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  • 1.
    Warlo, Mathis
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Butcher, Alan
    Geological Survey of Finland/Geologian tutkimuskeskus, Espoo, Finland.
    McElroy, Iris
    Boliden AB.
    Brising, Dominique
    Boliden AB.
    Rollinson, Gavyn
    Camborne School of Mines, University of Exeter.
    Automated quantitative mineralogy optimized for simultaneous detection of (precious/critical) rare metals and base metals in a production-focused environment2019Ingår i: Minerals, ISSN 2075-163X, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 9, nr 7, artikel-id 440Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM) systems are applied in the mining industry to quantify the mineralogy of the ore feed and products. With society pushing towards sustainable mining, this quantification should be comprehensive and include trace minerals since they are often either deleterious or potential by-products. Systems like QEMSCAN® offer a mode for trace mineral analysis (TMS mode); However, it is unsuitable when all phases require analysis. Here, we investigate the potential of detecting micron-sized trace minerals in fieldscan mode using the QEMSCAN® system with analytical settings in line with the mining industry. For quality comparison, analysis was performed at a mining company and a research institution. This novel approach was done in full collaboration with both parties. Results show that the resolution of trace minerals at or below the scan resolution is difficult and not always reliable due to mixed X-ray signals. However, by modification of the species identification protocol (SIP), quantification is achievable, although verification by SEM-EDS is recommended. As an add-on to routine quantitative analysis focused on major ore minerals, this method can produce quantitative data and information on mineral association for trace minerals of precious and critical metals which may be potential by-products in a mining operation

  • 2.
    Sarlus, Zimer
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. Luleå University of Technology.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bauer, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andersson, Joel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Nordin, Roger
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Character and tectonic setting of plutonic rocks in the Gällivare area, northern Norrbotten, Sweden2019Ingår i: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 141, nr 1, s. 1-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Petrographical and lithogeochemical investigations in combination with mapping in the Gällivare area, northern Norrbotten, Sweden, have led to the identification of several igneous intrusive rock types. These include: (1) ultramafic-mafic complexes, (2) mafic-intermediate rocks, (3) dolerites and (4) felsic plutons. The ultramafic-mafic rocks include the ca. 1.88 Ga Dundret complex and ca. 1.80 Ga Vassaravaara complex. The Dundret complex has tholeiitic to calc-alkaline affinity, shows a primitive mineral content and was formed in an extensional tectonic setting. The Vassaravaara complex has a similar chemical signature as the Dundret complex. The mafic-intermediate plutons vary in composition from gabbro to diorite. The chemical signature of the dioritic rocks indicate formation in a volcanic arc setting. Dolerites occur as solitary dikes and have calc-alkaline affinity. The felsic plutons include granite and syenite of ca. 1.88, 1.80 and 1.78 Ga age. The felsic plutons have calc-alkaline to shoshonitic affinity and mostly show a metaluminous I-type character. Results indicate subduction at 1.90 Ga resulting in a volcanic arc system, and including extensional events generating back-arc environments leading to mafic, intermediate and felsic magmatism in the Gällivare area. Subduction at 1.80 Ga is suggested to have caused a similar process generating mafic and felsic magmatic rocks in the same area. A subsequent collision event finally generated 1.78 Ga granitic rocks.

  • 3.
    Warlo, Mathis
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Karlsson, Peter
    Boliden AB.
    Mineralogy and origin of the intrusion-related Liikavaara Cu-(W-Au) deposit, northern Sweden2019Ingår i: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Liikavaara Cu-(W-Au) deposit is situated proximal to the Aitik Cu-Au deposit in northern Sweden. It shows occurrence of scheelite and enrichment in trace metals including Au, Ag and Bi. In this study, petrological, mineralogical and geochemical investigations of the host rocks and ore, and geochronological analysis of a footwall intrusion were carried out. The ore is hosted by a metadiabase partly metamorphosed to biotite schist. The wall rocks are composed of metavolcaniclastic rocks of andesitic to basaltic composition. A granodiorite intrusion occurs in the footwall and related aplite dikes cut the deposit. Veins of quartz (±tourmaline) and calcite are numerous. Mineralisation is bound to these veins and their distribution is controlled by the aplite dikes. Chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and pyrite are major in abundance. Sphalerite, galena, scheelite, molybdenite and magnetite are minor. Gold occurs native and as electrum and Ag is mostly bound in hessite and acanthite. The bismuth mineralogy is diverse but native Bi, pilsenite, bismuthinite, and tetradymite are common. A single grain of Sb (breithauptite) was observed. The major and minor minerals show intergrowth and replacement textures. The trace minerals are found as inclusions, along the borders and in cracks in the major sulphides, sphalerite, molybdenite and quartz. The footwall intrusion is dated at 1.87 Ga and suggested to be the source for ore genesis. The dikes may have acted as pathways for the magmatic hydrothermal fluids that carried the ore from the intrusion to the host rock.

  • 4.
    Tiu, Glacialle
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Jansson, Nils
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ghorbani, Yousef
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Sulfide chemistry and trace element deportment at the metamorphosed Lappberget Zn-Pb-Ag-(Cu-Au) ore body, Sweden: Implications for Mineral Processing2019Ingår i: Life with Ore Deposits on Earth: Proceedings of the 15th SGA Biennial Meeting 2019, Glasgow, Scotland, 2019, Vol. 4, s. 1486-1489Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The 58 Mt Lappberget Zn-Pb-Ag-(Cu-Au) ore body represents one of the largest and most significant polymetallic base metal sulfide deposits in Sweden. The complex mineralogical characteristics of the ore body pose particularly tough challenges for successful production forecast because of the mixed Zn-Pb-Cu base metals, the complex association of the beneficial Ag and Au, and the presence of influential elements such as Sb, Mn and Mg. Thus, a detailed mineralogical characterization study was conducted, focusing on the deportment of trace and minor elements (including credit and penalty elements). Mineral chemistry data derived from electron microprobe and   laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses reveal the complexity in the composition and associations of the ore minerals, consisting of textural and chemical varieties of sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, iron sulfides, antimonides and sulfosalts. Recrystallization, re-mobilization and re-concentration of sulfide minerals, compositional banding, and ductile and brittle deformation textures (i.e. deformation twins on sphalerite, brecciation, bent cleavage planes, etc.) are observed throughout the deposit. The mineralogical and textural complexity and heterogeneity of the sulfide ore are reflected in the variability in grades and recovery from the processing plant.

  • 5.
    Jansson, Nils
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Thomas, Helen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Persson, Mac
    Boliden Mineral.
    Sand, Anders
    Boliden Mineral.
    Textural and chemical characterization of sulphide minerals for improved beneficiation and exploration, Skellefte district, Sweden2019Ingår i: SGU rapport 2019:10 FoU-seminarium / [ed] Nelly Aroka, Lars-Ove Lång, Uppsala, 2019, s. 48-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Jansson, Nils F.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Stephens, Michael B.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Olin, Paul H.
    CODES ARC Centre of Excellence and TMVC ARC Research Hub, University of Tasmania.
    Gilbert, Sarah
    CODES ARC Centre of Excellence and TMVC ARC Research Hub, University of Tasmania.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Syn-tectonic sulphide remobilization and trace element redistribution at the Falun pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit, Bergslagen, Sweden2018Ingår i: Ore Geology Reviews, ISSN 0169-1368, E-ISSN 1872-7360, Vol. 96, s. 48-71Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mineralization types at the Palaeoproterozoic Falun base metal sulphide deposit are predominantly pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-rich massive sulphide mineralization, disseminated to semi-massive Cu-Au mineralization, auriferous quartz veins, and mineralized shear zones of talc-chlorite-dominated schist. The massive and disseminated to semi-massive sulphide mineralization types were subject to polyphase ductile deformation (D1 and D2) and metamorphism under low-P, lower-amphibolite facies conditions, which led to the development of ore textures and paragenetic relationships indicating both mechanical and chemical remobilization of sulphides. In the massive sulphide mineralization, rare inclusion-rich pyrite occurs as relic cores inside inclusion-poor metamorphosed pyrite. Imaging and spot analysis using multielement laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) reveal that inclusion-poor pyrite was depleted in trace elements, which were originally present as non-stoichiometric lattice substitutions or in mineral inclusions. The inclusion-rich pyrite was shielded from depletion and, at least partly, retained its initially higher trace element concentrations, including Au.

    Gold is also associated with chalcopyrite in the disseminated to semi-massive Cu-Au mineralization and in the system of auriferous quartz veins hosted therein, the latter being also affected by the D2 ductile strain. It is inferred that emplacement of the vein system took place after the peak of metamorphism, which occurred between D1 and D2, but prior to and possibly even shortly after completion of the D2 deformational event. Similarities in trace element signatures in chalcopyrite are compatible with the interpretation that the quartz veins formed by local chemical remobilization of components from the Cu-Au mineralization. Transport of liberated Au from pyrite during grain growth in the massive sulphide mineralization may have upgraded the Au endowment in the quartz veins, leading to the additional formation of native gold in the veins. A strong correspondence between elements liberated from pyrite (e.g. Pb, Bi, Se and Au) and those forming discrete and characteristic mineral phases in the quartz veins (Pb-Bi sulphosalts, native gold) supports this hypothesis.

    Trace element signatures for the main sulphide minerals pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena are similar to previously published data from other metamorphosed massive sulphide deposits. The association of the Falun mineralization with elevated Bi is reflected by its occurrence in sulphide minerals (e.g. galena) and in abundant mineral inclusions of Pb-Bi sulphosalts (e.g. weibullite), especially in the disseminated to semi-massive Cu-Au mineralization. Elevated Sn concentrations in the lattice and/or as cassiterite inclusions in chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena are compatible with a hot, acidic and reducing fluid during formation of the syn-volcanic, base metal sulphide mineralization and associated host-rock alteration.

  • 7.
    Sarlus, Zmar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andersson, Ulf B.
    Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara AB, SE-981 86 Kiruna.
    Bauer, Tobias E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Nordin, Roger
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Andersson, Joel B.H.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Timing of plutonism in the Gällivare area: mplications for Proterozoic crustal development in the northern Norrbotten ore district, Sweden2018Ingår i: Geological Magazine, ISSN 0016-7568, E-ISSN 1469-5081, Vol. 155, nr 6, s. 1351-1376Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Zircon ion probe (secondary-ion mass spectrometry or SIMS) data from a set of intrusive rocks emplaced in the vicinity of major ore bodies, as well as from large igneous intrusions in the Gällivare area, gave the following results: (1) the Dundret ultramafic–mafic layered complex (1883±5 Ma), the Aitik granite (1883±5 Ma), the Nautanen diorite (1870±12 Ma), the Vassaravaara ultramafic–mafic layered complex (1798±4 Ma), the Aitik dolerite (1813±9 Ma), the Bergmästergruvan and Sikträsk syenites (1795±4 Ma and 1801±3 Ma, respectively) and the Naalojärvi granite (1782±5 Ma). These data broadly fall within the ranges 1.89–1.87 Ga (early Svecofennian) and 1.80–1.78 Ga (late Svecofennian), but geochronologically allow further subdivision into pulses at 1885–1880, 1875–1870, 1800 and 1780 Ma. During these events, large layered ultramafic–mafic and felsic plutonic rocks were generated with distinct overlap in time suggesting coeval felsic–mafic magmatism. Results also indicate the presence of inherited c. 1.87 Ga zircon crystals in the plutonic rocks at 1.78 Ga, supporting reworking of the previous crust. These data indicate the importance of mantle-derived mafic underplating in the process of crustal magma generation in the region. The c. 1.88 Ga event that generated ultramafic–mafic layered complexes is tentatively suggested to have played an important role in the formation of the Aitik Cu–Au porphyry system. The later event at c. 1.80 Ga, generating voluminous mafic–felsic units, is suggested to be coupled to the regional iron-oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) overprint.

  • 8.
    Yousefi, Fazilat
    et al.
    Department of Petrology and Economic Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahrood University of Technology.
    Sadeghian, Mahmoud
    Department of Petrology and Economic Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahrood University of Technology.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ghasemi, Habibollah
    Department of Petrology and Economic Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahrood University of Technology.
    Frei, Dirk
    Department of Earth Science, Faculty of Natural Science, University of the Western Cape.
    Geochemistry, petrogenesis and tectonic setting of middle Eocene hypabyssal rocks of the Torud–Ahmad Abad magmatic belt: An implication for evolution of the northern branch of Neo-Tethys Ocean in Iran2017Ingår i: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, ISSN 0375-6742, E-ISSN 1879-1689, Vol. 178, s. 1-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Torud–Ahmad Abad magmatic belt is located in the south-southeast of Shahrood (East of Semnan Province, NE Iran) and lies in the northern part of the Central Iran Structural Zone (CISZ), where a thick sequence of Paleocene to middle Eocene volcanic and volcanosedimentary rocks cropped out. This sequence was intruded by numerous dikes, hypabyssal igneous domes and one small gabbrodioritic intrusion, with compositions ranging from trachybasaltic andesite, trachyandesite, dacite, trachyte, gabbro, diorite and syenite. Various enclaves (cogentic and noncogenetic) with different composition, size and shape have been found in these domes and dikes. These enclaves are evidence of magma mixing and crustal contamination. Geochemically, the studied rocks exhibit a calc-alkaline to high potassium calc-alkaline affinity, and are enriched in LREE and LILE and depleted in HREE and HSFE. Other geochemical characteristics, such as a silica content varying between 59–63 wt% and 51–59 wt%, a Na2O content > 3 wt%, Al2O3 content > 16 wt%, Yb < 1.8 ppm, and Y < 18 ppm, make it possible to classify these rocks as high silica adakite in the Ahmad Abad region and low silica adakite in the Sahl-Razzeh region or at least, adakitic like rocks. Also, depletion of Nb and Ti, and high enrichment in Rb, Ba, K and Th, imply crustal contamination of the mentioned adakitic domes. The petrographical and geochemical evidence show that the magma forming of the high silica adakites has been originated from partial melting of the subducted oceanic slab of Neo-Tethys (Sabzevar–Darouneh branch) in amphibolite to eclogite facies and the low silica adakites formed by partial melting of the metasomatized or modified mantle wedge, above the subduction zone. Gabbroic to syenitic rocks are the products of fractional crystallization of basic magma which originated from a nearly non-modified mantle wedge above the subducted oceanic slab. U-Pb dating of the dacitic and andesitic rocks belong to hypabyssal rocks yielded age of 41.4 ± 0.3 Ma, and 35.5 ± 0.2 Ma respectively and consistent to Middle to Late Eocene.

  • 9.
    Yousefi, Fazilat
    et al.
    Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahrood University of Technology.
    Sadeghian, Mahmoud
    Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahrood University of Technology.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ghasemi, Habibollah
    Department of Petrology and Economic Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahrood University of Technology.
    Lambrini, Papadopoulou
    Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Rezaei-Kahkhaei, Mehdi
    Department of Petrology and Economic Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahrood University of Technology.
    Koroneos, Antonis
    Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
    Mineral chemistry and P-T conditions of the adakitic rocks from Torud–Ahmad Abad magmatic belt, S-SE Shahrood, NE Iran2017Ingår i: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, ISSN 0375-6742, E-ISSN 1879-1689, Vol. 182, nr A, s. 110-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Torud-Ahmad Abad magmatic belt is located 175 km east and southeast of Shahrood in the northern part of the Central Iran Structural Zone and includes a thick sequence of Paleocene to middle Eocene volcanic and volcanosedimentary rocks. This magmatic belt was formed by numerous hypabyssal igneous adakitic domes constituting basaltic andesite, andesite, trachyandesite, dacite, trachydacite, and dacite. The investigated rocks are mainly composed of pyroxene, amphibole, and plagioclase, with minor biotite and opaque minerals. Mineral chemical analysis reveals that plagioclase composition varies from albite to labradorite, clinopyroxene varies from diopside to augite, and amphibole varies from Mg-hastingsite to Mg-hornblende.

    Amphibole geothermobarometry suggests crystallization temperatures of 850–1050 °C, at 2–6 kbar and the temperature of 920–970 °C, at a pressure of 3–4.5 kbar, which are conditions in agreement with andesite and dacite formation. Clinopyroxene crystallized at temperatures of 1020–1170 °C, at 2–10 kbar, indicating crystallization at crustal depths of maximum 30 km for the studied intrusive rocks in the Torud-Ahmad Abad magmatic belt.

  • 10.
    Warlo, Mathis
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Karlsson, Peter
    Boliden AB, Exploration Department.
    Höglund, Sofia
    Boliden AB, Exploration Department.
    Mineralisation paragenesis of the Liikavaara Cu-(W-Au) deposit, northern Sweden2017Ingår i: Mineral Resources to Discover / [ed] Mercier Langevin, P; Dube, B; Bardoux, M; Ross, PS; Dion, C, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits , 2017, s. 971-974Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Liikavaara Cu-(W-Au) deposit is located in the Gallivare ore district in northern Sweden, a few kilometres east of the renowned Aitik Cu-(Au) deposit. Its enrichment in Critical Raw Materials and its scheduled production for the near future make the Liikavaara deposit ideal as the subject of a case study on improved ore characterisation using various micro-analytical techniques. Here we present a general overview of the mineralogy in Liikavaara to provide a base for future micro-analytical studies. The deposit lies within Palaeoproterozoic volcanosedimentary rocks of andesitic composition. A unit of biotite schist hosts the ore. Mineralisation in Liikavaara is mainly controlled by quartz-(calcite)-(tourmaline) veins. Aplitic dykes and calcite veinlets also cut the deposit. Ore minerals are chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, sphalerite, galena, and molybdenite. Non-sulfide sources include scheelite and minor magnetite. The deposit is affected by alteration such as sericitisation, calcification, tourmalinisation, epidotisation, and chloritisation. The genesis of the deposit is up to today not determined and studies are few. However, the deposit's spatial proximity to a mineralised granodiorite dated at ca. 1.87 Ga offer some similarities to the Aitik deposit and its 1.89 Ga quartz monzodiorite. A primary magmatic origin with later IOCG overprint could therefore be a possibility.

  • 11.
    Minz, Friederike
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bolin, Nils-Johan
    Division of Process Technology, Boliden Mineral AB.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bachmann, Kai
    Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Helmholtz-Institute-Freiberg for Resource Technology, Freiberg.
    Gutzmer, Jens
    Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Helmholtz-Institute-Freiberg for Resource Technology, Freiberg.
    Particle-based Sb distribution model for Cu–Pb flotation as part of geometallurgical modelling at the polymetallic Rockliden deposit, north-central Sweden2017Ingår i: Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy Section C - Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, ISSN 0371-9553, E-ISSN 1743-2855, Vol. 126, nr 4, s. 212-223Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The polymetallic Cu–Zn ore of the Rockliden massive sulphide deposit in the Skellefte District in north-central Sweden contains a number of deleterious elements in relevant concentrations. Of particular concern is the amount of antimony (Sb) reporting to the Cu–Pb concentrate. The aim of this study was to compare different model options to simulate the distribution of Sb minerals in a laboratory flotation test based on different degrees of details in the mineralogical information of the flotation feed. Experimental data obtained from four composites were used for the modelling and simulation. The following different simulation levels were run (sorted from least to highest level of detail of their mineralogical information): chemical assays, unsized bulk mineralogy, sized bulk mineralogy and particle information. It was shown that recoveries simulated based on bulk mineralogy are mostly within the error margin acceptable in the exploration stage of the Rockliden deposit. Unexpected high deviation in the simulation using particle information from the original recovery has been partly attributed to the fact that recovery of non-liberated particles cannot be modelled appropriately in the present version of the modelling and simulation software. It is expected that the implementation of full particle information in simulation will improve the Sb distribution model for the mineralogically complex Rockliden deposit.

  • 12.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lahaye, Yann
    Finland Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo.
    Rare earth mineralogy in tailings from Kiirunavaara iron ore, northern Sweden: Implications for mineral processing2017Ingår i: Minerals & metallurgical processing, ISSN 0747-9182, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 189-200Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Four main and three minor rare-earth-element (REE)-bearing minerals were identified and quantified in the Kiirunavaara apatite iron ore tailings using optical microscopy, an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) and a mineral liberation analyzer, and their chemical compositions were analyzed by the EPMA and laser ablation inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry. REEs are shown to be contained in the minerals apatite, monazite, allanite, titanite, zircon, thorite and synchysite. In zircon, thorite and synchysite, they occurred in only trace amounts and contributed limited amounts to the total REE budget, and these are consequently of minor importance. Monazite occurred as inclusions in apatite and as free particles, 90 percent liberated. Allanite occurred to some degree in mixed grains with magnetite but also as free particles. Monazite mainly reported to the apatite concentrate, while allanite and titanite largely went to the tailings, the latter preferably to those fractions smaller than 38 μm. The amount of titanite in the finest tailings fraction was 2.3 weight percent, containing close to 1 percent REEs, with heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) making up 28 percent of the total REEs. However, a texturally distinct group of titanite grains showed an HREE/REE ratio of up to 67 percent. Furthermore, titanum dioxide analyses indicate that titanite is preferentially released into the tailings from the secondary magnetic separation step in the concentrator. Our data therefore suggest that titanite, occasionally enriched in HREEs, can be extracted from the processing stream and might thus be considered a new source for REEs at Kiirunavaara and similar deposits.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Joel B.H.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bauer, Tobias E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    The tectonic overprint on the Per Geijer apatite iron ores in Kiruna, northern Sweden2017Ingår i: Mineral Resources to Discover / [ed] Mercier Langevin, P; Dube, B; Bardoux, M; Ross, PS; Dion, C, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits , 2017, s. 903-906Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This ongoing project focusses on the structural evolution of the Per Geijer apatite iron ores in Kiruna, northern Sweden. The Per Geijer iron ores are situated in a NNE-SSW trending shear zone. This study indicate that the shear zone was active during D2 E-W compression giving rise to dip-slip and oblique slip components. The ductile fabric is overprinted by brittle structures carrying Cu, possibly representing traces of a separate Iron Oxide Copper Gold event in northern Norrbotten.

  • 14.
    Sarlus, Zimer
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bauer, Tobias E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Timing and tectonic setting of host rocks to the Malmberget AlO deposit, Sweden2017Ingår i: Mineral Resources to Discover / [ed] Mercier Langevin, P; Dube, B; Bardoux, M; Ross, PS; Dion, C, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits , 2017, s. 959-962Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Host felsic and intermediate meta-volcanic rocks to the Malmberget apatite iron ore (AlO) deposit have been investigated geochemically and geochronologically, the latter using the U-Pb method on a set of zircons. Results indicate emplacement age of 1.9 Ga for the felsic and intermediate volcanic rocks, potentially in an extensional environment. The zircon U-Pb radiometric ages are among the first conclusive ages with implicit constraint on the geological evolution of the northern Norrbotten ore district and Malmberget deposit.

  • 15.
    Martinsson, Olof
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Billström, Kjell
    Laboratory for Isotope Geology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Laboratoriet för Isotopgeologi, Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geosciences.
    Broman, Curt
    Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholms Universitet, Stockholm University, Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Metallogeny of the Northern Norrbotten Ore Province, northern Fennoscandian Shield with emphasis on IOCG and apatite-iron ore deposits2016Ingår i: Ore Geology Reviews, ISSN 0169-1368, E-ISSN 1872-7360, Vol. 78, s. 447-492Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Northern Norrbotten Ore Province in northernmost Sweden includes the type localities for Kiruna-type apatite iron deposits and has been the focus for intense exploration and research related to Fe oxide-Cu-Au mineralisation during the last decades. Several different types of Fe-oxide and Cu-Au ± Fe oxide mineralisation occur in the region and include: stratiform Cu ± Zn ± Pb ± Fe oxide type, iron formations (including BIF's), Kiruna-type apatite iron ore, and epigenetic Cu ± Au ± Fe oxide type which may be further subdivided into different styles of mineralisation, some of them with typical IOCG (Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold) characteristics. Generally, the formation of Fe oxide ± Cu ± Au mineralisation is directly or indirectly dated between ~ 2.1 and 1.75 Ga, thus spanning about 350 m.y. of geological evolution.The current paper will present in more detail the characteristics of certain key deposits, and aims to put the global concepts of Fe-oxide Cu-Au mineralisations into a regional context. The focus will be on iron deposits and various types of deposits containing Fe-oxides and Cu-sulphides in different proportions which generally have some characteristics in common with the IOCG style. In particular, ore fluid characteristics (magmatic versus non-magmatic) and new geochronological data are used to link the ore-forming processes with the overall crustal evolution to generate a metallogenetic model.Rift bounded shallow marine basins developed at ~ 2.1–2.0 Ga following a long period of extensional tectonics within the Greenstone-dominated, 2.5–2.0 Ga Karelian craton. The ~ 1.9–1.8 Ga Svecofennian Orogen is characterised by subduction and accretion from the southwest. An initial emplacement of calc-alkaline magmas into ~ 1.9 Ga continental arcs led to the formation of the Haparanda Suite and the Porphyrite Group volcanic rocks. Following this early stage of magmatic activity, and separated from it by the earliest deformation and metamorphism, more alkali-rich magmas of the Perthite Monzonite Suite and the Kiirunavaara Group volcanic rocks were formed at ~ 1.88 Ga. Subsequently, partial melting of the middle crust produced large volumes of ~ 1.85 and 1.8 Ga S-type granites in conjunction with subduction related A −/I-type magmatism and associated deformation and metamorphismIn our metallogenetic model the ore formation is considered to relate to the geological evolution as follows. Iron formations and a few stratiform sulphide deposits were deposited in relation to exhalative processes in rift bounded marine basins. The iron formations may be sub-divided into BIF- (banded iron formations) and Mg-rich types, and at several locations these types grade into each other. There is no direct age evidence to constrain the deposition of iron formations, but stable isotope data and stratigraphic correlations suggest a formation within the 2.1–2.0 Ga age range. The major Kiruna-type ores formed from an iron-rich magma (generally with a hydrothermal over-print) and are restricted to areas occupied by volcanic rocks of the Kiirunavaara Group. It is suggested here that 1.89–1.88 Ga tholeiitic magmas underwent magma liquid immiscibility reactions during fractionation and interaction with crustal rocks, including metaevaporites, generating more felsic magmatic rocks and Kiruna-type iron deposits. A second generation of this ore type, with a minor economic importance, appears to have been formed about 100 Ma later. The epigenetic Cu-Au ± Fe oxide mineralisation formed during two stages of the Svecofennian evolution in association with magmatic and metamorphic events and crustal-scale shear zones. During the first stage of mineralisation, from 1.89–1.88 Ga, intrusion-related (porphyry-style) mineralisation and Cu-Au deposits of IOCG affinity formed from magmatic-hydrothermal systems, whereas vein-style and shear zone deposits largely formed at c. 1.78 Ga.The large range of different Fe oxide and Cu-Au ± Fe oxide deposits in Northern Norrbotten is associated with various alteration systems, involving e.g. scapolite, albite, K feldspar, biotite, carbonates, tourmaline and sericite. However, among the apatite iron ores and the epigenetic Cu-Au ± Fe oxide deposits the character of mineralisation, type of ore- and alteration minerals and metal associations are partly controlled by stratigraphic position (i.e. depth of emplacement). Highly saline, NaCl + CaCl2 dominated fluids, commonly also including a CO2-rich population, appear to be a common characteristic feature irrespective of type and age of deposits. Thus, fluids with similar characteristics appear to have been active during quite different stages of the geological evolution. Ore fluids related to epigenetic Cu-Au ± Fe oxides display a trend with decreasing salinity, which probably was caused by mixing with meteoric water. Tentatively, this can be linked to different Cusingle bondAu ore paragenesis, including an initial (magnetite)-pyrite-chalcopyrite stage, a main chalcopyrite stage, and a late bornite stage.Based on the anion composition and the Br/Cl ratio of ore related fluids bittern brines and metaevaporites (including scapolite) seem to be important sources to the high salinity hydrothermal systems generating most of the deposits in Norrbotten. Depending on local conditions and position in the crust these fluids generated a variety of Cu-Au deposits. These include typical IOCG-deposits (Fe-oxides and Cu-Au are part of the same process), IOCG of iron stone type (pre-existing Fe-oxide deposit with later addition of Cu-Au), IOCG of reduced type (lacking Fe-oxides due to local reducing conditions) and vein-style Cu-Au deposits. From a strict genetic point of view, IOCG deposits that formed from fluids of a mainly magmatic origin should be considered to be a different type than those deposits associated with mainly non-magmatic fluids. The former tend to overlap with porphyry systems, whereas those of a mainly non-magmatic origin overlap with sediment hosted Cu-deposits with respect to their origin and character of the ore fluids.

  • 16.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    New REE Mineralogy for LKAB apatite-iron ores2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17.
    Minz, Friederike
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bolin, Nils-Johan
    Boliden Mineral AB, Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Bachmann, Kai
    TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Helmholtz-Institute-Freiberg for Resource Technology.
    Gutzmer, Jens
    TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Helmholtz-Institute-Freiberg for Resource Technology.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Distribution of Sb minerals in the Cu and Zn flotation of Rockliden massive sulphide ore in north-central Sweden2015Ingår i: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 82, s. 125-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rockliden massive sulphide Zn–Cu deposit contains minor amounts of Sb minerals. The Sb mineralogy is complex in terms of composition, micro textures and mineral associations. The main Sb minerals comprise tetrahedrite, bournonite, gudmundite and Sb–Pb sulphides such as meneghinite. The presence of these minerals is especially critical to the quality of the Cu–Pb concentrate. To study how they are distributed in a simplified flotation circuit and what controls their process behaviour Sb-rich drill core samples were selected from the Rockliden deposit and a standard laboratory flotation test was run on the composite samples. Scanning electron microscope-based automated mineralogy was used to measure the Sb mineralogy of the test products, and the particle tracking technique was applied to mass balance the different liberation classes to finally trace the distribution of liberated and locked Sb minerals. The mineralogical factors controlling the distribution of Sb minerals are mineral grain size, the degree of liberation, and associated minerals. Similarities in the distribution of specific particle types from the tested composites point towards systematics in the behaviour of particles and predictability of their distribution which is suggested to be used in a geometallurgical model of the deposit.

  • 18.
    Sarlus, Zimer
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bauer, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Tavakoli, Saman
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Nordin, Roger
    Boliden Mineral AB, Boliden AB, Boliden Mineral, Exploration Department, Boliden.
    Andersson, Joel
    LKAB, Exploration Department, Malmberget.
    Geochemistry of Ultramafic-Mafic Units Related to Fe-, Cu-, and Au Deposits in the Gallivare Region, Northern Norrbotten, Sweden2015Ingår i: Mineral Resources in a Sustainable World / [ed] A.S. Andre-Mayer; M. Cathelineau; P. Muchez; E. Pirard; S. Sindern, 2015, s. 1123-1126Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Geochemical investigations were carried out in the Gallivare area as a part of a larger project aiming to understand the crustal architecture of the region in 3D. Major igneous suites such as the Dundret and Vassaravaara intrusions with additional smaller mafic intrusions have been identified as key localities and investigated. Results indicate two distinct rock units. The first suite is assigned to ultramafic-mafic layered intrusions with a calc-alkaline to a more tholeiitic composition belonging to the Dundret and Vassaravaara intrusions. The second suite is mainly of mafic to intermediate composition with a clear ophitic texture. This paper investigate the source and origin of the key rock suites, playing a major role on the evolution of the Gallivare region, a region which is characterized by porphyry Cu, IOCG, and Al0 deposits including some of Europe's top producing Fe and Cu-Au-Ag (-Mo) mines.

  • 19.
    Sarlus, Zimer
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bauer, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Tavakoli, Saman
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Nordin, Roger
    Boliden Mineral, Exploration Department, Boliden.
    Andersson, Joel
    LKAB.
    Geochemistry of Ultramafic-mafic Units Related to Fe-, Cu-, and Au Deposits in the Gällivare Region, Northern Norrbotten, Sweden2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Lundberg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik. Division of Operation and Maintenance, Luleå University of Technology.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik. Division of Operation and Maintenance, Luleå University of Technology.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. Division of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering, Luleå University of Technology.
    Casselgren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik. Division of Fluid and Experimental Mechanics, Luleå University of Technology.
    Measurements of friction coefficients between rails lubricated with a friction modifier and the wheels of an IORE locomotive during real working conditions2015Ingår i: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 324-325, s. 109-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The real friction coefficients between the rails and the wheels on a 360. t and 10,800. kW IORE locomotive were measured using the locomotive[U+05F3]s in-built traction force measurement system. The locomotive consisted of two pair-connected locomotives had a CoCo+CoCo bogie configuration, and hauled a fully loaded set of 68 ore wagons (120. t/wagon). The measurements were performed both on rails in a dry condition and on rails lubricated with a water-based top-of-rail (ToR) friction modifier on the Iron Ore Line between the cities of Kiruna and Narvik in Northern Sweden and Norway, respectively. Since full-scale measurements like these are costly, the friction coefficients were also measured at the same time and place using a conventional hand-operated tribometer, with and without the ToR friction modifier. The most important results are that the real friction coefficient is definitely not constant and is surprisingly low (0.10-0.25) when the ToR friction modifier is used, and that it is also significantly dependent on the amount of ToR friction modifier. A large amount will reduce the friction coefficient. Furthermore, it is concluded that the real friction coefficients are in general lower than the friction coefficients measured with the hand-operated tribometer. A final remark is thus that the use of a water-based ToR friction modifier can give excessively low friction, which can result in unacceptably long braking distances.

  • 21.
    Minz, Friederike
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bolin, Nils-Johan
    Boliden, Division of Process Technology.
    Bachmann, Kai
    TU Bergakademie Freiberg.
    Gutzmer, Jens
    TU Bergakademie Freiberg.
    Mineralogical controls on the distribution of antimony in a base-metal flotation test at the Rockliden massive sulphide deposit, north-central Sweden2015Ingår i: Mineral resources in a sustainable world / [ed] A.S. André-Meyer; M. Cathelineau; P. Muchez; E. Pirard; S. Sindern, 2015, s. 1439-1442Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rockliden Zn-Cu massive sulphide mineralisation shows elevated concentrations of critical elements. In particularly the presence of Sb in the Cu–Pb concentrate causes metallurgical challenges in the treatment of this flotation product. The Sb mineralogy at Rockliden is complex, comprising of four main Sb minerals. For this study one mafic dyke and three Sb-rich massive sulphide samples with different base-metal and Sb mineralogy were collected and subjected to a simplified flotation test. The Sb mineralogy of the flotation products was analysed using scanning electron microscope-based image analysis. The distribution of liberated and locked Sb minerals between the flotation products was studied using a particle tracking technique. A comparison of results from the different mineralisation types indicates systematic behaviour of specific particle types, pointing towards the predictability of distribution of the Sb minerals during base-metal flotation.

  • 22.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Electronic Waste by Cryo-grinding2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Minz, Friederike
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bolin, Nils-Johan
    Boliden Mineral AB, Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Bachmann, Kai
    TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology.
    Gutzmer, Jens
    TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Distribution of Sb-bearing minerals in the Cu and Zn flotation of Rockliden massive sulphide ore in north-central Sweden2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 24.
    Minz, Friederike
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lasskogen, Jonas
    Boliden Mines, Exploration Department.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Lithology and mineralisation types of the Rockliden Zn–Cu massive sulphide deposit, north-central Sweden: Implications for ore processing2014Ingår i: Transactions - Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. Section B. Applied earth science, ISSN 0371-7453, E-ISSN 1743-2758, Vol. 123, nr 1, s. 2-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rockliden Zn–Cu volcanic-hosted massive sulphide deposit is located approximately 150 km south of the Skellefte ore district, north-central Sweden. Most of the mineralisation is found at the altered stratigraphic top of the felsic volcanic rocks, which are intercalated in the metamorphosed siliciclastic sedimentary rocks of the Bothnian Basin. Mafic dykes cross-cut all lithological units, including the massive sulphides, at the Rockliden deposit. The relatively high Sb grade of some parts of the mineralisation results in challenges in handling of the Cu–Pb concentrate in the smelting process. The aim of this study is to characterise different host rock units and ore types by their main mineralogy, as well as by their trace mineralogy with focus on the Sb-bearing minerals. Ore types are distinguished largely on the basis of their main base-metal bearing sulphide minerals, which are chalcopyrite and sphalerite. Several Sb-bearing minerals are documented and differences in the trace mineralogy between rock and ore types are highlighted. Based on the qualitative ore characterisation, rock- and ore-intrinsic parameters, such as the pyrite, pyrrhotite and magnetite content of the massive sulphides, the trace mineralogy and its association with base-metal sulphide minerals, are outlined and discussed in terms of relevance to the ore processing.

  • 25.
    Lu, Jinmei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Metal mobilization under alkaline conditions in ash-covered tailings2014Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 139, s. 38-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine element mobilization and accumulation in mill tailings under alkaline conditions. The tailings were covered with 50 cm of fly ash, and above a sludge layer. The tailings were geochemically and mineralogically investigated. Sulfides, such as pyrrhotite, sphalerite and galena along with gangue minerals such as dolomite, calcite, micas, chlorite, epidote, Mn-pyroxene and rhodonite were identified in the unoxidized tailings. The dissolution of the fly ash layer resulted in a high pH (close to 12) in the underlying tailings. This, together with the presence of organic matter, increased the weathering of the tailings and mobilization of elements in the uppermost 47 cm of the tailings. All primary minerals were depleted, except quartz and feldspar which were covered by blurry secondary carbonates. Sulfide-associated elements such as Cd, Fe, Pb, S and Zn and silicate-associated elements such as Fe, Mg and Mn were released from the depletion zone and accumulated deeper down in the tailings where the pH decreased to circum-neutral. Sequential extraction suggests that Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, S and Zn were retained deeper down in the tailings and were mainly associated with the sulfide phase. Calcium, Cr, K and Ni released from the ash layer were accumulated in the uppermost depletion zone of the tailings

  • 26.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Norrbottens malm- och mineralresurs och dess potentiella betydelse för innovation, samhälle och miljö2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gruvindustrins betydelse för samhällsutveckling och infrastruktur i Sverige och inte minst i Norrbottens län är mycket stor. De geologiska förutsättningarna att hitta nya brytvärda förekomster i Norrbotten är goda. Länet är tillsammans med Västerbotten en av Europas viktigaste regioner för utvinning av metaller. Det syns också i den nyligen framtagna regionala mineralstrategin för Norrbotten och Västerbotten. Visionen för den regionala mineralstrategin: ”Genom långsiktigt hållbart nyttjande av Norrbottens och Västerbottens läns mineralresurser har ytterligare tillväxt skapats i regionen och hela Sverige. Vi har utvecklat och stärkt vår ställning som ledande gruv- och mineralnation.”Eftersom framtidspotentialen för gruvnäringen är mycket god men okunnigheten hos både allmänhet och beslutsfattare om näringens betydelse för innovation och samhällsutveckling är stor, kopplat med en utbredd oro för miljöpåverkan, måste dessa viktiga framtidsfrågor belysas. Med finansiering från Länsstyrelsen i Norrbotten bedrevs därför under första hälften av 2014 en förstudie som syftade till att sammanfatta kunskapsläget om framtidens gruvindustri i Norrbotten. Resultaten av förstudien redovisas i den här rapporten. En viktig slutsats är att det under nästa strukturfondsperiod (med start 2015) behövs ett framtidsinriktat forskningsprogram för att belysa de möjligheter som finns. Denna förstudie utgör grund för en kommande ansökan till strukturfonderna. Kompetensen som finns vid Luleå tekniska universitet, Sveriges centrum för gruvrelaterad forskning och utbildning, bör användas för att studera troliga framtidsmöjligheter och hur de ska kunna användas för att få en så positiv utveckling som möjligt för länet. Projektet bör innehålla följande tre huvudinriktningar, som naturligtvis hör ihop:Vilka malm- och mineralresurser finns det potential för i Norrbotten, och vilka kommer sannolikt att exploateras i framtiden?Vad kommer den exploateringen att ha för betydelse för innovation och samhällsutveckling?Vad kommer den exploateringen att få för miljöeffekter och hur ska man göra för att minska miljöbelastningen?En annan slutsats är att nedlagda gruvområden inte måste ses som förstörd natur. Betydande mervärden som gruvturism skulle kunna skapas om vilja, kreativitet och beslutsamhet finns. Detta är ett givet utvecklingsområde där småföretag och entreprenörer kan göra stor insats om de politiska och myndighetsmässiga förutsättningarna finns. Dessa aspekter skulle också kunna belysas i det föreslagna forskningsprogrammet eller i ett eget projekt.

  • 27.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Nigatu, Wondowossen
    Gunnarn Explorat AB.
    Selby, David
    University of Durham, Department of Earth Science.
    McLeod, Claire L
    University of Houston, Department of Earth & Atmospheric Science.
    Nordin, Roger
    Boliden Mineral AB, Boliden AB.
    Bohlin, Nils-Johan
    Boliden, Division of Process Technology.
    The Distribution, Character, and Rhenium Content of Molybdenite in the Aitik Cu-Au-Ag-(Mo) Deposit and Its Southern Extension in the Northern Norrbotten Ore District, Northern Sweden2014Ingår i: Minerals, ISSN 2075-163X, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 788-814Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Molybdenite in the Aitik deposit and its southern extension was studied through mineralogical/chemical analysis and laboratory flotation tests. It is demonstrated that molybdenite varies considerably in grain size, ranging from coarse (>20 m) to very fine (<2 m) and occurs predominantly as single grains in the groundmass of the rocks, as grain aggregates, and intergrown with chalcopyrite and pyrite. The dominating molybdenite-bearing rocks are the mica schists, the quartz-monzodiorite, and the Salmijarvi biotite-amphibole gneiss, the latter containing mostly medium-coarsegrained molybdenite. Later geological features, such as garnet-magnetite-anhydrite-K feldspar alteration and pegmatite dikes appear to be responsible for a significant part of the distribution pattern of molybdenite. Molybdenite grains contain up to 1587 ppm Re, with an average of 211 +/- 10 ppm in Aitik molybdenite and 452 +/- 33 ppm in Salmijarvi molybdenite. The higher Re concentrations are found in molybdenite associated with sericite- and quartz-amphibole-magnetite altered rocks, whereas low Re values occur in rocks in which potassic alteration is prominent. Molybdenite recovery is influenced by the mineralogy of the host rock and the alteration grade; hence both of these factors will have an impact on potential recoveries. The recovery of molybdenite was lower from flotation feeds with significant amounts of Mg-bearing clay-micas.

  • 28.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Fredriksson, Andreas
    Mining Technology R and D, LKAB Kiruna Mine.
    Unlocking Rare Earth Elements from European apatite‐iron ores2014Ingår i: ERES 2014 - 1st International Conference on European Rare Earth Resources: Book of Proceedings / [ed] Efthymios Balomenos; Dimitrios Panias; Ioannis Paspaliaris, Santorini: Heliotopos Conferences Ltd. , 2014, s. 211-220Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rare Earth Elements are known to occur within apatite‐magnetite ores of the Kiruna type. Previously it was assumed that the REE was associated to the apatite part of the ore. It is now shown that the REE follows the apatite to a much less degree, and that the REE are contained in the minerals monazite, allanite and some unknown REE‐phase still to be identified. Monazite occurs as inclusions in the apatite as well as free particles. Allanite is to some degree in mixed grains with magnetite but also in free particles. Monazite mainly reports to the apatite concentrate while allanite largely goes to the tailings. Laboratory flotation also shows some preferential concentration of heavy REE over light REE to the apatite concentrate. A new EU project, REEcover, will characterise the REE phases in this type of iron ore and among the different process streams within the mineral beneficiation chain.

  • 29.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lund, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Minz, Friederike
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Mwanga, Abdul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Parian, Mehdi
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Building a Geometallurgical Model in Iron Ores using a Mineralogical Approach with Liberation Data2013Ingår i: Geomet13: The Second AusIMM International Geometallurgy Conference 2013 / [ed] Simon Dominy, Parkville, Victoria: The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2013, s. 317-324Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A geometallurgical model is currently built in two different ways. The first and the most common way relies on geometallurgical testing, where a large number of samples are analysed for metallurgical response using small-scale laboratory tests, eg Davis tube testing. The second, mineralogical approach focuses on collecting mineralogical information over the orebody and building the metallurgical model based on mineralogy. At Luleå University of Technology,Sweden, the latter method has been adopted and taken further in four ongoing PhD studies. The geological model gives modal composition by the help of element-to-mineral conversion and Rietveld X-ray diffraction. Texturally, the orebody is divided into different archetypes, and liberation measurements for each of them are carried out in processing fineness using IncaMineral, a SEM-based technique. The grindability and liberation spectrum of any given geological unit (sample, ore block, domain) are extrapolated from the archetypes. The process model is taken into a liberation level by mass balancing selected metallurgical tests using the particle tracking technique. The approach is general and can be applied to any type of ores. Examples of ongoing studies on iron and massive sulfide ores are given.

  • 30.
    Minz, Friederike
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bohlin, Nils-Johan
    Boliden, Division of Process Technology.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Detailed characterisation of antimony mineralogy in a geometallurgical context at the Rockliden ore deposit, North-Central Sweden2013Ingår i: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 52, s. 95-103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The antimony (Sb) content of the Rockliden complex Zn–Cu massive sulphide ore lowers the quality of the Cu–Pb concentrate. The purpose of this study is to characterise the Sb mineralogy of the deposit. The Sb-bearing minerals include tetrahedrite (Cu,Fe,Ag,Zn)12Sb4S13, bournonite PbCuSbS3, gudmundite FeSbS and other sulphosalts. On a microscopic scale these minerals are complexly intergrown with base-metal sulphides in the ore. Based on these observations mineralogical controls on the distribution of Sb-bearing minerals in a standard flotation test are illustrated. Deposit-scale and rock-related variation in the Sb-content and distribution of Sb-bearing minerals were found. This underlines the importance in understanding the geological background as a basis of a 3D geometallurgical model for Rockliden. Such a model is expected to predict the Sb content of the Cu–Pb concentrate, among other process-relevant factors, and helps to forecast when the Cu–Pb concentrate has to be treated by alternative processes, such as alkaline sulphide leaching, before it is sold to the smelter.

  • 31.
    Minz, Friederike
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Lasskogen, Jonas
    Boliden Mines, Exploration Department.
    Raat, Hein
    Boliden Mines, Exploration Department.
    Geological background and qualitative ore characterisation for the geometallurgical project at Rockliden, north-central Sweden2013Ingår i: Mineral deposit research for a high-tech world: Proceedings of the 12th Biennial SGA Meeting, 12–15 August 2013, Uppsala, Sweden, Uppsala: Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning , 2013, s. 340-343Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rockliden Zn-Cu massive sulphide mineralisation is located at the stratigraphic top of altered rhyolitic-dacitic volcanic rocks, which in turn are intercalated by meta-sedimentary rocks of the Bothnian Basin, north-central Sweden. After the discovery, in the 1980’s, the project was put on hold due to metallurgical and geometallurgical challenges. Exploration drilling restarted in 2007 and resources have increased since then. However, little is known about the mineralogical variability of the ore and how that will affect the processing of the mineralised material. Examples of rock-intrinsic process-relevant parameters are the mineral grain size, the texture of the minerals and the mineral associations, i.e. the mode of occurrence of minerals in the different types of mineralisation, and also the presence and distribution of penalty and bonus elements. Rock-intrinsic parameters and their spatial variability are considered in this study and will form the basis of a 3D-geometallurgical model for the Rockliden mineralisation.

  • 32.
    Bark, Glenn
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Textural setting of gold and its implications on mineral processing: preliminary results from three gold deposits in northern Sweden2013Ingår i: Mineral deposit research for a high-tech world: Proceedings of the 12th Biennial SGA Meeting, 12–15 August 2013, Uppsala, Sweden, Uppsala: Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning , 2013, s. 302-305Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the European Union (EU27) the two most important gold producers are Finland and Sweden, covering more than two thirds of the European market. Due to the high gold prize mining companies are looking to extract more of the metal by improving recovery. We have done textural analysis on three gold-bearing deposits to better understand how the gold-textures seen in drill cores might affect the processing of different gold-ore types. In the Nautanen IOCG deposit, gold deportment is different whether gold is associated with pyrite or magnetite, and this must be considered when optimising the future mine and process planning. In the VMS-type Kristineberg deposit, the gold is associated with pyrite, sphalerite, and galena. Low gold recoveries from flotation could be explained by the occurrence of gold-inclusions in the pyrite. In the epigenetic Svartliden lode gold deposit, the gold is rather coarse-grained and associated with arsenopyrite-löllingite, and silicates. The relatively large grain size of gold can result in incomplete breakdown of the largest gold grains in the cyanide leaching process. To properly understand gold deportment in ores and to be able to improve mine planning and predict metal recoveries a comprehensive textural analysis of gold in drill core-samples is essential.

  • 33.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Broman, C.
    Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Magnor, B.
    Vattenfall.
    Modification of a Palaeoproterozoic porphyry-like system: integration of structural, geochemical, petrographic, and fluid inclusion data from the Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit, northern Sweden2012Ingår i: Ore Geology Reviews, ISSN 0169-1368, E-ISSN 1872-7360, Vol. 48, s. 306-331Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit in the Gällivare area in northern Sweden is Sweden´s largest sulphide mine with an annual production of 35 Mt of ore, and the biggest open pit operation in northern Europe. It is proposed in the present study that the Aitik deposit represents a Palaeoproterozoic, strongly metamorphosed porphyry copper deposit that was affected ca. 100 Ma later by a regional IOCG-type hydrothermal event. Consequently, the Aitik deposit might represent a mixed ore system where an early copper mineralisation of porphyry type has been overprinted by later regional IOCG mineralisation.Several attempts have previously been made to genetically classify the Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit as a distinct ore type. New geochemical, petrographic, structural, and fluid inclusion results combined with published data have provided the opportunity to present new ideas on the genesis and evolution of the Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit. The emplacement of a ca. 1.9 Ga quartz monzodiorite that host the ore at Aitik was related to subduction processes and volcanic arc formation, and synchronous with quartz vein stockwork formation and porphyry copper mineralisation. Highly saline aqueous (38 wt.% NaCl) fluid inclusions in the stockwork veins suggest entrapment at 300 °C and a pressure of nearly 3 kbar, a high pressure for a typical porphyry copper ore, but consistent with conditions at associated deep root zones of intrusion-related magmatic-hydrothermal systems. The highly saline fluid formed disseminated and vein-type ore of mainly chalcopyrite and pyrite within comagmatic volcaniclastic rocks, and caused potassic alteration (biotite, microcline) of the host rocks. The early porphyry copper mineralising event was followed, and largely overprinted, by CO2 and aqueous medium- to high-salinity (16–57 wt.% salts) fluids related to a ca. 1.8 Ga tectonic and metamorphic event (peak conditions 500–600 °C and 4–5 kbar). Extensive deformation of rocks and redistribution of metals occurred. Magnetite enrichment locally found within late veins, and late amphibole-scapolite and K feldspar alteration within the deposit, are some of the features at Aitik implying that aqueous fluids responsible for IOCG-mineralisation (200–500 °C and ~ 1 kbar) and extensive Na-Ca alteration in the region during the 1.8 Ga tectonic event also affected the Aitik rocks, possibly leading to addition of copper ± gold.

  • 34.
    Sammelin, Monika
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Gold mineralogy at the Aitik Cu–Au–Ag deposit, Gällivare area, northern Sweden2011Ingår i: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 133, nr 1-2, s. 19-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The low-grade Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit is a deformed and metamorphosed porphyry-type deposit, and as such it belongs to the group of ores that require detailed mineralogical investigations of precious metal occurrences to assist in determining the recovery processes. The character of gold in the Aitik deposit varies substantially. Gold alloys display highly variable Au/(Au + Ag) ratios, and Hg is commonly a constituent. A change from dominantly sulphide-associated to groundmass-associated gold as mining progresses towards depth is accompanied by a change in the chemical composition of gold. Towards depth, the gold content in electrum and amalgam decreases (from c. 66 to 22% in electrum and c. 23 to 4% in amalgam), and the amount of native gold grains increases. The most common mineral assemblage associated with gold at deep levels (600m and below) is K-feldspar, biotite, plagioclase, quartz, chalcopyrite and pyrite. This study demonstrates that magmatic-hydrothermal and metamorphic processes responsible for the diversity in copper mineralisation styles within the Aitik ore body probably have also played a role in the variable character of gold observed at Aitik today

  • 35.
    Billström, Kjell
    et al.
    Museum of Natural History.
    Eilu, Pasi
    Geological Survey of Finland.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Niiranen, Tero
    Geological Survey of Finland.
    Broman, Curt
    Stockholm University.
    Weihed, Pär
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ojala, Juhani
    Geological Survey of Finland.
    IOCG and related mineral deposits of the northern Fennoscandian Shield2011Ingår i: Hydrothermal iron oxide copper-gold & related topics: a global perspective, Adelaide: PGC Publishing , 2011, s. 381-414Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The northernmost Fennoscandian shield comprises Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic rocks. Unlike most other shield areas, economic mineral deposits are largely restricted to its Palaeoproterozoic parts. The latter are characterised by intracratonic basin evolution between ca. 2.5 and 2.0 Ga, involving recurrent mantle hotspot activity with numerous layered intrusions, komatiite and picrite eruptions, but no signs of accretionary phases or formation of major new felsic crust. Accretion and continent-continent collision followed from ca. 1.9 to 1.8 Ga, during the Svecofennian orogeny. A range of mineralisation styles are hosted by extensive ca. 2.5 to 2.0 Ga greenstone belts and younger, subduction-related 1.9 to 1.8 Ga Svecofennian intrusive and extrusive settings. These mineralisation styles partially overlap, and individual deposits may not readily be placed into genetic classification schemes. A provisional grouping of observed mineralisation styles comprises (1) stratiform-stratabound sulphide, (2) apatite-iron, (3) skarn-related iron and BIF, and (4) epigenetic(±syngenetic?) Au and Cu-Au deposits. The descriptive section of this paper also highlights features that may relate to orogenic-gold, IOCG and 'atypical metal association' categories of mineralisation. The assumption made is that the deposition of a diverse range of ore deposits was made possible by a long and complex geological evolution. This involved an initial (sowing) stage where iron, and to some extent copper and gold, were concentrated during 2.3 to 2.1 Ga (Karelian) rock-forming processes. Following this, ore elements were mobilised during two younger (Svecofennian) stages at 1.92 to 1.87 and 1.85 to 1.79 Ga, respectively. The latter were triggered by metamorphic and magmatic episodes, and fluids liberated during these stages precipitated IOCG and related deposits when fluids met structural and chemical traps in suitable host rocks. Ore fluids are generally saline, and their development probably involved incorporation of evaporates and, at least locally, also felsic magmatism may have played a role. Skarn-related mineralisation, hosted by ca. 2.1 Ga greenstones, occurs both as a BIF type in Sweden (formed at around 2.1 Ga), and as a gold-copper enriched variety (the result of Svecofennian epigenetic processes) in the Kolari region of Finland. The huge Kiirunavaara deposit is the type example of apatite iron ores, and is here considered to have formed from a magma at ca. 1.88 Ga, although it also has features best explained by a magmatic-hydrothermal overprint. A younger, less prominent, stage of apatite iron ore formation took place at approximately 1.78 Ga. Epigenetic gold and copper-gold deposits are particularly hard to classify as these show mixed ore characteristics, and to some extent this is likely to be due to multiple mineralisation stages (cf. the huge, low grade Aitik deposit in Sweden which is interpreted to be a hybrid porphyry-IOCG-type of ore). Structurally controlled, orogenic-gold mineralisation is common in the Central Lapland greenstone belt, although there are also gold deposits with enhanced contents of e.g., copper, cobalt and uranium (e.g., at Saatopoora). The latter, sometimes referred to as being of an 'atypical metal association' type, could potentially also include syngenetic mineralisation (e.g., at Juomasou). The range of epigenetic (±syngenetic) gold and copper-gold deposits could possibly be related to a vague east-west trend defined by gold-rich deposits in the east (Finland), followed by IOCG (copper±gold) and more iron-dominant ore types near the Finnish-Swedish border and further west into Sweden.

  • 36.
    Knipfer, Sebastian
    et al.
    Boliden AB.
    Nordin, Roger
    Boliden AB.
    Wasström, Annika
    Boliden AB.
    Höglund, Sofia
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Joslin, Gregory
    Boliden AB.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    The Aitik porphyry Cu-Au-Ag-(Mo) deposit in Sweden2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 37. Wanhainen, Christina
    et al.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    The hybrid character of the Aitik deposit, Norrbotten, Sweden: a porphyry Cu-Au-Ag(-Mo) system overprinted by Fe-oxide Cu-Au hydrothermal fluids2011Ingår i: Hydrothermal iron oxide copper-gold & related topics: a global perspective, Adelaide: PGC Publishing , 2011, s. 415-426Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Aitik Cu-Au-Ag(-Mo) mine in northern Sweden is the biggest open pit operation in northern Europe, and one of Europe's largest metal producers. The open pit is 3 km long, 930 m wide and 405 m deep. Approximately 480 Mt of ore averaging 0.4% Cu, 0.2 g/t Au and 4 g/t Ag has been produced, with the metal production in year 2007 being 50 487 t of copper, 1.178 t of gold, and 42.301 t of silver. The Palaeoproterozoic Aitik porphyry Cu-Au-Ag(-Mo) deposit and its host rocks, are situated approximately 200 km north of the Archaean-Proterozoic palaeoboundary in the Fennoscandian shield. They are considered to have formed in a volcanic arc environment related to subduction of oceanic crust beneath the Archaean craton at c. 1.9 Ga. A quartz monzodioritic intrusion related to the formation of porphyry copper mineralisation is situated in the footwall of the deposit. High salinity fluids (30-38 eq. wt% NaCl + CaCl2) responsible for chalcopyrite-pyrite mineralisation was released contemporaneously with quartz monzodiorite emplacement and quartz stockwork formation at c. 1.89 Ga, and caused potassic alteration of the intrusive and surrounding volcaniclastic rocks. Remnants of this primary porphyry copper mineralisation are best preserved in the footwall intrusion, in intrusive units within the volcaniclastic rocks of the ore zone, and in quartz stockworks at the margins of the quartz monzodiorite. An overprinting mineralisation and alteration event of Fe-oxide Cu-Au character occurred about 100 Ma later, when eastward subduction resulted in compression, monzonitic-granitic magmatism, ductile deformation, and block movements in northern Norrbotten. Extensive deformation of rocks and redistribution of metals occurred. Magnetite enrichment locally found within late veins of mainly amphibole, K-feldspar, tourmaline, garnet, quartz and epidote, together with late scapolite alteration within the deposit, implies that fluids responsible for Fe-oxide Cu-Au mineralisation and extensive Na-Ca alteration in the region during this tectonic event also affected the Aitik deposit, and probably involved addition of copper and gold. This late mineralising fluid was highly saline (30->60 eq. wt% NaCl + CaCl2) and contained solids of ferropyrosmalite and hematite. Studies of the Aitik deposit reveal a multiphase origin of the ore, with multiple sources of the ore fluids and peaks of mineralisation around 1.9 and 1.8 Ga.

  • 38.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Flotation and leach tests performed within a geo-metallurgical project on gold in the Aitik Cu-Au-Ag-(Mo) deposit2010Ingår i: Conference in Minerals Engineering: Luleå, 2 -3 februari 2010 / [ed] Johanna Alatalo, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2010, s. 73-84Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory flotation tests were done with all samples after 7 and 11 minutes of grinding. Tail products from the laboratory flotation tests were leached for Au using cyanide. Different ore types could be distinguished from their particle size distribution after grinding. Similar mineralogical structures could be tied to samples with a lower than expected Cu-recovery and mineralogical explanations for high and low Au recoveries are given in this paper.

  • 39.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Johansson, Björn
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Character of gold within the Aitik ore body: preliminary results from a geometallurgical study2008Ingår i: Conference in Minerals Engineering 2008, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2008, s. 143-150Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit in northernmost Sweden is one of Europe's largest copper-gold mines. Even if the gold grade is as low as 0.2 ppm, gold is an important metal for the mine, which produces 1.5-2 tonnes of gold per year as a by-product. Being a vital part of a large production system, the Aitik mine production plans are the basis for development of smarter and more efficient processes downstream. A geometallurgical study has therefore been initiated in order to improve the confidence of the production plans by the achievement of a better understanding of the site, character and mineral association of gold within the ore body, and we here report the results from the preliminary petrographic studies. The gold detected so far occur mainly as < 40 µm grains associated with silicate minerals such as quartz, biotite and feldspars, and with magnetite. Gold grains occur both as inclusions within mineral grains and at grain boundaries. The diversity of gold occurrences and the dominance of silicate-associated gold instead of traditionally sulphide-associated, highlights the importance of understanding this variability for metallurgical processing.

  • 40.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Nordin, Roger
    Boliden AB.
    Aaltonen, Riikka
    Boliden AB.
    Character of gold within the Palaeoproterozoic Aitik porphyry Cu-Au-Ag-(Mo) deposit2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Aitik Cu-Au-Ag-(Mo) deposit in northernmost Sweden is one of Europe's largest copper-gold mines with an on-going expansion bringing the annual production capacity up to 36 Mt of ore in 2010. Since the start of mining in 1968, approximately 465 Mt of ore has been mined. Proven and probable ore reserves at the beginning of 2008 were 610 Mt grading 0.28 % Cu, 0.2 ppm Au and 2 ppm Ag. Aitik is a Palaeoproterozoic porphyry Cu-Au-Ag-(Mo) deposit associated with the intrusion of a 1.89 Ga quartz monzodiorite, and modified by multistage metamorphic-tectonic and magmatic-hydrothermal events. Redistribution of metals and possible addition of copper and gold from a later (1.80 Ga) IOCG (iron oxide copper-gold) mineralizing event has led to a wide variety of mineralization styles and a complex mineralization pattern. The main copper-bearing mineral is chalcopyrite, which occurs disseminated, as veinlets, as patches and clots, and in several vein types together with quartz, amphibole, garnet, magnetite, zeolite, tourmaline, and barite.Aitik is by definition a gold-poor porphyry copper deposit (Cu/Au atomic ratio below 40,000). However, despite the low gold grade (0.2 ppm), gold is an important metal for the mine, which produces 1.5-2 tonnes of gold per year as a by-product. It is mainly the copper-associated gold, which constitutes about 50 % of the total amount, that is currently recovered in the flotation circuit. To guide R&D work in the attempts to increase the gold recovery, a better understanding of the sites, character and mineral associations of gold within the ore body has to be achieved. By performing petrographic, SEM, electron microprobe, and flotation and leaching laboratory test studies on gold, the diversity of its character and occurrence, and its response to different extraction techniques has been documented. Gold occurs as native gold, amalgam (Au-Ag-Hg) and electrum (Au-Ag), in close relationship to chalcopyrite, pyrite, magnetite and silicates. The gold varies considerably in grain size, ranging from coarse (∼ 400-20 m) to very fine (∼ <2-0.1 m) and it occurs mainly as inclusions, at grain boundaries and in cracks. A trend from dominantly sulphide-associated gold in the upper levels of the mine, to an increase in silicate-associated gold at deeper levels has been identified, highlighting the importance of understanding the gold variability for metallurgical processing. The character of gold within the Aitik ore body suggests that more than one generation of gold is likely to be present, and that the different mineralogical settings of gold correspond to different ore forming events.

  • 41.
    Martinsson, Olof
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Allan, Åsa
    Envipro Miljöteknik AB, Linköping.
    Niiranen, Tero
    Northland Exploration Finland.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Eilu, Pasi
    GTK.
    Ojala, Juhani
    GTK.
    Nykänen, Vesa
    GTK.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Iron oxide-Cu-Au deposits in the northern part of the Fennoscandian shield2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The northern part of the Fennoscandian Shield, which formed during repeated extensional and compressional events at 3.1-1.8 Ga, is an ore province characterized by regionally developed albite and scapolite alteration and the occurrence of world class Fe-oxide (Kiirunavaara) and Cu-Au deposits (Aitik). It host several styles of Fe-oxide-Cu-Au deposits, including skarn and apatite-iron style deposits, many of them with features that also warrant classification as iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits.The apatite-iron ores are economically most important with a total production of c. 1900 Mt from 10 mines during the last 100 years and with a total pre-mining resource of c. 4100 Mt. In these deposits, the Fe and P content vary between 30-70 % and 0.05-5 %, respectively. The ore minerals magnetite and hematite occur in lenses or as breccia infill. The ores are usually enriched in LREE, sulphides are rare but subeconomic amounts of Cu may occur.Skarn-like iron occurrences consisting of magnetite and Mg and Ca-Mg silicates have been less important with c. 20 Mt mined from 6 deposits and a pre-mining resource of 760 Mt. Most of them occur as conformable lenses with a banded internal structure. Pyrite, pyrrhotite and minor chalcopyrite are commonly present disseminated or as veinlets. Typical grades are 30-55% Fe, 0.2-3.5 % S, 0.05-0.3% Cu, 0.005-1g/t Au and 0.02-0.2% P. A few of the deposits are also enriched in LREE. Epigenetic Cu±Au occurrences include the porphyry-style giant Aitik deposit with a pre-mining resource of 2000 Mt at 0.3% Cu and 0.2 g/t Au and a total production of 465 Mt. Other deposits vary in style from disseminated to breccia infill or veins. Chalcopyrite is the most important ore mineral but bornite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, magnetite, molybdenite and native gold may occur in varying amounts. The skarn-like ores occur in 2.1Ga Karelian greenstones in association to carbonate rocks, BIF and graphite schist. The apatite iron ores are hosted by 1.9 Ga Svecofennian intermediate to felsic porphyries. The epigenetic Cu±Au deposits occur in both Karelian and Svecofennian volcanic and sedimentary rocks and 1.9 Ga intrusive rocks. The two last type of deposits show similar alteration styles including albite, K-feldspar, biotite, scapolite, carbonate, amphibole and tourmaline, whereas the skarn-like deposits are associated with diopside, amphibole, scapolite and biotite alteration.Deposit studies and geochronological data reveal a multiphase origin of the Fe oxide and Cu±Au occurrences with multiple sources of the ore fluids and peaks of mineralization at c. 1.88 and 1.77 Ga. These events are temporally related to major orogenic stages in the evolution of the Fennoscandian Shield. This implies that mineralization formed in different tectonic settings, and with different magmatic associations. Thus, the IOCG deposits are not uniform in origin, which may well explain their diverse features and also makes a simple genetic model for them dubious.

  • 42.
    Nordin, Roger
    et al.
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Aaltonen, Riikka
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Day 5: Gruvberget and Aitik deposits. Stop 2 - Aitik Cu-Au-Ag mine2007Ingår i: Metallogeny and tectonic evolution of the Northern Fennoscandian Shield: field trip guidebook, Espoo: Geological Survey of Finland , 2007, s. 78-84Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 43.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Billström, Kjell
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Age, petrology and geochemistry of the porphyritic Aitik intrusion, and its relation to the disseminated Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit, northern Sweden2006Ingår i: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 128, nr 4, s. 273-286Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit in northern Sweden is hosted by strongly altered and deformed 1.9 Ga old Svecofennian volcaniclastic rocks. A porphyritic quartz monzodiorite intrusion of subvolcanic origin is situated in the structural footwall to the ore. U-Pb TIMS zircon dating of the quartz monzodiorite yielded an age of 1887±8 Ma, which coincides with the age obtained for the subduction-related Haparanda suite of granitoids in Norrbotten. It is intruded by minor, comagmatic phases, including units of finer grained quartz monzodiorite and diorite. The finer grained intrusive phase, which can be traced into the ore zone of the Aitik deposit, is believed to represent apophyses protruding from the upper part of the quartz monzodiorite. The Aitik intrusion, comprising the quartz monzodiorite and its comagmatic phases, is affected by regional metamorphism, deformation, and hydrothermal alteration. Potassic alteration is most evident, and expressed by the growth of secondary biotite and K-feldspar. The sub-economic Cu-Au-Ag mineralization hosted by the Aitik intrusion mainly consists of chalcopyrite, pyrite, and magnetite of dominantly magmatic-hydrothermal origin, and is present in four forms: disseminated, as veinlets, in quartz-feldspar veins, and in biotite-amphibole veins. This mineralization extends in economic grades into the adjacent volcaniclastic rocks in the roof of the intrusion. The Aitik intrusion is similar in many respects to porphyry copper generating intrusions regarding tectonic setting, petrography and chemical composition. The intrusion-hosted sub-economic mineralization might form part of a porphyry system with its major part represented by the main mineralization in the overlying volcaniclastic rocks.

  • 44.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Billström, Kjell
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Stein, Holly
    Colorado State University.
    Nordin, Roger
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    160 Ma of magmatic/hydrothermal and metamorphic activity in the Gällivare area: Re-Os dating of molybdenite and U-Pb dating of titanite from the Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit, northern Sweden2005Ingår i: Mineralium Deposita, ISSN 0026-4598, E-ISSN 1432-1866, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 435-447Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Host rocks to the Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit in northern Sweden are strongly altered and deformed Early Proterozoic mica(-amphibole) schists and gneisses. The deposit is characterised by numerous mineralisation styles, vein and alteration types. Four samples were selected for Re-Os molybdenite dating and 12 samples for U-Pb titanite dating in order to elucidate the magmatic/hydrothermal and metamorphic history following primary ore deposition in the Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit. Samples represent dyke, vein and alteration assemblages from the ore zone, hanging wall and footwall to the deposit. Re-Os dating of molybdenite from deformed barite and quartz veins yielded ages of 1,876±10 Ma and 1,848±8 Ma, respectively. A deformed pegmatite dyke yielded a Re-Os age of 1,848±6 Ma, and an undeformed pegmatite dyke an age of 1,728±7 Ma. U-Pb dating of titanite from a diversity of alteration mineral associations defines a range in ages between 1,750 and 1,805 Ma with a peak at ca. 1,780 Ma. The ages obtained, together with previous data, bracket a 160-Ma (1,890-1,730 Ma) time span encompassing several generations of magmatism, prograde to peak metamorphism, and post-peak cooling; events resulting in the redistribution and addition of metals to the deposit. This multi-stage evolution of the Aitik ore body suggests that the deposit was affected by several thermal events that ultimately produced a complex ore body. The Re-Os and U-Pb ages correlate well with published regional Re-Os and U-Pb age clusters, which have been tied to major magmatic, hydrothermal, and metamorphic events. Primary ore deposition at ca. 1,890 Ma in connection with intrusion of Haparanda granitoids was followed by at least four subsequent episodes of metamorphism and magmatism. Early metamorphism at 1,888-1,872 Ma overlapping with Haparanda (1,890-1,880 Ma) and Perthite-monzonite (1,880-1,870 Ma) magmatism clearly affected the Aitik area, as well as late metamorphism and Lina magmatism at 1,810-1,774 Ma and TIB1 magmatism at 1,800 Ma. The 1,848 Ma Re-Os ages obtained from molybdenite in a quartz vein and pegmatite dyke suggests that the 1,850 Ma magmatism recorded in parts of northern Norrbotten also affected the Aitik area.

  • 45.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    On the origin and evolution of the palaeoproterozoic Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit, northern Sweden: a porphyry copper-gold ore, modified by multistage metamorphic-deformational, magmatic-hydrothermal, and IOCG-mineralizing events2005Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Aitik Cu-Au-Ag mine in the Gällivare area in northern Sweden is the biggest open pit operation in northern Europe and one of Europe’s largest metal producers. The open pit is almost 3 km long, 930 m wide and 345 m deep. Approximately 424 million tonnes of ore averaging 0.4% Cu, 0.2 g/t Au and 4 g/t Ag has been produced, and the metal production in year 2004 was 64,805 tons of copper, 2,035 kg of gold, and 45,110 kg of silver. Although multiply deformed, metamorphosed and hydrothermally altered, characteristic features of two major mineralization styles, porphyry copper and iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG), have been identified by using field and microscopic observations in combination with techniques such as fluid inclusion microthermometry, sulphur isotopic analyses, U-Pb and Re-Os geochronology, and major and trace element geochemistry. Results from this study indicate that the Aitik deposit is of mixed origin, with a major part of the copper ore originating from an early porphyry copper system, and a second, minor part, originating from an overprinting IOCG-system. The Aitik porphyry Cu-Au-Ag deposit and its host rocks, situated approximately 200 km north of the Archaean-Proterozoic palaeoboundary in the Fennoscandian shield, are considered to have formed in a volcanic arc environment related to subduction of oceanic crust beneath the Archaean craton at ca. 1.9 Ga. An intrusion related to the formation of porphyry copper mineralization is situated in the footwall of the deposit. This source intrusion and related volcaniclastic rocks are mafic-intermediate in composition and belong to the regionally widespread Haparanda suite and Porphyrite group, respectively. The quartz monzodiorite intrusion is porphyritic and comprises younger, but comagmatic, phases of micro-quartz monzodiorite and diorite, and is suggested to represent a cupola protruding from a larger pluton at depth. High salinity fluids (30-38 eq. wt% NaCl + CaCl2) responsible for chalcopyrite-pyrite mineralization was released contemporaneously with quartz monzodiorite emplacement and quartz stockwork formation at ca. 1.89 Ga, and caused potassic alteration of the intrusive and surrounding volcaniclastic rocks. Potassic alteration is manifested by early biotitization and K-feldspatization, in close association with disseminated sulphides and magnetite. Remnants of this primary porphyry copper mineralization are best preserved in the footwall (micro-) quartz monzodiorite, in units of micro-quartz monzodiorite within the volcaniclastic rocks of the ore zone, and in quartz stockworks at the margins of the quartz monzodiorite. The Aitik IOCG mineralizing event occurred about 100 Ma later, when eastward subduction resulted in compression, monzonitic-granitic magmatism, ductile deformation, and tectonic block movements in Northern Norrbotten. Extensive deformation of rocks and redistribution of metals occurred. Magnetite enrichment locally found within late veins of mainly amphibole, K-feldspar, and epidote, together with late scapolite alteration within the deposit, implies that fluids responsible for IOCG-mineralization and extensive Na-Ca alteration in the region during this tectonic event also affected the Aitik deposit, and probably involved addition of copper and gold. This late mineralizing fluid was highly saline, and contained ferropyrosmalite in addition to NaCl + CaCl2. Hydrothermal fluids continued to affect the Aitik area for another ca. 60 Ma, forming minerals such as zeolite, calcite, and thaumasite, indicating low-temperature conditions at the end of the Aitik evolution. It is here concluded that the Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit is a strongly deformed and metamorphosed porphyry copper-gold deposit related to a 1.9 Ga quartz monzodiorite, with at least 160 Ma of post-ore modification, including an overprinting mineralizing event of IOCG-type at ca. 1.8 Ga.

  • 46.
    Martinsson, Olof
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Character of Cu-Au mineralizations and related hydrothermal alterations along the Nautanen deformation zone, Gällivare area, northern Sweden2004Ingår i: Svecofennian Ore-Forming Environments Field Trip Volcanic-associated Zn-Cu-Au-Ag and magnetite-apatite, sediment-hosted Pb-Zn, and intrusion-associated Cu-Au deposits in northern Sweden, Society of Economic Geologists, 2004, s. 149-160Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 47.
    Martinsson, Olof
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Day five field guide: Cu-Au Deposits in the Gällivare Area2004Ingår i: Svecofennian Ore-Forming Environments Field Trip Volcanic-associated Zn-Cu-Au-Ag and magnetite-apatite, sediment-hosted Pb-Zn, and intrusion-associated Cu-Au deposits in northern Sweden, Society of Economic Geologists, 2004, s. 161-166Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 48.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kontturi, M,
    Boliden AB.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Copper and gold distribution at the Aitik deposit, Gällivare area, northern Sweden2003Ingår i: Transactions - Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. Section B. Applied earth science, ISSN 0371-7453, E-ISSN 1743-2758, Vol. 112, nr 3, s. 260-267Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aitik is a disseminated Cu-Au deposit with an annual production of 18 Mt of ore containing 0·38% copper and 0·22 ppm gold. It is situated in northern Sweden in 1·9 Ga Svecofennian, metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary rocks formed in a volcanic arc environment. The Aitik Deposit entered production in 1968. All geological and geochemical information obtained since then has been used to summarise the distribution pattern for Cu and Au in the deposit. A large-scale vertical metal zoning results from a slight increase of Au with depth. Restricted Cu-rich areas at the surface gradually change into more extensive, medium-grade areas with depth, resulting in approximately the same average Cu content for each level. The vertical metal zoning is accompanied by a lithological change from biotite gneiss to biotite-amphibole gneiss with depth. The mineralised areas trend predominantly north-east and north-south, and plunge north-east (Au) and northnorthwest (Cu). The ore body also shows horizontal metal zoning. A 'high-grade' area (> 0.6% Cu and >. 0.3 ppm Au) of disseminated sulphides is situated in biotite gneiss in the centre of the ore zone. Towards the hanging wall, grades are lower (< 0·4% Cu and < 0·30 ppm Au) and the host rocks are strongly sericite altered, pyrite-rich schists. A 'gold-rich' area (> 0·6 ppm Au) is located within 50 m from the hanging wall, in a residual part of pyrite-rich biotite schist that is strongly K-feldspar, epidote and quartz altered. Another 'gold-rich' area (> 0·6 ppm Au) is situated below 400 m depth on the footwall side of the ore in the northern part of the deposit, where the amphibole content of the host rock is high. Cu-dominated mineralisation is mainly developed close to the footwall side of the ore, where disseminated sulphides and massive veins of chalcopyrite are common. It is suggested that the rich dissemination in the central part of the ore represents the primary mineralisation at Aitik. Later features, such as shear zone related fluid-rock interaction and deformation, caused remobilisation of metals into favourable structural traps, creating local higher-grade zones. The possibility cannot be discounted, however, that the metal distribution has been caused, not only by multistage remobilisation, but also by repeated introduction of metals.

  • 49.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Evidence of remobilisation within the Palaeoproterozoic Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit, northern Sweden: a sulphur isotope study2003Ingår i: Mineral Exploration and Sustainable Development: Proceedings of the Seventh Biennial SGA Meeting on Mineral Exploration and Sustainable Development / [ed] D.G. Eliopoulos, Rotterdam: Millpress , 2003, s. 1119-1122Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 50.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Broman, Curt
    Department of Geology Geochemistry, Stockholm University.
    Martinsson, Olof
    The Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit in northern Sweden: a product of high salinity fluids2003Ingår i: Mineralium Deposita, ISSN 0026-4598, E-ISSN 1432-1866, Vol. 38, nr 6, s. 715-726Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Aitik Cu–Au–Ag deposit is located in northern Sweden and is hosted by strongly deformed 1.9 Ga Svecofennian volcano-sedimentary rocks. The main copper mineralization, which occurs as disseminations and veinlets, is hosted by garnet–biotite schist. Subeconomic mineralization in the footwall to the ore is hosted by feldspar–biotite–amphibole gneiss and porphyritic quartz monzodiorite. The deposit has been affected by post-mineralization metamorphic and igneous activity. Fluid inclusions in six samples of copper-mineralized quartz veins record the presence of three different fluid populations. The main ore was deposited from an aqueous, highly saline (31–37 eq. wt% NaCl + CaCl 2) fluid. This fluid was trapped in inclusions intimately associated with the main chalcopyrite mineralization. Later bornite deposition took place from a less saline (18–27 eq. wt% NaCl + CaCl 2), aqueous fluid. A third fluid composed of almost pure CO 2, interacted with the copper-rich system during a post-ore event. The Aitik Cu–Au–Ag deposit shares some features with both porphyry-type and Fe-oxide–Cu–Au deposits. A high calcium content of the ore fluids, similar to other Cu–Au deposits in northern Scandinavia, suggests a contribution to the salinity of the mainly magmatic-hydrothermal fluids from evaporitic rocks in stratigraphically lower units.

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