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  • 1.
    Kamalaldin, Anmar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Luleå University of Technology.
    Sundén, Lina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. University of Vaasa.
    A Relational View on Digital Servitization: Empirical Insights from Provider-Customer Relationships2019In: Proceedings of the Spring Servitization Conference: Delivering Services Growth in the Digital Era / [ed] Bigdeli, A.,Kowalkowski, C., Kindström, D., & Baines, T., Birmingham, UK, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providers are increasingly leveraging digitalization and offering their industrial customers more advanced services which are enabled by digital technologies such as the internet of things, remote monitoring, big data analytics, and artificial intelligence. This trend is referred to as digital servitization, and it is enabling significant changes in how value is created and captured in industrial relationships. In order to fully benefit from digital servitization, providers and customers need to transform their relationships. However, there is limited knowledge on how a provider and a customer govern their dyad relationship in the context of digital servitization. To address this gap, this paper applies the relational view theory as a lens for the purpose of studying how dyad relationships in digital servitization can be successfully governed by parties involved. To that end, research was conducted based on multiple case study of four dyad relationships between Swedish providers and customers that are actively involved in digital servitization. In total, 40 respondents from seven companies were interviewed, and data was analyzed based on thematic analysis approach to identify relevant themes and patterns. Although data collection followed an inductive approach, data aligned with the four determinants of interogranizational competitive advantage suggested by the relational view: complementary resources and capabilities, relation-specific assets, knowledge-sharing routines, and effective governance. The results of this study demonstrate that these determinants have great influence for governing relationships between the provider and customer in digital servitization. This paper provides theoretical contribution to servitization literature by highlighting the importance of relationship governance, and how this is gradually transformed as the relationship develops. This transformation is illustrated in a stepwise framework that can also guide managers in prioritizing activities and investments, and developing governance mechanisms to advance their business relationships in digital servitization context.

  • 2.
    Kamalaldin, Anmar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Linde, Lina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. University of Vaasa, Finland.
    A Relational View on Industry 4.0: Governing Relationships in Digital Servitization2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the light of industry 4.0, providers are increasingly offering their industrial customers more advanced services enabled by digital technologies such as the internet of things, remote monitoring, and artificial intelligence. This trend is referred to as digital servitization, and it is enabling significant changes in how value is created and captured in industrial relationships. In order to fully benefit from digital servitization, providers and customers need to transform their relationships. However, there is limited knowledge on how a provider and a customer govern their relationship in the context of digital servitization. To address this gap, this paper applies the relational view theory as a lens for studying how dyad relationships in digital servitization can be successfully governed and transformed. To that end, research was conducted based on multiple case study of four dyadic relationships between providers and customers. In total, 40 respondents from both sides were interviewed, and data was analyzed based on thematic analysis approach to identify relevant themes and patterns. The results identify four components – complementary digitalization capabilities, relation-specific digital assets, digitally enabled knowledge-sharing routines, and partnership governance – that enable providers and customers to profit from digital servitization. The main contribution is the development of a relational governance framework for digital servitization. In doing so, we provide contribute to the servitization literature, as we advance understanding of the central role of relationship governance in digital servitization, and provide insights into the transformation of provider-customer relationships.

  • 3.
    Reim, Wiebke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Department of Management, University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Circular Business Models for the Bio-Economy: A Review and New Directions for Future Research2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 2558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular and bio-economy represents a political and industrial initiative to ensure that our society can rely on renewable biological sources while achieving economic growth. However, there is a need to critical review how realistic and feasible such initiatives are towards fulfilling the promised benefits of this economy. The literature on bio-economy often discusses the importance of innovative business models and their role in a successful shift to a bio-economy. Still, much of the discussion that is related to circular business models is fragmented and immature. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic literature review of circular business model activities and the barriers to a bio-economy. Further, this review provides future research directions for a shift to a bio-economy. This study is based on a systematic review of 42 scientific journal articles and book chapters on a forest-based bio-economy. The business model canvas is used to provide a structured aggregation of the existing circular business models activities being used by the forestry sector. In addition, we develop a framework that describes the barriers to bio-economy-based circular business models and suggest new directions for future research. The study highlights the need for alignment among the elements of a business model as a key condition for its successful implementation in a bio-economy

  • 4.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Digitalisering som möjliggörare av avancerade tjänsteaffärsmodeller i småföretag i Norrland2019In: Entreprenörskapför en levande landsbygd: 15 texter om landsbygdsutvecklingoch entreprenörskap i Norrland / [ed] Karl Wennberg, 010 Publishers, 2019Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    • Forskning visar att många av Norrlands småföretag är högspecialiserade och kan säkerställa framtida konkurrenskraft genom att utnyttja digitalisering och omvandling av affärsmodeller.

    • Företag i alla branscher, men särskilt små och medelstora företag i perifera regioner är dåligt förberedda att dra nytta av digitaliseringens potential.

    • Beslutsfattare, branschorganisationer och akademi behöver stödja små och medelstora företag att skapa, leverera och fånga värde genom digitalisering och avancerade tjänsteaffärsmodeller.

    • Flertalet småföretag i Norrland kan komma att möta en ”digital paradox” på grund av omogenhet i att bygga digitaliseringsförmågor, samarbeta i industriella ekosystem och möta förändrade kundbehov.

  • 5.
    Sundén, Lina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Ecosystem Business Models for Smart City Platforms2019In: Ecosystem Business Models for Smart City Platforms / [ed] Bigdeli, A., Kowalkowski, C., Kindström, D., Baines, T., 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Initiative towards “smart cities”, where digital technologies enable infrastructure, companies and inhabitants to interact and co-create value are increasing as a consequence of urbanization and digitalization. Indeed emphasis on smart cities has attracted considerable attention in research during the last decade and traditional B2B companies are increasingly providing smart city offerings. In most cases this includes investing in a digital platform where companies can share data with ecosystem actors, such as municipalities, infrastructure owners and utility companies, and build new value-adding services for diverse categories of customers. However, many companies are uncertain about their new role and ability to offer new service business models that would create, deliver and capture value from the digital platform. Research so far provide limited insights in on how actors develop new business models and their relationship with ecosystem partners in the smart city context. Thus, this study builds on platform theory with the purpose to enhance understanding how firms aligns ecosystem actor roles for smart city business models through digital platform. 

     

    The research adopted an exploratory multiple case study design to capture insights from two industrial ecosystems in the housing and utility industries. To enhance understanding about how actors collaborate to develop smart city platforms, 35 semi-structured interviews were performed with different ecosystem actors, and were analysed using MAXQDA software. The preliminary findings reveal answers to questions like: what challenges are connected to smart city business models? And what value do different actors generate through digital platforms and how do they capture and distribute value? Further, we develop a framework connecting actor roles, to the design of the digital platform and associated business models contributing to the smart city. Thus, this study provides valuable insights to both academia and practitioners related to business models enabled by digital platforms in the smart city context. 

  • 6.
    Reim, Wiebke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Centre for Management of Innovation and Technology in Process Industry, Promote. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    GLOBAL IMPLEMENTATION OF CIRCULAR BUSIENSS MODELS – DECISION SUPPORT2019In: Spring Servitization Conference, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Circular business models have a huge potential to lead to economic, social and environmental benefits. But in order to archive this it is crucial to reach global implementation. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how firms can assess the potential and criteria for implementing circular business models in different global markets.

    Design/Methodology/Approach: To reach the stated purpose, we have adopted a quantitative research approach and undertaken 25 explorative interviews in three large Swedish manufacturing companies and their global service network.

    Findings: In this paper, a decision support tool to choose the appropriate circular business model for global implementation has been developed that facilitates the first steps towards circular business models implementation. It identifies eleven criteria that should be analysed to decide the appropriate circular business model.

    Originality/Value: Circular business models have not yet reached wide implementation. One reason is that they are often presented as one fits all solutions but this is not appropriate for global implementation. Therefore, the decision tree that is developed in this paper helps companies to choose the circular business model that is most appropriate for a specific product in a specific market.

  • 7.
    Sjödin, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Centre for Management of Innovation and Technology in Process Industry, Promote. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    How Firms Co-CreateValue In Digital Servitization: A Process View On Digitalization Relationships2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Digitalization is a fundamental disruptive force of Industry 4.0, which is revolutionizing the way business is conducted within industrial value chains. However, many firms are not prepared to benefit from the promise digitalization holds. A radical shift in the innovation process is required entailing increased emphasis on agility and co-creation of value through design, customization and delivery of increasingly intangible digital offerings in cooperation with their customers. Yet, literature on this topic is scarce. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how firms can co-create digital innovations with their customers to avoid the digital paradox.

    Design/Methodology/Approach: The present research is based on an empirical study of four providers and their customers in manufacturing industries.

    Findings: The results showcase the importance of aligning roles in co-creation and presents a detailed process model of ideation, development and implementation. Notably, we identify how forming dedicated joint teams at the strategic, managerial and operational levels are key to ensure appropriate cooperation and governance of co-creation engagements. We further detail how key activities for the joint teams vary over the phases of the innovation process.

    Originality/Value: This study contributes to the growing body of literature on value co-creation in digital servitization by providing an in-depth account of how value co-creation processes for leveraging digitalization unfolds between provider and customer. This study offers four contributions. First, this study shows that value co-creation require openness and resource dedication from both provider and customer. Second, results show that value co-creation processes are interdependent and both parties perspective should be considered in parallel to ensure alignment throughout the process. Third, value co-creation is best managed through an agile approach which requires continuous innovation over time especially in the delivery phase. Finally, using the value co-creation lens provides novel insights into the digital paradox and how to profit from complex digitally enabled advanced services.

  • 8.
    Sjödin, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    How Individuals Engage in the Absorption of New External Knowledge: A Process Model of Absorptive Capacity2019In: The Journal of product innovation management, ISSN 0737-6782, E-ISSN 1540-5885, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 356-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers a process model of how individuals engage in the absorption of new external knowledge. Data collection is centered on the experiences of knowledge workers in recognizing, assimilating, and applying external knowledge. The process model delineates how individuals engage in the absorptive capacity (AC) process through: (1) valuing knowledge potential by assessing the motivation to assimilate knowledge and by evaluating technological feasibility, which together constitute the recognition of value; (2) corroborating knowledge value by ensuring legitimacy and demonstrating a shared understanding of the business value in achieving knowledge assimilation; and (3) championing knowledge integration by lobbying for support and securing resources in order to integrate and apply the knowledge within the organization, ultimately ensuring that knowledge is exploited. The process model clarifies how an individual’s proficiency in external knowledge absorption activities can result in three possible outcomes: knowledge is exploited, knowledge is terminated, or knowledge gets “stuck” in limbo. These findings contribute to the AC literature by underscoring the pivotal role of individual engagements in recognition, assimilation, and application of external knowledge and add new elements and a process perspective to the understanding of the path from potential to realized AC. The paper also provides insights into how individuals and firms can better manage knowledge absorption in practice.

  • 9.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Hur individer driver kunskapsabsorption— Internainnovatörer möjliggör teknologiskiften i tillverkningsindustrin2019In: Management of Innovation and TechnologyArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Svensk tillverkande industri möter ett stort omställningstryck till följd av teknologiskiften relaterade till digitalisering, automatisering och elektrifiering. Interna innovatörer har en nyckelroll i omställningen, men möter ofta motstånd när de försöker omsätta ny extern kunskap internt. Vår forskning visar hur individer kan övervinna detta motstånd kan genom att aktivt driva kunskapsabsorption genom olika faser.  

  • 10.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Knowledge processing and ecosystem co-creation for process innovation: Managing joint knowledge processing in process innovation projects2019In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 135-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Process innovation drives industrial competitiveness and sustainability but remains elusive since it requires co-creation and the sharing of idiosyncratic design knowledge in ecosystems of providers and customers of process equipment. This paper investigates how firms can manage knowledge processing through co-creation in joint process innovation projects. Analysis of cross-comparative case studies –including nine industrial ecosystem actors – identifies three types of technological challenge (complexity, novelty and customization) that creates knowledge-processing requirements (uncertainty, equivocality) during the value co-creation process. To manage these knowledge-processing requirements, this paper explains how three joint knowledge-processing strategies (joint problem solving, open communication and end-user involvement) help ecosystem partners make sense of the requirements and demands in process innovation. In this context, the procurement approach (such as contracting and relationship development) helps to facilitate higher levels of joint knowledge processing, drawing on the diverse knowledge of ecosystem actors to secure successful process-innovation outcomes. The present study contributes to the emerging literature on co-creation in process innovation by developing a framework that highlights the knowledge-processing dynamics in ecosystem relationships for process innovation. The implications for management extends to a practical tool that guides project managers in ensuring appropriate levels of joint knowledge processing among ecosystem actors.

  • 11.
    Sjödin, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. University of Vaasa, Department of Management, Vaasa, Finland.
    Kohtamäki, Marko
    University of Vaasa, Department of Management, Vaasa, Finland.
    Relational governance strategies for advanced service provision: Multiple paths to superior financial performance in servitization2019In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 101, p. 906-915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of manufacturing companies to offer advanced services and achieve superior financial performance remains an open question in the servitization literature. One central question relates to how providers govern customer relationships to realize profits through servitization. This study addresses this question by unraveling the complex relations between advanced service provision, relational governance strategies, and the financial performance of manufacturing firms. Drawing on a dataset of 50 Swedish advanced service providers, this study uses a configurational comparative method—namely, fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA)—to identify the influence of configurations of governance conditions (i.e., service innovation, perceived switching costs, the attractiveness of alternatives, and explicit contracts) on firm performance. This study contributes through the identification of three alternative governance strategies that enable advanced service providers to benefit from service provision: 1) innovation governance strategy (high service innovation, low attractiveness of alternatives, and low use of explicit contracts); 2) relational governance strategy (high service innovation, high perceived switching costs, and low use of explicit contracts); and 3) market-based governance strategy (high service innovation, low perceived switching costs, high attractiveness of alternatives, and high use of explicit contracts). These results enrich the literature on servitization and advanced services by reflecting the need to apply diverse relational governance strategies. The results suggest multiple paths to superior financial performance.

  • 12.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Reim, Wiebke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Reviewing Literature on Digitalization, Business Model Innovation, and Sustainable Industry: Past Achievements and Future Promises2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization is revolutionizing the way business is conducted within industrial value chains through the use of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, intensive data exchange and predictive analytics. However, technological application on its own is not enough; profiting from digitalization requires business model innovation such as making the transition to advanced service business models. Yet, many research gaps remain in analyzing how industrial companies can leverage digitalization to transform their business models to achieve sustainability benefits. Specifically, challenges related to value creation, value delivery, and value capture components of business model innovation need further understanding as well as how alignment of these components drive sustainable industry initiatives. Thus, this special issue editorial attempts to take stock of the emerging research field through a literature review and providing a synthesis of special issue contributions. In doing so, we contribute by developing a framework that communicates and sets the direction for future research by linking digitalization, business model innovation, and sustainability in industrial settings.

  • 13.
    Reim, Wiebke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    Servitization of global service network actors: A contingency framework for matching challenges and strategies in service transition2019In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 104, p. 461-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Servitization is a rising trend across manufacturing companies, but it is not achievable without the corresponding transition of the manufacturers’ service network. Despite the key role of service network actors, their servitization pathways are not widely understood. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to understand how diverse service network actors approach servitization under varying conditions. Findings are derived from an exploratory case study of eight service network actors for a global construction equipment manufacturer. The analysis reveals that service network actors face major capability-(lack of service provision capabilities, lack of service provision vision) and market-related challenges (unfavorable local conditions, low customer service readiness) that hinder their transformation. The analysis also reveals four unique servitization strategies (service extension, service benchmarking, digitalization, customer co-creation) that service network actors implement. A contingency framework is proposed to explain which challenges can be matched with which servitization strategies to achieve service network servitization. 

  • 14.
    Jovanovic, Marin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Centre for Management of Innovation and Technology in Process Industry, Promote. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    The evolution of digital platforms: Exploring the interplay between digital generativity and solution value space2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how the evolution of digital platforms enable the growth of solution value space in manufacturing firms. Greater generativity of digital modules increases the value space and associated solution scope of the digital platforms. This study focuses on the evolution of digital platforms, that is, how design recombination of digital module units can facilitate manufacturers to deliver multiple advanced solutions through use recombination. Based on multiple case studies in the construction industry, the findings present the maturity model of three digital platforms for manufacturers: (1) connected product platform, (2) fleet management platform and (3) digital industrial platforms. First, connected product platform generates a service space from a single digital module as a value offer to customer. Second, fleet management platform leverages on assemblages of digital modules that enables multiple advanced solutions though use recombination. Finally, digital industrial platform extends the level of platform openness by promoting digital generativity to specialized complementors. Thus, study also sheds light on the generativity tension by helping firms to navigate the balance between promoting and constraining digital generativity.

  • 15.
    Sjödin, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Centre for Management of Innovation and Technology in Process Industry, Promote. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Jovanovic, Marin
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Visnjic, Ivanka
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Value creation and value capture alignment inthe shift to open business models2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study argues that successful shift to open business models relies on aligning value-creation and value-capture activities through interactive processes involving both provider and customer. Yet, little is known about how such processes unfold. To address these research gaps, this study examines how provider-customer relationships unfold by examining outcome-based contracts (OBC). Data from two successful and four failed OBC relationships within the manufacturing and process industry demarcates three phases in the shift to open business models - defining value potential, designing value delivery and delivering value improvements. The success or failure of each phase stems from the interplay and alignment between value creation and value capture activities specific to that phase, instead of focus on value creation in one phase and value capture in another. More precisely, the process model shows that the provider and the customer engaged in OBC relationship iterate and align between: 1) revising the value-creation logic and assessing the value-capture potential 2) formulating value-creation processes and constructing value-capture mechanisms and finally 3) enhancing value-creation activities and regulating value capture. This process model contributes to the literature streams on open business models and servitization by showing that both providers and customers needs to be actively involved in managing the dynamic interdependencies between value creation and value capturing activities in the shift to open business models and OBC.

  • 16.
    Sjödin, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Centre for Management of Innovation and Technology in Process Industry, Promote. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Cenamor, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Digital Platforms to Enable Servitization: How leading manufacturers leverage digitalization to provide advanced services2018In: Management of Innovation and Technology, ISSN 2001-208X, no 3, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish manufacturing firms are increasingly adopting pioneering digital technologies and analytics to support advanced service provision in an attempt to achieve sustainable competitive advantages. This article explains how a platform approach to digitalization can help manufacturers achieve both customization and operational efficiency in advanced service provision across global markets.

  • 17.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, ProcessIT Innovations R&D Centre.
    Kyösti, Petter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, ProcessIT Innovations R&D Centre.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ventä, Olli (Contributor)
    Savolainen, Jouni (Contributor)
    Kangas, Petteri (Contributor)
    Helaakoski, Heli (Contributor)
    Virkkunen, Riikka (Contributor)
    Muhos, Matti (Contributor)
    Taipale-Erävala, Kyllikki (Contributor)
    Parida, Vinit (Contributor)
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Sjödin, David (Contributor)
    Luleå University of Technology, Centre for Management of Innovation and Technology in Process Industry, Promote. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    European roadmap for industrial process automation2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an updated version of the ProcessIT. EU roadmap for industrial process automation, which was initially released in 2013 to provide guidance and input for process industry companies, providers of process industrial IT- and automation solutions, researchers as well as policy makers and bodies/initiatives that craft calls for RDI-projects. The main objective is for European process industry to stay competitive, profitable and sustainable. Thus, to support European process industry in its industrial process automation endeavours, the ProcessIT. EU roadmap outlines three top-level needs: sustainable production, competence management and trust, security, safety and privacy. These three top-level needs intersect the following ten R&D areas:

    • Productivity, efficiency, scalability and flexibility

    • Sustainability through circular economy - circular economy through industrial internet

    • Distributed production/modular factories and services

    • Artificial Intelligence and Big Data

    • Autonomous plants and remote operations

    • Platform economy

    • Cybersecurity

    • Safety - human, machine and environment

    • Competences and quality of work

    • Human-Machine Interfaces and Machine- to-Machine communications,

    which in turn are used as building blocks in the nine gamechangers . The gamechangers aim to influence the process industries’ competitiveness, profitability and sustainability . The gamechangers are listed below:

    • Modular factory for distributed and automated production

    • Live virtual twins of raw-materials, process and products

    • Increased information transparency between field and ERP

    • Real-time data analytics

    • Dynamic control and optimisation of output tolerances

    • Process industry as an integrated and agile part of the energy system

    • Management of critical knowledge

    • Semi-autonomous automation engineering

    • Integrated operational and cybersecurity management

    Finally, the ProcessIT. EU roadmap provides an insight into what may need to be considered on strategic and tactical levels, in terms of: objec-tives, R&D areas, game changers and business modelling, to keep and develop the competitive edge and initiative.

  • 18.
    Sundén, Lina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Exploiting digitalization opportunities  through business models: empirical insights  from leading swedish manufacturing companies2018In: Proceedings of the Spring Servitization Conference: Driving Competitiveness through Servitization / [ed] Ali Bigdeli, Thomas Frandsen, Jawwad Raja, Tim Baines, United Kingdom, 2018, p. 163-172Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To enhance understanding about the process when evaluating a digitally enabled business model opportunity. 

    Design/Methodology/Approach: This exploratory case study provides insights from workshops and interviews with 12 leading providers and customers within the Swedish manufacturing industry. 

    Findings: The novel contribution of this study is a framework for evaluating digitally enabled alternative business model opportunities. Starting from a specific customer opportunity and a corresponding alternative business model, the framework guides firms in (1) assessing opportunities, (2) analysing risks, and (3) financial modelling, to arrive at a go or no-go for exploiting digital business model opportunities. 

    Originality/Value: The study presents important insights for managers on how to handle business opportunities created by digitalization, by evaluating alternative business models. 

  • 19.
    Lenka, Sambit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. University of Vaasa, Department of Management.
    Rönnberg Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki.
    Exploring the microfoundations of servitization: How individual actions overcome organizational resistance2018In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, p. 328-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Servitization research has principally focused on the transition of organizational-level strategy, systems, capabilities, and processes for firms to be able to offer advanced services to their customers. Less is known of the underlying microfoundational dynamics of such transitions at the individual-level. Based on a multiple case study of six large multinational industrial firms engaged in servitization efforts, this paper identifies the tactics (i.e., evangelizing, bootlegging, leveraging, and collaborating) that individuals adopt to overcome organizational resistance to servitization. This study also presents the conditions that are necessary for individual employees to adopt these tactics. The present study provides theoretical and practical implications of the microfoundations of servitization, focusing attention on individual-level actions that affect the outcomes at the organizational-level to drive servitization efforts.

  • 20.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Centre for Management of Innovation and Technology in Process Industry, Promote. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Hur Företag Kan Tjäna på Digitalisering: Möjligheter, Fallgropar Och Lärdomar2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I en tid av digitalisering utmanas företagen att nyttja digitala möjligheter sprungna ur exempelvis det industriella internet of things, big data och artificiell intelligens. Den transformativa kraften i digital teknik möjliggör affärsmodells-innovation och nya sätt att skapa värden för industriföretag där tjänster och ökat kundfokus är centralt. Digitalisering exponerar emellertid företagen för betydande risk och finansiell belastning p.g.a. bristande förståelse för lämpliga affärsmodeller och organisatoriska utmaningar. I den här policysammanfattningen summeras insikter från studier av mer än 40 ledande företag (såväl leverantörer som småföretag och kunder) som engagerat sig i digital affärsmodellsinnovation. De övergripande slutsatserna presenteras i form av tre fällor och sex lärdomar för att dra nytta av digitalisering. Att lyckas med digitalisering är långt mycket mer komplext än att utveckla ny teknik. En lyckad implementering kräver samspel och förändring mellan teknik, organisatoriska processer och människor samt affärsmodeller både inom företaget och externt i ekosystemet.

  • 21.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Hur individer engagerar sig i absorption av extern kunskap: En framväxande processmodell av individuell absorptionskapacitet2018In: Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundets Årsbok THULE / [ed] Roger Jacobsson, Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska samfundet , 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel presenterar en processmodell som beskriver hur individer engagerar sig i absorptionen av extern kunskap till sin organisation. Datainsamling grundade sig på kunskapsarbetares erfarenheter av att identifiera, assimilera och exploatera extern kunskap hos tre innovativa tillverkningsföretag. Våra resultat illustrerar hur individer engagerar sig i att absorbera kunskapen genom tre faser av: (1) utvärdering av förutsättningar för assimilering, (2) försäkrande av gruppförankring och (3) möjliggörande av integration inom organisationen. Resultaten visar att om personen är motiverad för att driva idén och anser det tekniskt möjligt är han/hon mer sannolikt att försöka ansorbera och förankra det inom sin grupp. Vidare verkar styrkan i gruppförankring vara resultatet av hur väl individen kan visa affärsvärdet och säkerställa legitimitet för idén och därigenom säkerställa kunskapsassimilering. Ju starkare förankring desto större är sannolikheten för att individen tar kunskapen vidare för att integrera den på organisationsnivå, vars framgång verkar relaterad till hur väl individen lyckas lobba för stöd och att säkra resurser för att utnyttja kunskapen. Vår modell visar hur individer engagerar sig i att absorbera extern kunskap inom organisationen och hur det kan leda till tre resultat: idén exploateras, idén terminernas eller blir "fast" i limbo. Dessa resultat understryker rollen av individuellt engagemang och drivkraft för företagens absorptionsförmåga.

  • 22.
    Reim, Wiebke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Managing Risks for Product-Service Systems Provision: Introducing a Practical Decision Tool for Risk Management2018In: Facilitating Servitization: Practices and Tools for Managing Service Transition, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2018, p. 249-266Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing product-service systems (PSS) entails increased risks for manufacturing companies as they shift from transaction to relational engagements with customers and assume operational responsibilities for customers’ processes. This study proposes a PSS risk management decision tool, which enables global manufacturing companies to more proficiently manage risks to offer PSS successfully. The results are based on a case study with a Swedish manufacturing company that has long-term experience with providing PSS. The study’s main findings include identifying and proposing an interconnection between risks associated with providing PSS, possible risk responses, and decision criteria that enable decision-makers to select appropriate risk management responses.

  • 23.
    Reim, Wiebke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Mitigating adverse customer behaviour for product-service system provision: An agency theory perspective2018In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 74, p. 150-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Offering product-service systems (PSS) arguably results in economic, environmental and social benefits but also entails significant challenges related to relational dynamics between the provider and the customer. Although prior studies suggest that adverse customer behaviour during PSS provision is likely, they provide a limited theoretical understanding of the conceptualization of such relational problems and, more importantly, offer few possible ways to address these problems. By applying the lens of agency theory, this study examines PSS provider-customer relational problems and solutions. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify agency problems and propose mechanisms to mitigate adverse customer behaviour in PSS provision. Based on a multiple case study approach involving two manufacturing companies, several results are presented. First, we identify and describe two underlying reasons for adverse customer behaviour. These reasons are associated with goal differentiation and monitoring challenges. Second, different agency mechanisms (i.e. sharing, monitoring and trust) are presented as approaches to mitigate the likelihood of adverse customer behaviour. The matching of agency problems with agency mechanisms to mitigate these problems lays the groundwork for developing a framework for agency situation evaluation during the formation and ongoing phases of the PSS agreement. In addition, the choice of agency mechanism is found to be correlated with the maturity and type of customer relationship and can change over time as new customers become known and then become loyal. The proposed framework has major theoretical implications for the PSS literature as well as managerial implications for large manufacturing companies engaged in PSS provision.

  • 24.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Centre for Management of Innovation and Technology in Process Industry, Promote. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Opinion:: Så här kan industrin lyckas med omvandlingen till 4.02018In: Ny teknik, ISSN 1402-4845Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    DEBATT. Ta små utvecklingssteg i digitaliseringen, lär av andra företag och undvik att lägga allt krut på ett stort komplext system som snabbt kan vara utdaterat, skriver David R Sjödin, forskare vid Luleå tekniska universitet.

  • 25.
    Sjödin, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Luleå University of Technology, Centre for Management of Innovation and Technology in Process Industry, Promote.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Leksell, Markus
    Accenture.
    Petrovic, Alexsandar
    Deloitte.
    Smart Factory Implementation and Process Innovation: A Preliminary Maturity Model for Leveraging Digitalization in Manufacturing : Moving to smart factories presents specific challenges that can be addressed through a structured approach focused on people, processes, and technologies.2018In: Research technology management, ISSN 0895-6308, E-ISSN 1930-0166, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 22-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thedevelopment of novel digital technologies connected to the Internet of Things, alongwith advancements in artificial intelligence and automation, is enabling a newwave of manufacturing innovation. “Smart factories” will leverage industrialequipment that communicates with users and with other machines, automatedprocesses, and mechanisms to facilitate real-time communication between thefactory and the market to support dynamic adaptation and maximize efficiency. Smartfactories can yield a range of benefits, such as increased process efficiency,product quality, sustainability, and safety and decreased costs. However, companiesface immense challenges implementing smart factories, given the large-scalesystemic transformation the move requires. We use data gathered from in-depth studiesof five factories in two leading automotive manufacturers to analyze these challengesand identify the key steps needed to implement the smart factory concept. Basedon our analysis, we offer a preliminary maturity model for smart factory implementationbuilt around three overarching principles: cultivating digital people, introducingagile processes, and configuring modular technologies.

  • 26.
    Lenka, Sambit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. Department of Management, University of Vaasa.
    Rönnberg Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. Hanken School of Economics.
    Towards a multi-level servitization framework: Conceptualizing ambivalence in manufacturing firms2018In: International Journal of Operations & Production Management, ISSN 0144-3577, E-ISSN 1758-6593, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 810-827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The dominant-view within servitization literature presupposes a progressive transition from product to service orientation. In reality, however, many manufacturing firms maintain both product and service orientations throughout their servitization journey. Using the theoretical lens of organizational ambivalence, the purpose of this paper is to explore the triggers, manifestation and consequences of these conflicting orientations.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A multiple case study method was used to analyze five large manufacturing firms that were engaged in servitization. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 35 respondents across different functions within these firms.

    Findings

    Servitizing firms experience organizational ambivalence during servitization because of co-existing product and service orientations. This paper provides a framework that identifies the triggers of this ambivalence, its multi-level manifestation and its consequences. These provide implications for explaining why firms struggle to implement servitization strategies due to co-existing product and services orientations. Understanding organizational ambivalence, provides opportunity to manage related challenges and can be vital to successful servitization.

    Originality/value

    Considering the theoretical concept of ambivalence could advance the understanding of the effects and implications of conflicting orientations during servitization in manufacturing firms.

  • 27.
    Kamalaldin, Anmar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. University of Vaasa.
    Understanding Procurement Processes for Digitally Enabled Advanced Services2018In: Book of Abstracts, 7th International Conference on Business Servitization, November 22-23, 2018, Nova School of Business and Economics: Parallel session 6: Organizational Structure and Procurement / [ed] Emanuel Gomes, Miguel Pina e Cunha, Ferran Vendrell-Herrero, 2018, p. 118-124Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization or industry 4.0 holds the potential of providing many benefits to industrial companies. Industrial customers are increasingly focusing on buying digitally enabled advanced services, i.e. integrated solutions that combine products and service functions with digital capabilities. However, traditional procurement processes are not well designed for evaluating and buying digitally enabled advanced services, which inhibits value co-creation between the supplier and customer. Therefore, industrial customers need to transform their procurement processes in order to improve the potential of profiting from digitalization. We use data gathered from multiple case study of 8 large companies in Sweden to develop a procurement process for digitally enabled advanced services. The proposed process consists of 4 phases with key activities at each phase. These are based on a close interaction between the internal actors of customer organization, as well as co-creation logic between customer and supplier, leading to a win-win relationship and continuous innovation.

  • 28.
    Reim, Wiebke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Rönnberg Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Adaption of  Product-Service System (PSS) Business Model Innovations in Global Distribution Networks2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Offering product-service systems (PSS) is argued to result in significant benefits to economic, environmental and social sustainability but also entails a significant challenges related to relational dynamics between the manufacturer and the service providers belonging to the distributer network. As most large manufacturing companies operate globally, their delivery network partners also tend to be globally distributed. This adds to heterogeneity within the global distribution network, where products and services sales largely relay upon readiness and willingness of their distributers to sell PSS innovations successfully. Thus, firms must actively manage the resistance in the distributer network to adopt and implement PSS business model innovations. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how manufacturing companies can facilitate adoption of PSS business model innovations among their global distributer network. In a single case study we interviewed 23 respondents from the headquarter, regional managers and distributer network which resulted in unique insides about the challenges, needs and expectations of the different functions and how they differ from each other. The data clearly reveals that the distributer network varies significantly in terms of their readiness and ability to offer advanced services. The distributers can be classified based on the PSS business models that they are currently offer or based on certain characteristics that influence their possibility to offer advanced services (e.g. customer characteristics, market characteristics and distributer capabilities). Based on this classification and the individual challenges of the distributers, support mechanisms for managing PSS adoption in a global distributer network were identified. The mechanisms differ based on the maturity of the distributer and based on whether they support the value creation, value delivery or value capture (business model elements). The findings show that the distributers need to be treated differently based on their maturity level in order to adopt PSS successfully and that the manufacturer need to be actively involved in the development of all distributors.

  • 29.
    Cenamor, Javier
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Rönnberg Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Adopting a Platform Approach in Servitization: Leveraging the Value of Digitalization2017In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 192, p. 54-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how a platform approach facilitates the implementation of advanced service offerings in manufacturing firms. Understanding servitization through a platform approach is important because many manufacturing firms fail to manage the service paradox, that is, the challenge of simultaneously enriching the value proposition by adding services while maintaining cost levels. This study focuses on how adopting a platform approach leverages the value of digital and information technologies (e.g., smart and connected machines) for advanced service offerings. It is argued that a platform approach based on a modular architecture can enable manufacturers to pursue both customization and operational efficiency. Based on multiple case studies, the findings highlight the importance of information modules replacing product and service modules as the core modules for successful servitization. More specifically, the findings illustrates the journeys of manufacturing firms as they leverage value from information modules to facilitate the orchestrating role of back-end units and the builder role of front-end units.

  • 30.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Rönnberg Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. Luleå University of Technology, Centre for Management of Innovation and Technology in Process Industry, Promote.
    Advanced Service Business Models for Circular Economy2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Themanufacturing industry is moving from linear and material-intensive businessmodels toward a more circular economy that effectively uses available resourcesto enhance both profits and sustainability. This new circular economyemphasizes offering advanced services rather than pure goods. Transitioningfrom product to service sales provides multiple possibilities to introduce circular business models, where new forms of value can be created for providers, their customers, and other actors in the ecosystem by utilizing resources more efficiently.Companies need to develop the business models from a ecosystem perspective that involves effectively distributing responsibilities and closely integrating activitiesthroughout the ecosystem. In contrast, current business model practices are often too firm-centric and consider a single firm as a relevant unit, despite the fact that a network of ecosystem actors, such as providers, customers, service partners, and digital actors, are necessary to realize a total offer and for sustainability effects to materialize. Therefore,important questions about the distribution of activities, roles, cost- and revenue sharing, value creation and capture, and procurement are currently left unanswered. In sum, due to these problems, current methods for ecosystem business model development often fail to live up to the full sustainabilit ypotential of advanced services. Thus, we argue for need to develop and test method sfor circular or advanced service business models that is valid from an ecosystem perspective

  • 31.
    Rönnberg Sjödin, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Barriers and conditions of open operation: a customer perspective on value co-creation for integrated product-service solutions2017In: International Journal of Technology Marketing, ISSN 1741-878X, E-ISSN 1741-8798, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 90-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enabling value co-creation between provider and customer is a key requirement for successful adoption of integrated product-service offerings in a capital good industrial setting. However, little is known about the barriers and conditions explaining customers willingness to open up their internal processes for value co-creation with providers. Based on a multiple exploratory case studies with four customers and four providers within the manufacturing and process industries, this study identifies three barriers to open operation (operational cultural resistance, loss of operational know-how and risk of operational conflict) which may restrict the potential for increased value co-creation and must be managed to support the adoption of integrated solutions. In addition, we identify two key conditions related to the criticality of the operational process and the state of operational competences as strong influences for which form of open operation engagement would be favoured by customer. The study holds both theoretical and practical implications.

  • 32.
    Gama, Fabio
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Rönnberg Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Managing interorganizational technology development: Project management practices for market- and science-based partnerships2017In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 115-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms are increasingly relying on collaborating with external partners to drive technology development. Many firms struggle with managing the inherently uncertain and ambiguous technology development process, however, especially with external actors involved, because they may not have or share the same project management practices concerning coordination and control activities. To address this gap, this study examines appropriate project management practices for market- and science-partnerships in three large technology intensive firms. Our results suggest that interorganizational technology development is problematic because firms lack sufficient partner understanding and struggle with aligning their project management practices with those of their partners. To address these problems, we identify project management practices of coordination and control to fit the contingencies of each type of partner collaboration. Our results provide implications for theory and managerial practices related to managing interorganizational technology development.

  • 33.
    Gama, Fabio
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Rönnberg Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. Luleå University of Technology, Centre for Management of Innovation and Technology in Process Industry, Promote.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Open innovation in technology development: how an integrated set of project management practices can help companies to collaborate better with market- and science-based partners in technology development2017In: Management of Innovation and Technology, ISSN 2001-208X, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 5-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Kohtamäki, Marko
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Capability configurations for advanced service offerings in manufacturing firms: Using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis2016In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 11, p. 5330-5335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study contributes to the servitization literature demonstrating capability configurations that lead to successful advanced service offerings. Drawing on a data set of 131 Swedish manufacturing firms, the present study utilizes a configurational comparative method, namely fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), to identify influential capability configurations. This study identifies four capability configurations that enable advanced service offerings in manufacturing companies. The results highlight the importance of a configurational approach towards understanding service capabilities and suggest two key paths based upon service development capabilities and mass service customization capabilities that firms may follow in achieving advanced service offerings.

  • 35.
    Lenka, Sambit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Rönnberg Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Digitalization and advanced service innovation: How digitalization capabilities enable companies to co-create value with customers2016In: Management of Innovation and Technology, no 3, p. 3-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Cenamor, Javier
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Rönnberg Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Leveraging the Value of a Platform Approach for Servitization2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Patel, Pankaj C.
    Villanova University, Villanova School of Business.
    Rönnberg Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Managing Interorganizational Innovation Projects: Mitigating the Negative Effects of Equivocality Through Knowledge Search Strategies2016In: Long range planning, ISSN 0024-6301, E-ISSN 1873-1872, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 691-705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equivocality, or divergent interpretations and understandings of tasks and knowledge, has negative effects on performance because it increases conflicts and creates communication and coordination challenges in inter-organizational innovation projects. However, equivocality may also stimulate team members to discuss beliefs and interpretations in ways that provide improved understanding of knowledge and tasks. We theorize that mitigation of negative effects of equivocality on project performance is conditional on explorative or exploitative knowledge search mode. Exploitative search (increasing search depth) allows for rapid learning based on the partners' existing knowledge, but it also limits a team's ability to interpret and combine diverse knowledge. Explorative search (increasing search breadth), on the other hand, allows for novel combinations of diverse knowledge and thereby alleviates the negative effect of equivocality on performance. Based on quantitative data from 251 respondents in 52 heavy-engineering innovation projects in four multinational corporations based in Sweden and from their 29 collaborating partner firms worldwide, we find that equivocality reduces project performance, but that joint explorative search mitigates the negative effect of equivocality on project performance. However, we do not find support for the moderation effect of exploitative search on the relationship between equivocality and project performance. Theoretical and managerial contributions as well as limitations and suggestions for future research are presented

  • 38.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Managing uncertainty and equivocality in joint process development projects2016In: Journal of engineering and technology management, ISSN 0923-4748, E-ISSN 1879-1719, Vol. 39, p. 13-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Process development is key to competitiveness in process industries. However, budget overruns frequently plague process development projects which span organizational boundaries to involve both buyers and suppliers. We identify uncertainty and equivocality as key antecedents causing such negative effects, and investigate the reduction and performance implications of these two variables. An empirical survey of 52 joint process development projects show that project teams reduce uncertainty through early end-user involvement, whereas equivocality can be reduced by joint problem-solving activities among buyers and suppliers.

  • 39.
    Reim, Wiebke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Risk Management for Product-Service Systems Operation2016In: International Journal of Operations & Production Management, ISSN 0144-3577, E-ISSN 1758-6593, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 665-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The present study proposes a product-service systems (PSS) risk management decision-making framework for PSS operation, which can enable global manufacturing companies to offer PSS successfully. Thus, we aim to contribute primarily to developing the PSS literature by integrating insights from the literatures on risk management and decision making. Design/methodology/approach – This study is based on an exploratory, single case study with a Swedish manufacturing company that has long-term experience with providing PSS. In total, we conducted 25 semi-structured interviews with diverse respondents from different functional units. Findings – The study’s main findings include identifying and proposing an interconnection between the operational risks associated with providing PSS, possible risk management responses, and decision criteria, all of which enable decision makers to select an appropriate risk management response. Research limitations/implications – Our study contributes to the literature in three ways. First, we classify PSS operational risks into three categories related to delivery competence risks, technical risks, and behavioural risks. Second, we explain conditions under which each risk can be mitigated using different risk management strategies (avoidance, reduction, sharing/transfer, and retention). Finally, we combine different risk categorizations, decision criteria, and risk responses into an integrated decision framework of PSS risk management.Originality/value – Our novel contribution is developing a PSS risk management decision support framework, which holds theoretical and practical value.

  • 40.
    Lenka, Sambit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Role conflicts in R&D units undergoing pss transition2016In: IAMOT 2015: 24th International Association for Management of Technology Conference: Technology, Innovation and Management for Sustainable Growth, Proceedings / [ed] G.A. Thopil; L. Pretorius, Pretoria: Graduate School of Technology Management, University of Pretoria , 2016, p. 579-590Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent trends in manufacturing industries, is the movement of firms towards providing industrial services or product-service systems (PSS). Importance of this phenomenon has been acknowledged as imperative for strategic differentiation, maintaining competitiveness, increase profitability and be environmentally sustainable. Although a lot of studies have focussed on the benefits of PSS provision, yet very less is know about the challenges of such transition, especially at the functional unit level within an organsiation. Our study focusses on the R&D unit and the various role conflicts that emerges as the function of the unit moves from being based on legal structure to that based on collegial authotiry in the PSS transition process. In a cross-case analysis of large manufacturing companies involved in PSS transition, we identified how role conflicts occur at the organisation, unit and intra-unit levels. Our findings contribute to role conflict literature and in the context of PSS and R&D units. We also observe that role conflict operates not just at the individual member level but at various levels within the organisation and the R&D unit, which has not been observed previously. We contribute by showing that an understanding of these challenges can be the differentiating factor for successful implementation and managing transition towards PSS that have been previously neglected in PSS and R&D literature as well.

  • 41.
    Rönnberg Sjödin, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Cenamor, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Patel, Pankaj C.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Service Offerings and Financial performance: The Role of Delivery Network Management Capabilities and Digital Service Capabilities2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    The role of individuals for Absorptive capacity in Industrial R&D2016In: IAMOT 2015: 24th International Association for Management of Technology Conference: Technology, Innovation and Management for Sustainable Growth, Proceedings / [ed] G.A. Thopil; L. Pretorius, Pretoria: Graduate School of Technology Management, University of Pretoria , 2016, p. 477-487Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Absorptive capacity, conceptualized as identifying, selecting and integrating useful knowledge from the environment into commercial applications, is a key capability for any organization, team or individual. While prior literature has made substantial advancement into the performance consequences of absorptive capacity, few studies have addressed what actually constitutes ACAP on a micro level. Thus, there exists a significant gap within the literature concerning the micro-foundations of ACAP. This study attempts to fill this gap by means of multiple case studies within the R&D organizations of three multinational engineering firms. Our findings show how the micro foundations of absorptive capacity are rooted in individual skills, roles and relationships.

  • 43.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Kohtamäki, Marko
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Understanding the capability configurations for advanced service provision in manufacturing firms using fuzzy set QCA’2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Succeeding with advanced service provision presents major challenges for manufacturing companies. In particular, we lack insights into what capabilities are necessary to support the offering of a diverse portfolio of advanced services. Based on analysis of existing literature, we have identified four unique capabilities, namely digitalization capability, mass service customization capability, network management capability and service development capability, to be highly relevant and influential towards manufacturing companies’ ability to offer advanced services. Using a configurational comparative method, namely fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) on a large data set of Swedish manufacturing firms, we identify capability configurations that lead to advanced service offerings. Thus, our study contributes to existing literature by suggesting that multiple paths denoted by combinations of capabilities can ensure advanced service offerings for manufacturing companies.

  • 44.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Value co-creation process of integrated product-services: Effect of role ambiguities and relational coping strategies2016In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 56, p. 108-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-creating value is central to providing product–service solutions. The present study contributes to a better understanding of the transition process from traditional transaction-oriented roles to future co-creation roles within provider–customer relationships. Our inductive analysis of cross-comparative case studies, including eight provider–customer relationships, identifies significant role ambiguities among actors involved in this transition. In addition to identifying challenges, we explain how relational coping strategies help the partners manage the presence of role ambiguities during the value co-creation process. Notably, three types of role ambiguities (vague role expectations, unclear role descriptions and uncertain role scripts) often serve as barriers to co-creating value across different phases of the value co-creation process and require different relational response strategies (role clarification, role redefinition and role adaption) to cope with unclear expectations, responsibilities and demands. The present study contributes to the emerging literature on value co-creation by underlining the role dynamics in provider and customer relationships during the co-creation process of product–service solutions.

  • 45.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Öppen innovation i produktutvecklingsprocessen2016In: Öppen innovation: i teori och praktik, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 157-173Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På samma sätt som stängda innovationsprocesser behöver ledas och styras för att fungera effektivt, behöver öppenna innovation-sprocesser ledning och styrning. För att hantera forsknings- och utvecklingsprojekt (FoU) använder de flesta stora företag en standardmodell kallad Stage-Gate-processen. I detta kapitel undersöks hur företag kan dra nytta av att öppna upp forsknings- och utvecklingsprocessen genom att integrera öppen innovation i denna process. Med hjälp av studier av flera företags utvecklingsprocesser har vi utforskat potentiella möjligheter för att anamma principerna för både inkommande och utgående öppen innovation. Med utgångspunkt i våra resultat och tidigare teori utvecklar vi en användarorienterad arbetsmodell, kallad den öppna Stage-Gate-modellen, som kan ses som ett första steg mot att integrera principerna för öppen innovation med existerande produktutvecklingsprocesser. Modellen drar nytta av fördelarna med öppenhet samtidigt som den anammar de systematiska och strukturerade aktiviteter som Stage-Gate-processen innebär. Medan den öppna Stage-Gate-modellen tar särskild hänsyn till in- och utflöde av kunskap och teknologi genom stegvisa utvärderingar, möjliggör den också kontinuerlig utvärdering av företagens affärsmodell och kärnkompetenser. Modellen har därmed stor betydelse för hur företag fångar värdet från såväl internt som externt utnyttjande av kunskap och teknologi i allt öppnare innovationsprocesser.

  • 46.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Lenka, Sambit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Developing Global Service Innovation Capabilities2015In: Research technology management, ISSN 0895-6308, E-ISSN 1930-0166, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As multinational manufacturing companies pursue service innovation toward global markets, their back-end development units (i.e. R&D headquarters) face immense challenges due to market heterogeneity. Our extensive studies of 14 leading multinational companies in service innovation have identified, analyzed, and ranked challenges to reveal the key steps to building necessary capabilities. Based on our analysis, we explain how back-end units develop four sub-dimensions of global service innovation capabilities (service offerings, digitalization, customer insights, and integrating global knowledge) to manage their relationships with regional front-end units and subsequently drive service innovation. In developing these capabilities, the back-end units progressively learn to collaborate, integrate, and orchestrate processes and activities across and within regional front-end units, customers, and service partners from heterogeneous global markets.

  • 47.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    How and Why Individuals Contribute to Organizational Absorptive Capacity2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the organizational level absorptive capacity (ACAP) has been shown to lead to increased innovativeness, sales growth and competitive advantage. However, most studies adopt abstract firm level measures for absorptive capacity (e.g. R&D intensity) which provides little insight on how firms can work proactively to build ACAP. Therefore, recent literature calls for more in-depth research of the micro-foundations of ACAP at individual and team levels. This study seeks to contribute to such insights by focusing on the mechanisms that direct individual involvement in activities that contribute to ACAP. By means of multiple case studies with multi-national engineering firms we uncover key drivers, hinders and inhibitors toward individual contributions to absorption of new knowledge. Our results provide significant implications for literature as well as management practice.

  • 48.
    Gama, Fabio
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Managing Open Technology Development: Adapting Stage-Gate Processes to Partner Types2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms are increasingly reliant on collaborating with external partners to drive their technology development efforts in light of increasing pace of development and global competition. However, many firms struggle with managing the inherently uncertain and ambiguous process of technology development with external actors because these may not share the same technological understandings, processes and goals. Accordingly, we argue that further research is required to better understand the management of joint projects with different types of partners within technology development. To fill this gap this study examines the adaptation of traditional stage-gate processes for technology development projects with science-based and market-based partners in three large technologies oriented firms. Our results shows that open technology development projects are often problematic because firms lack partner understanding and have difficulty aligning their development processes with external partners. To address these problems we found that our firms adapted their processes by implementing externally oriented stages, gates and roles to suit the contingencies of collaboration with science-based and market-based partners respectively. Our results provide implications for theory and management practice concerning the management of open innovation and stage-gate processes.

  • 49.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Problem-Finding and Problem-Solving Challenges in Large Firms2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In open innovation processes, when partners actively transfer technology and knowledge across firm boundaries, effective and timely problem solving is the key to progress any given collaborative project. We propose that the problems a development team need to solve may be conceptualized as ambiguous, equivocal, uncertain or complex, or a combination of the four. By means of a multiple case study of new product and technology development at global manufacturing firms, we propose that efficient solution search is contingent on matching the nature of a problem with the appropriate solution search strategy. We identify four solution search strategies, so far tentatively referred to as: analytic search, interpretative search, restrictive search, and acquisition search. The article elaborates the key activities, effects and trade-offs of these strategies and provides managerial implications for improved problem solving in open and collaborative development.

  • 50.
    Lenka, Sambit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Role Conflict in R&D Units Ungergoing PSS Transition2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent trends in manufacturing industries, is the movement of firms towards providing industrial services or product-service systems (PSS). Importance of this phenomenon has been acknowledged as imperative for strategic differentiation, maintaining competitiveness, increase profitability and be environmentally sustainable. Although a lot of studies have focussed on the benefits of PSS provision, yet very less is know about the challenges of such transition, especially at the functional unit level within an organsiation. Our study focusses on the R&D unit and the various role conflicts that emerges as the function of the unit moves from being based on legal structure to that based on collegial authotiry in the PSS transtion process. In a cross-case analysis of large manufacturing comapanies involved in PSS transition, we identified how role conflicts occur at the organisation, unit and intra-unit levels. Our findings contribute to role conflcit literature and in the context of PSS and R&D units. We also observe that role conflict operates not just at the individual member level but at various levels within the orgasniation and the R&D unit, which has not been observed previously. We contribute by showing that an understanding of these challenges can be the differentiating factor for successful implementation and managing transtition towards PSS that have been previously negelected in PSS and R&D literature as well.

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