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  • 1.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Performance outcomes from reciprocal altruism2019Ingår i: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, many small- and medium-sized firms have joined formal strategic networks in an effort to enhance firm performance. We set out to examine how altruistic behavior by these firms affected their performance at different levels of altruistic norms within their network. Using a multi-level analytic approach and data from a population of Swedish strategic networks, we found significant cross-level moderating effects that explained variance in firm-level performance. The results showed that firms participating in strategic networks benefit more from being altruistic when other network members generally display high levels of altruism. Apparently, altruistic behaviors are rewarded relative to a general network norm. The potential to perform well thus depends on aligning a firm’s altruistic behavior with the general level of altruism in its network.

  • 2. Teräs, Jukka
    et al.
    Jokelainen, Kristiina
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Smart specialisation at the edge of Europe: Case study of sparesly populated regions in the Arctic2019Ingår i: Strategic Approaches to Regional Development: Smart Experimentation in Less-Favoured Regions / [ed] Iryna Kristensen, Alexandre Dubois, Jukka Teräs, New York: Routledge, 2019, 1Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Befintliga och potentiella utvecklingsmöjligheter: Testnäring i Norrobotten2018Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 4.
    Sirén, Charlotta
    et al.
    University of St.Gallen, Global Center Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Institute of Technology Management.
    Patel, Pankaj C.
    Villanova University, Villanova School of Business, Management and Operations.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi. Hanken School of Economics.
    CEO burnout, managerial discretion, and firm performance: The role of CEO locus of control, structural power, and organizational factors2018Ingår i: Long range planning, ISSN 0024-6301, E-ISSN 1873-1872, Vol. 51, nr 6, s. 953-971Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the possibility of burnout resulting from dynamics in firms' upper echelons, little if any work has focused on chief executive officer's (CEO's) burnout and firm performance. Drawing on managerial discretion theory, this article analyzes the influence of CEO burnout on firm performance and the moderating roles of the individual (CEO locus of control), structural power (CEO duality and CEO tenure), and organizational characteristics (size, age, and resource availability) related to managerial discretion. Using a sample of 156 CEOs in Swedish firms, we find a negative association between CEOs who report higher burnout and firm performance. Our results confirm that CEO duality and resource availability ameliorate and firm size exacerbates the negative association between CEO burnout and firm performance. Contrary to our expectations, CEO locus of control, CEO tenure, and firm age do not influence this relationship. We discuss the implications of our research for upper echelons theory and strategic leadership theory.

  • 5.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Metaanalys med fokus på utvecklingsmöjligheter: Testnäring i Norrbotten2018Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 6.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Regionala effekter: Testnäring i Norrbotten2018Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 7.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Strategiska insatsområden: Testnäring i Norrbotten2018Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 8.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Tillväxtförutsättningar för Norrbottens näringsliv: En uppföljning av företagens styrkor, svagheter och utmaningar2018Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 9.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Digitaliseringen och näringslivet2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Hur mår besöksnäringen i Norrbotten?2017Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 11.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Öqvist, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Of Blind Men and Elephants in Social Support Research: The Moderated Mediation Effect of Social Support on Role Stress and Role Performance2017Ingår i: International Journal of Psychology Research, E-ISSN 1932-6092, Vol. 11, nr 3-4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Aktivitet: Scenarier för vad regionalt utvecklingsarbete kan leda till2016Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 13.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    CEO responses to role related challenges: An examination of the relationship between role stress and opportunity identification2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Saarela, Martti
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Simunaniemi, A-M
    Muhos, M
    Digital Healthcare Service Startups: Case Studies From Sweden2016Ingår i: Proceedings of The 11th European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship (ECIE), Jyväskylä: JAMK University of Applied Science , 2016, s. 688-696Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Framtidens Norrbotten: Fem scenariobeskrivningar över länets utveckling2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport utgör en framåtriktad analys av de regionala förutsättningar som rapporterats inom projektet Regional förnyelse, som finansierats av Länsstyrelsen i Norrbottens län och Luleå tekniska universitet (LTU). Utifrån de studier och rapporter som bidragit till en ökad förståelse kring länets möjligheter och utmaningar resonerar vi i den här studien om möjliga framtidsscenarier för Norrbotten. Vår målsättning är inte att förutspå den regionala utvecklingen utan att i stället lyfta fram ett antal scenarier som det regionala utvecklingsarbetet kan leda till. Syftet blir att skapa ett diskussionsunderlag som kan vara till nytta för framtida utveckling av regionala strategier såsom exempelvis den regionala utvecklingsstrategin och den regionala innovationsstrategin. Regionala strategierDen regionala utvecklingsstrategin ingår i EU:s och Sveriges strategier för hållbar tillväxt och är styrande för de mer operativa programmen i länet. Strategin binder samman planeringsprocesser som har betydelse för en hållbar tillväxt och kan därigenom underlätta samverkan inom och mellan länen. Strategin utgör och ett strategiskt underlag i förhandlingar mellan länet och regeringen och även vid överläggningar på EU-nivå.Den regionala analysen av Norrbottens förutsättningar för utveckling och potential för tillväxt resulterade i fem strategiska områden där ett antal prioriterade åtgärder anges. De största utmaningarna är den demografiska utvecklingen och den framtida kompetensförsörjningen. Avgörande för regionens tillväxt är att det finns arbetskraft och kompetens som matchar arbetslivets behov. Med en allt äldre befolkning ökar försörjningsbördan och det blir allt svårare att upprätthålla välfärden med minskade skatteunderlag.Regionala analyserEtt flertal rapporter och studier har författats inom ramarna för projektet Regional förnyelse. Näringslivsanalyser och analyser av internationell handel stödjer att det finns goda förutsättningar för tillväxt inom länets företag. Företagarna beskriver kompetensförsörjning som en av de största utmaningarna för att uppnå planerad tillväxttakt. Regionala scenarierUtifrån de regionala analyserna har fem scenarier, i form av framtidsbilder, målats upp. Avsikten med scenarierna är att beskriva hur regionala insatser och utveckling kan skapa alternativa framtider för Norrbotten. Avsikten med scenarierna är således inte att förutspå regionens framtida utveckling utan snarare peka på hur olika typer av regional utveckling kan skapa olika förutsättningar. De scenarios som diskuteras i denna rapport är:— Scenario I: Basindustriregionen— Scenario II: Kunskap, kreativitet och kommunikation som regional drivkraft— Scenario III: Förändrat globalt klimat med nya möjligheter— Scenario IV: Smart specialisering baserad på relaterad variation— Scenario V: Diversifiering efter en nationell genomsnittsmodell

  • 16.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Teräs, Jukka
    University of Turku, Department of Economic Geography.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Innovation networks in different industrial settings: From flexible to smart specialization2016Ingår i: European Journal of Spatial Development, ISSN 1650-9544, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 63, nr 1, s. 1-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The key research objective of this paper is to analyse industrial specialisation by developing innovative networks linked to the region. Institutional and entrepreneurial innovation systems, smart specialisation and a network based research framework for entrepreneurship are used as conceptual foundations in the paper. Based on theoretical elaborations our analyses illustrate how certain interventions have stimulated regional development and innovation in two specific Scandinavian regions. Our results highlight that both regions have gone from interventions fostering flexible specialization, with the motive of staying resilient and competitive over time, to an approach based on smart specialization with a focus on one or a limited number of strong industries.

  • 17.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Influence of knowledge flows on regional innovation2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Interactive Effects of Network Capability, ICT Capability, and Financial Slack on Technology-Based Small Firm Innovation Performance2015Ingår i: Journal of small business management (Print), ISSN 0047-2778, E-ISSN 1540-627X, Vol. 53, nr Suppl !, s. 278-298Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the influence of network capability (the ability to use external relationships), information and communications technology (ICT) capability (the ability to strategically use ICT for business purposes), and financial slack (unused and uncommitted financial resources) on the innovation performance of small firms. This extends the current resource-based view and small firm innovation management literatures by proposing the direct and interactive effects of organizational capabilities and financial slack. The results of regression analysis based on survey data from technology-based Swedish small firms show that the three-way interaction involving network capability, ICT capability, and financial slack influences innovation performance.

  • 19.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Näringslivsutveckling i nordprogramområdet: En analys av tillväxtambitioner, samverkan och export2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Reim, Wiebke
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Product-Service Systems (PSS) Business Models and Tactics: A Systematic Literature Review2015Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 97, s. 61-75Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on Product–Service Systems (PSS) are emerging as a growing body of literature driven by the desire to combine economic prosperity and sustainable resource management. However, knowledge about how companies can adopt and implement PSS has remained limited. In this study, a systematic literature review is conducted related to understanding implementation of PSS business models and five sets of tactical practices. Based on an in-depth analysis of 67 articles, it was found that PSS is increasing rapidly as a research field, which is spread across a variety of disciplines and research domains. More specifically, research findings were accumulated from the field to present a framework supporting the implementation of well-established categories of PSS business models, that is, product-oriented, use-oriented, and result-oriented business models. Each business model category is linked to five operational-level tactics that ensure the model can be implemented successfully and subsequently generates value. These tactical sets include 1) contracts, 2) marketing, 3) networks, 4) product and service design, and 5) sustainability operational practices. This study concludes by proposing suggestions for future research.

  • 21.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundgren, Nils-Gustav
    Projekt: Regional förnyelse2015Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 22.
    Reim, Wiebke
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Operationalizing Product-Service Business Models: How considering the interconnection between strategy, business models and tactics can support the implementation of product-service system offerings2014Ingår i: Management of Innovation and Technology, ISSN 2001-208X, nr 4, s. 9-11Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 23.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Tillväxtförutsättningar för Norrbottens näringsliv: En kartläggning av företagens styrkor, svagheter och utmaningar2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 24.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Teräs, Jukka
    University of Turku, Department of Economic Geography.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Innovation networks in different industrial settings: a longitudinal study of northern Sweden and northern Finland2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Innovation systems in non-metropolitan regions: A live case journey2013Ingår i: Uddevalla Symposium 2013. Innovation, High-Growth Entrepreneurship and Regional Development: Revised papers presented at the 16th Uddevalla Symposium 13-15 June, 2013, Kansa City, MO, USA / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2013, s. 285-301Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Reim, Wiebke
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Strategy, business models, or tactics: What is Product Service System (PSS) literature talking about?2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED13): Design for Harmonies / [ed] Udo Lindemann; Srinivasan V Yong Se Kim; Sang Won Lee; John Clarkson; Gaetano Cascini, Design Research Society, 2013, Vol. 4, s. 309-318Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Product- Service Systems (PSS) and business model share the emphasis on value creation. Still PSS literature uses the term business models vaguely without being clearly understood. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to develop a framework that structures and integrates the various ways the term business model is used in PSS literature by pointing out the connection to strategy and tactics. This is done by conducting a systematic literature review. The findings are aggregated in a framework that proposes that a business model is chosen based on the strategy and that tactics are the residual choice after the business model is chosen. Four tactical sets, contract, marketing, network and product design, have been identified from the literature to be most relevant for PSS business models. The analysis of the tactics relates them to the PSS categories.

  • 27.
    Wincent, Joakim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    Kent State University, Kent, OH.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Supporting innovation in government-sponsored networks: The role of network board composition2013Ingår i: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 31, nr 8, s. 997-1020Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With growing public and private support of networks of small and medium-sized firms, many networks rely on network boards to ensure effective governance. By integrating agency and embeddedness reasoning, this article argues that network board composition aimed at effective monitoring may be at the cost of lost ability to strategize. In this study, longitudinal data of Swedish government-supported innovation networks demonstrate that network innovation improves as network board size increases, but that returns to such increases diminish when boards become overly large. Similarly, network board independence is beneficial up to a certain threshold, after which further increases in independence become detrimental. The study clarifies how agency and embeddedness theory can be combined to explain boards’ abilities to combine monitoring and strategizing at the network level in increasing the levels of network innovation

  • 28.
    Lindberg, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå university.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Turning stressors into something productive: an empirical study revealing nonlinear influences of role stressors on self-efficacy2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 263-274Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study suggests that stressors can be productive for self-efficacy and that the influence of stressors on self-efficacy is nonlinear. Analyses were conducted with ordinary least squares regression on a dataset covering responses from 311 deans in Swedish secondary schools. Results support the hypothesized U-shape relationship between role conflict and self-efficacy and the inverted U-shape relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy. Thus, findings offer evidence for nonlinear effects of stressors on the level of incumbents' self-efficacy. This research has implications for further research focused on the association between role stressors and self-efficacy.

  • 29.
    Wincent, Joakim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Turnover of members and responses to funding calls: a study of larger multi-partner alliances and consequences for innovation and funding2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Holmgren, Maria Magdalena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Board composition and firm performance: a test of the upper echelon perspective of entrepreneurship, innovation and competitiveness2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Principal TopicThe role and influence of board composition on firm performance and development has been extensively debated over the last decades. In 1984, Hambrick and Mason published their seminal work introducing the perspective of upper echelons. This perspective suggests that the demographic characteristics of firm boards may exert influence over firm performance since the demographics are associated with many cognitive bases, values, and perceptions thatguide and direct board members decision-making and functions. Several studies have found empirical results supporting these arguments and have further developed the conceptual reasoning for a relationship between upper echelon characteristics and firm performance. However, the wide array of theoretical underpinnings and perspectives combined with diverse empirical evidence has presented further questions over time in relation to how board composition influences firm performance and entrepreneurial levels in firms.In an attempt to address these questions, we model and test the relationship between board composition and firm performance and entrepreneurial levels. We propose a set of hypotheses that suggest that board composition can influence the potential of the boards to support effective monitoring and that composition also have influence of the human and relational capital of the boards. Overall, we suggest that board monitoring and board capital mediates the relationship between board composition and firm performance.MethodThe hypotheses were tested in a three year longitudinal data set including full responses from a sample of 296 firms drawn from a population of Swedish firms. In total were 1167 firms surveyed in the study and approximate 25% responded with completed surveys for the time period. A structural equation modeling approach including mediation models and control for lagged effects were adopted to perform tests.In the light of previous findings, we examine the relationship of both subjective and objective measures of firm performance and we also include longitudinal data to account for potential lagged effects. Besides examining board composition influence over traditional measures of performance, we examine how board composition influences firm levels of entrepreneurial orientation and innovation as well.In doing this we include a set of competing models where board composition variables are hypothesized to influence firm performance and entrepreneurial levels through board functions as board monitoring and board capital. Nested model tests are adopted to determine mediation and to decide how competing models and theories work in predicting firm performance through board composition.Results and ImplicationsResults indicate that board composition exerts influences over both firm performance and entrepreneurial levels in the studied firms. Overall, board composition both influences the firms’ ability to exert effective monitoring and contribute with human and relational capital to the firm that in turn are vital areas for the firms in order to perform well. The study has implications for entrepreneurship as it shows the importance of board composition upon firm performance and entrepreneurial levels. The study also contributes to current debates in upper echelon literature by including models of how the relationship between board composition and firm performance is mediated by board functions in terms of board monitoring and board capital. The study includes competing models and tests arguments from alternative theories when examining the role of board composition.

  • 31.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Editorial: Entrepreneurs under pressure : The tensions and dark sides of entrepreneurial life2012Ingår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, ISSN 1742-5360, E-ISSN 1742-5379, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 237-329Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholarly studies, as well as policy makers, have for a long time put entrepreneurs as of great importance for bringing growth and occupation to society. Most studies have subsequently researched success and the road to success (i.e. positive consequences of entrepreneurship) by studying a host of factors related to strategy formulation, influence of environment, growth intentions, motivation, together with competence and experience levels among entrepreneurs. Still, we know that the success is often not obtained without sacrifices and strong commitment. Many entrepreneurs can witness that the road to success is not without obstacles and that establishing a new venture can be extremely hard work. Signs of to large sacrifices would be burn-out syndromes, tension, depression, extensive conflicts between work and family, and increasing sick leave. It is not that surprising that these issues have not received so much attention thus far in entrepreneurship studies. Despite this, we know that the costs for disablement and other negative consequences can be high. There are a number of stakeholders (for instance, employees, investors, banks, and society) besides the entrepreneurs that can suffer significantly if the entrepreneurs make too large a sacrifice or fail to establish and organise a venture around a spotted opportunity. As a response, this special issue invites studies focusing on the existence of threats and pressures in entrepreneurial life, focusing on tensions and darker sides related to opportunity recognition and exploitation. While doing so, the special issue does not exclude positive consequences. On the contrary, studies aiming to reveal the tensions between positive and negative consequences of entrepreneurship are strongly encouraged.

  • 32.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Unleashing synergies in strategic networks of SMEs: the influence of partner fit on corporate entrepreneurship2012Ingår i: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 30, nr 5, s. 453-471Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of firms participate in inter-firm networks to improve their innovation, renewal, and venturing; efforts that can be termed ‘corporate entrepreneurship’. This article contributes to the literature by developing and testing explanations for how partner fit (that is, complementary capabilities and organizational compatibilities) influences networking firms’ corporate entrepreneurship. Using survey data on SMEs engaged in strategic networks with multiple partners, we found support for an argument suggesting that partner fit requires mediating variables to unleash the potential synergies of partner fit for corporate entrepreneurship. Specifically, our results suggest partner fit triggers resource leverage through processes of both combining resources and accumulating resources from interaction with network partners. Thus, a positive indirect relationship between partner fit and corporate entrepreneurship is present.

  • 33.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    et al.
    Kent State University, Kent, OH.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Corporate venturing deal syndication and innovation: the information exchange paradox2011Ingår i: Long range planning, ISSN 0024-6301, E-ISSN 1873-1872, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 134-151Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many incumbent corporations make equity investments in young technological start-ups to enhance their innovation effectiveness, and the great majority syndicate at least some of their investments with other incumbents. While syndication is generally held to benefit incumbent corporations, this study demonstrates that it may also be detrimental to corporate innovation, by elaborating the notion of an information exchange paradox - essentially, that information exchanges within CVC networks must, somehow, be both open and closed at the same time. Corporations must try to appropriate the knowledge championed by their investees and fellow-investors, but also protect their own know-how from leaking to competitors. Unlike prior CVC research, we demonstrate that knowledge sharing in open innovation forums may be counterproductive. Using a unique data set of the investment decisions made by 163 corporations over four years we show that, for some, participating in syndicate networks may involve losses that outweigh their gains. Our analysis establishes two key findings. First, corporations need to consider the trade-off between the number of ventures they support and the position they take in their syndication networks. The best strategies appear to be maximizing isolationist (supporting many ventures but staying away from the network centre) or minimizing centralist (supporting few ventures, but occupying a central network position) - the other two options (maximizing centralist and minimizing isolationist strategies) are far less effective in converting CVC investments into corporate innovation. Second, this picture is particularly applicable to highly concentrated industries dominated by several powerful incumbents: in fragmented industries these strategy differences are far less pronounced, so the choice of CVC syndication strategy will depend on other considerations. This supports a contingency view of syndication, implying that ensuring incumbent corporations really benefit from equity investments in start-ups is a not a trivial task for their managers

  • 34.
    Wincent, Joakim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Examining positive performance implications of role stressors by the indirect influence of positive affect: a study of new business managers2011Ingår i: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 699-727Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines whether managers' performance in new businesses improves when they are exposed to role stressors. In a 3-year longitudinal survey, we drew on the challenge-hindrance framework and Karasek's (1979) job demand-control model to acknowledge direct and interaction effects of role stressors (i.e., role conflict, role ambiguity, role overload) on positive affect. In addition to finding support for such influences, our results support that positive affect facilitates performance, thus suggesting that role stressors can be indirectly positive for performance. This study encourages research to go beyond the traditional stressor-strain perspective, to incorporate positive affect in role-stress models, and pay more attention to interaction effects between role stressors

  • 35.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Examining the role of externally oriented capabilities, slack resources, innovation and performance: A study on technology-based small firms2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation has been widely recognized as the key strategic activity for growth and success of small firms. However, small firms due to internal barriers (e.g. financial and human resources) and external barriers (e.g. external environment) are obstructed in developing innovation. Thus, it is critical to increase the understanding of how small firms can attain innovation. One perspective in the literature is the resource-based view of the firm. In this perspective it is generally proposed that a firms potential to be innovative lies in its ability to utilize different organizational capabilities. We follow this logic and propose two externally oriented capabilities that promote (Network capability) and facilitate (Information and communication technology capability) social networking practices. We argue these capabilities to be of importance especially in a small firm context and we hypothesize that their individual and joint effects on innovation are positive. We further acknowledge recent developments in the literature which suggest that capabilities are dependent on firm internal conditions such as flexibility and production. We therefore also include organizational slack and consider a three-way interaction effect between slack and the two proposed capabilities. Our basic argument is that capabilities will pay off for innovation when firms have slack resources. We also test howincreases in innovation influences firm performance. As such we suggest that innovation has a mediating role between capabilities and performance. We test the hypotheses based on a two year longitudinal dataset of Swedish technology-based small firms (less than 50 employees). In total 291 full responses were included out of the originally 1471 firms surveyed, for a response rate of 20%. Main analyses are lagged regression with control for the dependent variables influence at t-1. Results show innovativeness to be positively and significantly related to performance, even when performing controls for previous years of performance. We find a significant three-way interaction effect between the two suggested capabilities and slack on innovation, and support that innovation mediates the influence between capabilities and performance. As such, we find evidence that externally oriented capabilities in conjuncture with organizational slack are important for the level of firm innovation, and that their influence on renewal through innovation also help determine future performance.

  • 36.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Extending the stressor-strain perspective: A review and elaboration of the possibility to reverse causality in role stress models2011Ingår i: Role of stress in psychological disorders, Hauppauge, N.Y: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, s. 113-128Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the current state of role stress research has to a large extent determined significant consequences, we highlight that the field do not acknowledge the complexity of role relationships, especially occasions of reverse causality. In opening a dialogue, we discuss the possibility to an extension of the stressor-strain paradigm, that is the dominant perspective in role stress research, from explaining linear causal chains of detrimental consequences of role stress to instead researching reversed causality relationships with alternatives theories. Although we concur with previous findings, we elaborate upon the fact that what have long been indicated as important consequences of role stress may also be antecedents to role stress. This paper examines theoretical implications of questioning causality, review typical causal role stress models and outline some method implications for using a cross-lagged design for researching reversed causality of the current role stress consequences

  • 37.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Mary George, Nerine
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Omorede, Adesuwa
    Project: CiiR-Centre for Inter-Organizational Innovation Research2011Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 38.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Holmgren, Maria Magdalena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Krueger, Norris
    Entrepreneurship Northwest.
    Regional innovation and development: a latent growth model of regional innovation determinants2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose arguments supporting regional innovation to be dependent upon the simultaneous influence of movement of citizens and the industry structure within the region. Our hypotheses state that regions with a high industry concentration gain relatively more from individuals moving in respectively out from the region compared to regions with a low industry concentration. We tested our model and hypotheses on a four year longitudinal data from official registers on the complete population of 290 Swedish municipalities. Results support that regions with a high industry concentration gain innovation activity from increases in both in- and outflows of citizens from the region. Results on regions with a low industry concentration are inconclusive but indicate, in support of our arguments, that such regions gain relatively more from stability (i.e., low movement) in the region.

  • 39.
    Wincent, Joakim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Role stress in flexible and creative roles: Some suggestions on how to identify positive consequences2011Ingår i: Role of stress in psychological disorders, Hauppauge, N.Y: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, s. 129-140Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we illustrate that much of the traditional role stress research has related to quite static roles in role taking systems where effects of role stress typically have been viewed as detrimental (i.e., the stressor-strain perspective). We suggest a brighter picture in that role stress can have positive consequences when roles are constructed to have enough flexibility, freedom and creativity to allow for pertinent coping alternatives. In relation to this perspective, we present three approaches for examining the nature of stress and for evaluating whether role stress can have positive consequences given certain role characteristics.

  • 40.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    When critical mass can become a mess: a contingency model of regional innovation dynamics2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A common argument for why some regions perform relatively worse in developing innovations is that they lack sufficient critical mass to compete relative other regions in the development of knowledge-economy innovations and business models. In this study we examine the relationship between population size and regional innovation and also influence from regional contingencies. We test hypotheses using data from official registers related to a population of Swedish municipalities (n=290) over a five year period. We adopted a lagged hierarchical regression technique with a population-averaged negative binomial estimation model where we controlled for the dependent variable at t-1. Results support a non-linear, inverted u-shape, relationship between critical mass and regional innovation. Further, results also suggest that the regional level of education support can mitigate the negative effects of a too large population.

  • 41.
    Wincent, Joakim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Aggregating personality constructs to second-order categories for acquiring insights to a field of fragmentation: The case of entrepreneurship research2010Ingår i: Personality traits: classifications, effects and changes, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2010, s. 105-108Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42. Örtqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå universitet.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Control or comply: the interplay of firm-level cooperative strategies and network-level opportunism when estimating innovation performance in strategic networks2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 43.
    Wincent, Joakim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Does network board capital matter?: a study of innovative performance in strategic SME networks2010Ingår i: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 63, nr 3, s. 265-275Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the effects of network board capital (i.e., human capital and relational capital) on total, radical and incremental network innovative performance. Results from a five-year longitudinal study of network boards in 53 strategic networks suggest that a network board's diversity, education level, and interlocking directorates with other such networks affect network innovative performance. The degree of board diversity and interlocking directorates primarily influence incremental innovation, whereas education level influences radical innovation. The study finds that a network board's diversity of expertise and education level are important for improving all components of innovative performance (total, radical and incremental) in smaller networks. Managerial implications of these findings are discussed.

  • 44. Örtqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Extending the stressor-strain perspective: a review and elaboration of the possibility to reverse causality in role stress models2010Ingår i: International Journal of Psychology Research, ISSN 1098-4127, Vol. 5, nr 1/2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the current state of role stress research has to a large extent determined significant consequences, we highlight that the field do not acknowledge the complexity of role relationships, especially occasions of reverse causality. In opening a dialogue, we discuss the possibility to an extension of the stressor-strain paradigm, that is the dominant perspective in role stress research, from explaining linear causal chains of detrimental consequences of role stress to instead researching reversed causality relationships with alternatives theories. Although we concur with previous findings, we elaborate upon the fact that what have long been indicated as important consequences of role stress may also be antecedents to role stress. This paper examines theoretical implications of questioning causality, review typical causal role stress models and outline some method implications for using a cross-lagged design for researching reversed causality of the current role stress consequences.

  • 45.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Fair governance and good citizenship behavior: a recipe for succeeding in strategic networks?2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 46.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Liljedahl, Mats
    Interactive Institute, Sonic Studio, Acusticum.
    Immersion and gameplay experience: a contingency framework2010Ingår i: International Journal of Computer Games Technology, ISSN 1687-7047, E-ISSN 1687-7055Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The nature of the relationship between immersion and gameplay experience is investigated, focusing primarily on the literature related to flow. In particular, this paper proposes that immersion and gameplay experience are conceptually different, but empirically positively related through mechanisms related to flow. Furthermore, this study examines gamers' characteristics to determine the influence between immersion and gameplay experiences. The study involves 48 observations in one game setting. Regression analyses including tests for moderation and simple slope analysis are used to reveal gamers' age, experience, and understanding of the game, which moderate the relationship between immersion and gameplay experience. The results suggest that immersion is more positive for gameplay experience when the gamer lacks experience and understanding of the game as well as when the gamer is relatively older. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed at length in the paper.

  • 47. Wincent, Joakim
    et al.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    Kent State University, Kent, OH.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Autio, Erkko
    Imperial College, School of Business, London.
    Quality meets structure: generalized reciprocity and firm-level advantage in strategic networks2010Ingår i: Journal of Management Studies, ISSN 0022-2380, E-ISSN 1467-6486, Vol. 47, nr 4, s. 597-624Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we extend previous research by combining network structural and network process approaches. Specifically, in a six-year, three-wave study of 41 firms in two strategic networks, we found that the interaction between generalized reciprocity among a focal firm's partners and network tie intensity and betweenness centrality improved firm performance. No influences were observed for the interaction involving degree centrality and generalized reciprocity. Our research suggests that managers in strategic networks may need to consider the balance between relationship-extensive and relationship-intensive strategies

  • 48. Örtqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Role stress, exhaustion, and satisfaction: a cross-lagged structural equation modeling approach supporting Hobfoll's loss spirals2010Ingår i: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 40, nr 6, s. 1357-1384Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study applies Hobfoll's notion of loss spirals to argue for a reciprocal relationship between role stress and 2 of its most commonly studied consequences: exhaustion and satisfaction. By means of structural equation modeling and a cross-lagged design of 116 business managers, the researchers found support for a relationship between role stress and exhaustion. They also found that satisfaction influences role stress, a relationship that the existing literature has not examined. The study contributes a more complex understanding of the relationship between role stress and its modeled outcomes than has been achieved previously.

  • 49. Wincent, Joakim
    et al.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Role stress in flexible and creative roles: some suggestions on how to identify positive consequences2010Ingår i: International Journal of Psychology Research, ISSN 1098-4127, Vol. 5, nr 1/2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we illustrate that much of the traditional role stress research has related to quite static roles in role taking systems where effects of role stress typically have been viewed as detrimental (i.e., the stressor-strain perspective). We suggest a brighter picture in that role stress can have positive consequences when roles are constructed to have enough flexibility, freedom and creativity to allow for pertinent coping alternatives. In relation to this perspective, we present three approaches for examining the nature of stress and for evaluating whether role stress can have positive consequences given certain role characteristics.

  • 50.
    Drnovšek, Mateja
    et al.
    University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    The effectiveness of coping strategies used by entrepreneurs and their impact on personal well-being and venture performance2010Ingår i: Zbornik Radova Ekonomskog Fakulteta u Rijeci : ÄRasopis za Ekonomsku Teoriju i Praksu, ISSN 1331-8004, E-ISSN 1846-7520, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 193-220Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes effectiveness of coping strategies that entrepreneurs use to daily manage work related stress. Coping is the process of expending efforts to solve personal and interpersonal problems and reducing stress induced by unpleasant and stressful situations. Two broad strategies of coping are identified; problem-based coping refers to a cognitively-based response behavior that includes efforts to alleviate stressful circumstances while emotion-based coping involves behavioral responses to regulate the affective consequences of stressful events. The purpose of this research is to analyze relationships among the coping strategies used by entrepreneurs and a set of antecedents influencing the selection of coping strategies. The methodology used is based on structural equation modeling and empirical data of 469 entrepreneurs from two European countries. Our results show that problembased coping facilitates well-being and venture performance. In addition, our findings also support interaction effects of founder centrality and contextual conditions of venturing on the extent entrepreneurs engage in coping. We believe that our insights can help in training entrepreneurs in the development of effective coping strategies that are context dependent. In specific, our results suggest entrepreneurs to engage in problem-focused strategies when they want to effectively address the economic aspects of their lives whereas when they engage in emotionbased strategies they seem to increase the self-knowledge they need to start subsequent ventures and facilitate learning from failure. Future studies on coping strategies could study the interplay of coping strategies used to resolve challenging social situations that various stakeholders of practicing entrepreneurs impose.

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