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  • 1.
    Nyström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Coagulation process characteristics and pollutant removal from urban runoff2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many different stormwater control measures (SCMs) can be implemented in order to mitigate issues with polluted stormwater flows into receiving water bodies.  The treatment function of  SCMs is commonly based on the removal of particles by sedimentation, thereby also removing pollutants associated with particles. In recent years, more attention has been given to characterizing and understanding of different particle size fractions and their association with pollutants commonly found in stormwater. It has become increasingly clear that the smaller sized particles are very important pollutant transporters and should be considered when designing and implementing SCMs. However, the settling velocities for smaller sized particles are very low and may not be effectively removed in existing SCMs. One treatment process with a proven ability to enhance sedimentation is coagulation/flocculation, widespread in water and wastewater treatment, but with very few accounts of it being used in a stormwater context. This thesis aims to investigate the treatability of stormwater with a coagulation/flocculation process. This includes the determination of operating conditions, the dominating coagulation mechanism and the reduction efficiency of stormwater related pollutants. The objectives of the thesis were achieved in laboratory tests treating stormwater in a jar-testing procedure.

    An initial screening of primary coagulants and flocculant aids was conducted using an urban snowmelt mixture. Five of the chemicals were then selected for an extended testing regime which was setup up to determine the operating conditions where maximal turbidity reduction was attained by measuring the pH, conductivity, alkalinity and zeta-potential over the tested doses for each coagulant. Criteria used for chemical selection included high turbidity reduction, low dose requirement and low pH/alkalinity impacts.

    Charge reversal was observed at positive zeta-potential indicating that the dominating coagulation mechanism was charge neutralization. The content of turbidity/total suspended solids, total organic carbon, total metals and hydrocarbons by >90%. Dissolved copper was reduced by 40% on average, and the reduction rates for dissolved zinc were varying with up to a 300% increase, presumably due to changes in pH, leading to a higher mobility. Changes in the particle size distribution after coagulation/flocculation as compared to sedimentation indicated an effect on the size fraction corresponding to smaller particles.

    The performance of the coagulation/flocculation process was also tested on road runoff collected from a central road in Luleå with a high traffic intensity. Two coagulants were tested, iron chloride and pre-hydrolyzed aluminum chloride. Reduction rates for the total metal fraction were >90% on average for both coagulants, but for the dissolved metal fractions differences could be observed between the coagulants with the iron chloride resulting in higher reductions for dissolved chrome (57% compared to 34%) and copper (47% compared to 30%). Both products increased the dissolved fractions of nickel and zinc due to lower final pH.

  • 2.
    Nyström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Treatment of road runoff by coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation2019In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 518-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A laboratory investigation of the treatment potential of a coagulation process in the context of stormwater treatment was undertaken. The initial 25 L road runoff generated from four rain events was collected and subjected to a jar-testing regime with two commercial coagulants. The treatment effect was assessed by analysing the runoff before and after treatment for turbidity, suspended solids and metal content. The coagulation process resulted in particle and total metal reduction of more than 90% compared to 40% for only sedimentation. Up to 40% reduction of dissolved Cr, Cu and Pb was also observed compared to 0% for sedimentation. This study shows that coagulation may be a useful process for stormwater treatment systems when the treatment requirements are high.

  • 3.
    Nyström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Removal of small particles from urban snow melt mixture by coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation2017In: 14th IWA/IAHR International Conference on Urban Drainage: Conference Proceedings, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This abstract presents a laboratory study of a coagulation/flocculation process on an urban snow melt mixture. Coagulation/flocculation is ubiquitous in water treatment, but has seen little use in the stormwater context. Using a jar-test procedure five different chemicals are evaluated as primary coagulants and their treatment performance on urban snow melt with respect to solids removal and metal content. Particle-size distribution measurements will indicate the process effect on different size fractions in the urban snow melt. Analysis for metal content will show the extent of metal reduction that occurs, either by separating out the particulate fraction or due to precipitation reactions.

  • 4.
    Nyström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flocculation and membrane filtration of stormwater: laboratory experiments2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Nyström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Laboratory evaluation of coagulants for treatment of urban snowmeltManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The treatment effect and process characteristics of coagulation were investigated in urban snow at laboratory scale using jar tests. An initial screening of twelve coagulants and flocculant aids was carried out to find a selection of chemicals that efficiently reduced turbidity and suspended solids. Five coagulants were then further investigated and additional parameters measured (conductivity, alkalinity and ζ-potential). The urban snowmelt mixture was characterized by high, but variable, particle content and low alkalinity. In the jar tests, high treatment efficiency (>90% reduction of both turbidity and suspended solids) was achieved for all coagulants. For very low alkalinity waters, the use of a biopolymer such as chitosan may be advantageous due to minimal alkalinity consumption. Based on the occurrence of charge reversal for all chemicals investigated, the mechanism for coagulation was likely charge neutralization. Treatment effect occurred in the ζ-potential range of -14 to +1 mV depending on the coagulant used. Initial turbidity and the ζ-potential are interesting parameter candidates for dosing control in stormwater treatment applications.

  • 6.
    Nyström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Removal of metals and hydrocarbons from urban snowmelt by coagulation and flocculationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The treatment efficiency of a coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation process was investigated in urban snowmelt. Five different coagulants were evaluated for their effectiveness in reduction of particle content, organic carbon, total and dissolved metals, hydrocarbon oil index, PAHs and if any changes occurred in the particle size distribution. The pollutants in the snow melt were mostly in the particulate phase, and for both oil index and PAHs characterized by the larger sized molecules. An iron chloride coagulant was the only coagulant that had an effect on the particle size distribution post-treatment, where the distribution was shifted towards larger particles. In terms of total metal removal, the performance for the coagulants were similar with above 90% removal on average. Dissolved Cu, was one of the metals found in the dissolved phase, and it was reduced by 40% by coagulation treatment. The iron chloride coagulant did increase the dissolved Zn, attributed to a larger drop in pH resulting in a higher ion mobility. Similarly, the reduction in organic content, both TOC/oil/PAH were above 90% for most coagulants.

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