaching methods and content can change rapidly, given a strong external pressure, for example through economic incentives, inspections, school choice and public display of schools’ and pupils’ performances. Educational activities in the Scandinavian countries have increasingly become dominated by obligations regarding assessment and grading. A common thread is the demand for equal and just assessment and grading through clear criteria and transparent processes. Torrance (2007) states that clarity in assessment procedures, processes and criteria has underpinned widespread use of coaching, practice and provision of formative feedback to boost achievement, but that such transparency encourages instrumentalism. He concludes that the practice of assessment has moved from assessment of learning, through assessment for learning, to assessment as learning, with assessment procedures and practices coming completely to dominate the learning experience and ‘criteria compliance’ replacing ‘learning’. Thus, formative assessment, in spite of its proven educational potential, threatens to be deformative (Torrance, 2012). In the symposium we will explore to what extent and how this development is visible from four perspectives. Four examples of assessment investigation of dance and music education in primary, lower and upper secondary schools will function as entrances to the dilemma.The symposium will start with an introduction of assessments demands in general and in the Scandinavian countries specifically, ending up in the theories of Torrance, and the risk of assessment as learning or even. Thereafter the following perspectives and settings will be described.Professionalism in Action – Music Teachers on an Assessment JourneyIf assessment practices within education have led, as Torrance (2007) claims, to instrumentalism in the form of “assessment as learning [and] criteria compliance” (p. 281-282), how can teachers and researchers reclaim the exploratory notions of (music) education? In an ongoing collaborate Research and Development and Participatory Action Research project, a group of Swedish upper secondary school music teachers together with a researcher investigates issues regarding assessment, for instance why equality is not spelled “exactly the same thing” and how teachers balance professionalism with accountability. Demands on documentation of dance knowledge in upper secondary schools in Sweden – how does that processing assessment practice?In the syllabuses from Gy11, expressed dance performance can be seen as an embodied action. Though, students and teachers are asked to evaluate themselves and fill out a written rubric in the same way as all other subjects at studied upper secondary schools. The focus on criteria-referenced feedback can have coherence to assessment as learning instead of assessment for learning. Based on observations, conversations and written reflections teachers are expressing the insufficiency with the rubric in combination to dance. How is the demand on documentation processing the assessment practice? Through a study of grading conversation teachers´ conception of qualities are illuminated. What is the base for what is assessed and communicated and how is that effect the teaching professionalism? What is prepossessing teachers´ conceptions of qualities?An outline of an understanding of assessment as didactical self-defence strategiesThe findings of Vinge (2014) indicate a clear tendency towards a systematic criterion based assessment practice in the compulsory music of subject in lower secondary schools in Norway. This change in practice follows the implementation of the latest curriculum reform (LK06, the knowledge reform), a curriculum reform initiated to enhance student learning within the frames of international competency comparison. Music teachers make use of new assessment principles and techniques designed to enhance student learning, associated with the so-called assessment for learning concept. However, the analysis indicates that these principles and techniques are being used mainly for grading purposes and settings – assessment of learning. All though teachers seem to face lots of difficulties in the construction of various assessment schemes; once adopted they seem to become important tools in the teachers’ strive for effectiveness and control. This poses a central question, which will be elaborated in this presentation: Who is assessment actually for? Is it for the students or the teacher? Teaching for learning or teaching for documentation: on the effects of a curriculum reformThe Swedish 2011 curricular reform brought considerable change to the school system. Among other changes, grading was to take place from school year 6 and not from year 8 and a new grading regime was introduced with more grades and more detailed criteria than in the preceding curricula. In this presentation, preliminary results from a survey among music teachers in Swedish compulsory school will be discussed. The survey is based on the findings in a qualitative study of music teachers’ perceptions of this reform (Zandén & Ferm, forthcoming) and aims at giving a representative picture of the effects of the reform on music education and music teachers’ professional situation. Finally Lauri Väkevä will draw lines between the different contributions, comment critically, and conclude with with a Finnish perspective.

  • 42.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Estetisk kommunikation för inkludering och delaktighet2014Ingår i: Inkludering: möjligheter och utmaningar, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, s. 172-194Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet kommer att ta allas rätt till estetiska uttryck ur ett holistiskt perspektiv som utgångspunkt. Rätten att delta i kommunikation och att göra skillnad, att höras och bli lyssnad på, oavsett förutsättningar och bakgrund kommer att relateras till möjligheter och utmaningar med estetiska uttrycksmedel. I grunden kommer Hannah Arendts tankar om demokrati samt en syn på inklusion baserad på livsvärldsfenomenologisk filosofi att finnas. Med ett sådant perspektiv som utgångspunkt kommer begreppen delaktighet, tillgänglighet, likvärdighet och gemenskap i fokus. Att delta i estetiska aktiviteter och lärandeprocesser kan med andra ord ses som en demokratisk rättighet. Alla människor har rätt att växa i rollen som utövare, mottagare och skapare av estetiska uttryck. I kommunikationen blir vi tydliga inför varandra och oss själva. Den holistiska approachen gör det möjligt att komma förbi de motsatsförhållanden som ofta dominerar specialpedagogiska sammanhang, till exempel dikotomiska förhållningssätt till inklusion och integration, det sociala kontra det individuella, eller individen kontra miljön. I stället kommer möjligheten att skapa mening genom att samspela och kommunicera i och med världen i dess estetiska form i centrum. Det är individens upplevelser och erfarenheter av musik, dans, bild, drama och andra uttrycksformer som räknas oavsett förutsättningar. Motivation och nyfikenhet, närvaro, tidigare erfarenheter, känslor och reflektion utgör utgångspunkten för vars och ens möjligheter till estetiska erfarenheter och därmed lärandeprocesser. I kapitlet relateras också till styrdokument med relevans för området. Syftet är att öppna för reflektion kring möjligheter för barn i behov av särskilt stöd att göra estetiska erfarenheter och delta i estetisk kommunikation inom ramen för skolan. Del 1 En fenomenologisk syn på demokrati, inklusion och lärandeDel 2 Estetisk kommunikation – allas rätt att delta och att göra skillnadDel 3 Estetisk kommunikation i praktiken – tips o trix i relation till styrdokument

  • 43.
    Thorgersen, Cecilia Ferm
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Christophersen, Catharina
    Bergen University College, Grieg Academy.
    Exploring Arts Education Practices: Two case studies2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We will present a research project that explores arts education practices in Norwegian and Swedish schools . Our presentation will especially focus upon the research design, research methods, and some very preliminary results. This study is an ethnographic double case study, meaning that two cases are studied in-depth. The cases, strategically selected, are one primary school in Norway (years 1-7) and one in Sweden (years F-6) that are well known for their arts education. Methods used are observation, interviews, and informal conversations with teachers, pupils, and school leaders, performed during the school year 2013-2014. The focus has been on activities within the arts subjects, but also other activities such as everyday school life, staff and team meetings, pupils’ musicals and voluntary rock bands, community-directed activities, etc. have been observed. Our research questions are: • How is arts education carried out in the selected schools? • How do the actors perceive the arts education practices in their schools? • How are arts education practices articulated and legitimated among different actors and in different contexts? As the project is practice-based and empirical oriented, it is not based on specific theoretical foundations. We will draw upon various literature and earlier research on arts education, aesthetic experience, children’s culture, agency and empowerment, school development, and curriculum research. In our opinion, it is crucial to describe and discuss educational practices that take the arts seriously. Such practices can demonstrate possible spaces for the arts and aesthetic experience and communication in schools, and thereby also contribute to improvement of teacher education in the arts. In this study, the actors’ perspectives on and experiences with the arts is essential, so is the interaction between pupils, teachers, and materials. However, arts learning and teaching are not isolated happenings. One must look beyond the specific situations and also consider the context that such practices occur within, for instance historical conditions and traditions within the arts, as well as constraints, possibilities and limitations within the school context. Arts education practices must therefore be studied at close range, in context, and it must include the perspectives of multiple actors.

  • 44.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Learning among critical friends in the instrumental setting2014Ingår i: Update - University of South Carolina. Dept. of Music, ISSN 8755-1233, E-ISSN 1945-0109, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 60-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article is based on a phenomenological way of thinking about knowledge and learning and will treat the concepts of response and critical friends as ways of sharing experience in higher music education. The problem area I want to illuminate is how teachers, who educate musicians, can use and facilitate development of their students’ skills and abilities, when it comes to encouraging each other toward educational goals. The structure of the article is divided into three themes: the first theme concerns the one-to-one teaching tradition of higher music education; the second one will communicate a definition of what critical friendship is, together with some examples of how critical friendship has been used in musician education; and the third part will focus on the changing role of the teacher as well as suggest some implications for best collaborative and response-based practices.

  • 45.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Lose control, listen to each-other, and create: understanding cooperative music making from a chiasmatic perspective2014Ingår i: Reconstruction: Studies in Contemporary Culture, ISSN 1547-4348, E-ISSN 1547-4348, Vol. 14, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 46.
    Schwieler, Elias
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet, UPC.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Translating the impossible: listening, learning, and art2014Ingår i: Journal for the Philosophical Study of Education, Vol. 2, s. 41-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 47.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Activity: Meaning making in Swedish compulsory schools: What do we know and what do we need to know?2013Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 48.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Activity: Researching Music Teacher Education in the Nordic Countries: Where do we stand and where are we heading?2013Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 49.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Den kulturelle skolesekken: estetiska upplevelser för alla?2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 50.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Zandén, Olle
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Implementation of a new assessment system: consequences for teaching and learning of music in Swedish schools year 5-72013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last years several reforms have influenced the educational system in Sweden. A new curriculum for the compulsory school has offered teachers and pupils a totally new system for assessment. A new credit scale is constructed and all pupils will be graded already in the 6th grade, which means that new teacher groups will have to grade their pupils’ performances. The curriculum describes criteria in three qualitative levels for each subject by defining aspects of a holistic knowing and describing three levels of competence within each of these aspects. Clarity and transparency have been steering concepts in the formulation process in order to offer parents and pupils a better possibility to understand and influence education and assessment in schools. At the same time teachers are expected to make holistic assessments of the pupils’ acquired knowledge. In a subject as music, teachers’ subject knowledge and conceptions of quality can transcend what is currently possible for them to verbalize. In several other subjects written and spoken language constitute the primary media of communication. Musical knowledge though, can be expressed and experienced in sounding forms, a mode of expression which is not easily transduced into writing or speaking. Hence, high demands for verbal clarity in aims and assessment may result in essential parts of music being excluded from teaching and learning, based on a view that these aspects are too complicated to assess equally, or impossible to communicate verbally in a clear way. There is a risk that the new demands on clarity and transparency may reduce the subject to comprise only those aspects that can be easily measured and talked about. The current study aims to systematically and critically investigate in which ways the Swedish curriculum with its new assessment- and grading regime influences music teachers’ practice and their students’ musical learning in grade 5 to 7. Earlier research has generally stated that educational reforms take time to implement, but recent reforms in England and USA give evidence that teaching methods and content can change rapidly, given a strong external pressure, for example through economic incentives, inspections, school choice and public display of schools’ and pupils’ performances. Music education could become an easy prey for such pressures, given that music teachers lack a tradition to accompany music with words and that musical assessment criteria often are perceived as subjective, as compared to objective measurables. The demand for clear and explicit criteria offers challenges, since differences between credit levels are expressed as assessable qualities and not measurable quantities. A forced verbalisation of these quality aspects may get consequences for music teachers’ evolving understanding of knowledge aspects, as well as for their experience of and qualitative evaluation of students’ musical achievements and expressions. The first phase of the study includes interviews with music teachers teaching in year 5-7 about changes in their teaching practices as well as their perceptions of the new demands in Lgr11. The second phase will be a survey, aiming to map the implementation scenario among Swedish music teach in the same years. The third and final part gets its inspiration from Engeström’s activity theory where structural and intentional contradictions are expected to have a key function for learning and development. In this phase the teachers’ as well as the students’ perspectives are focused through participant observation, interviews, and collegial conversations. The teachers define the problems found in practice, which are discussed among colleagues who together create strategies for further development. A model for general development work will be constructed through the project. By limiting the investigation to teachers who teach music in year 5-7 the study can claim to generate new knowledge concerning a group of teachers that have been neglected earlier. In the presentation at the conference we will present the study as a whole and also communicate some preliminary results from the first phase interview study.

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