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  • 1.
    Edskär, Ida
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Dynamic Properties of Cross-Laminated Timber and Timber Truss Building Systems2019In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 186, p. 525-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incorrect prediction of dynamic properties of tall buildings can lead to discomfort for humans. It is therefore important to understand the dynamic characteristics such as natural frequency, mode shape and damping and the influence they have on acceleration levels. The aim of this study is to compare two timber building system, one with cross laminated panels and one with post-and-beam elements with diagonals for stabilisation. Empirical formulae for predicting the natural frequency and mode shape are compared to measured and numerical results. Tall building assumptions such as ‘line-like’ behaviour and lumped mass at certain points were evaluated for both systems. The post-and-beam system showed a stiffer behaviour than the cross laminated system where more shear deformation occurred. Empirical formulae should be used with care until more data is collected.  For the post-and-beam systems an assumption of linearity may be appropriate, but for cross laminated systems the approximation can give results on the unsafe side. Finally, the relationship between stiffness and mass for cross laminated timber systems and its effect on dynamic properties needs to be further investigated.

  • 2.
    Edskär, Ida
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Modal Analysis, Dynamic Properties and Horizontal Stabilisation of Timber Buildings2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineers face new challenges as taller timber buildings are constructed. According to Eurocode 1-4, both horizontal deformations from static wind and acceleration levels shall be limited. Due to the low self-weight of wood, dynamic vibrations and acceleration levels cancause problems. The current knowledge in the field is limited and there is a need for increasing the understanding of dynamic properties in tall timber buildings. This research project has been a collaboration between Luleå Technical University and Sweco Structures AB, where the author has gained practical experience as a designer in parallel to the research studies.

    The purpose of this research is to understand and describe the dynamic behaviour of tall timber buildings using FE-simulations , studying their dynamic properties, and comparing acceleration levels to comfort criteria. By varying different parameters, dynamic properties have been studied and compared with assumptions and recommendations in Eurocode 1-4.

    In this study, buildings with cross-laminated timber panels (CLT) have been studied but also post-and-beam systems with trusses. Depending on the shape, layout and materials of the building, the dynamic properties of the building will vary: natural frequency, mode shape, modal mass, and modal stiffness. To assess the comfort of the building, the standard ISO 10137 has been used evaluating the natural frequency of the building and its peak acceleration. Simulations have been performed using finite element (FE) software where modal analyses have been performed. Over 250 simulations have been performed in this study.

    Adding mass reduces the natural frequency and the acceleration level of the building, which is an appropriate measure if the building has a frequency below 1 Hz. Increased stiffness increases the natural frequency and reduces the acceleration level, which is suitable for buildings with a natural frequency over 2 Hz.

    The empirical expression f = 46 / h should be used with caution as it is based onmeasurements of concrete and steel buildings. The recommendation is to perform FEsimulations until the empirical knowledge base is sufficient for timber buildings.

    The placement of the stabilizing system is important for creating a balanced (symmetrical) system resulting in pure translation modes. Eurocode 1-4 presupposes 2D modes in the plane while asymmetry can create diagonal and even torsional modes, which Eurocode 1-4 cannot handle. Openings and asymmetry in the floor plan affect the dynamic properties of the building. The assumption that the building can be modelled as a homogeneous beam where the mass is evenly distributed can result in an over- or underestimation of the equivalent mass, which in turn can lead to an underestimation of the acceleration level, around 20% - 30%. It is recommended that the equivalent mass is calculated from FE generated modal mass and mode shapes.

    Acceleration levels vary over the building height depending on the mode shape. Timber buildings with a slenderness <3.9 have more or less a pure shear mode and with increasing height it shifts to a linear mode. For timber buildings, it is recommended to use the generated mode shape from FE simulations, and not those prescribed in Eurocode 1-4 as these can underestimate the acceleration levels, around 30 %.

  • 3.
    Edskär, Ida
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Wind-Induced Vibrations in Timber Buildings-Parameter Study of Cross-Laminated Timber Residential Structures2017In: Structural Engineering International, ISSN 1016-8664, E-ISSN 1683-0350, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 205-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A current trend (2016) to construct high-rise timber buildings is seen. In order to understand the limitations posed by the timber material, wind-induced dynamic behaviour causing vibrations in the serviceability limit state has to be studied. The aim of this research is to calculate the natural frequency and acceleration levels of timber buildings having a cross-laminated timber structure to further the understanding of its behaviour and how a change in parameters affects building performance as reflected against comfort criteria. The results were calculated through finite element modelling using commercial software and by performing a modal analysis. The parameters under scrutiny were material stiffness, wall density, damping ratio, building height, and building footprint. The results show that even at moderate building heights (12-14 storeys), the comfort criteria are not fulfilled. Furthermore, the interaction between stiffness and mass for timber buildings needs to be explored further. And since the change of building footprint has a strong influence on the dynamic behaviour, the interplay between architectural and structural design becomes more important. Finally, more data on measurements of damping in timber buildings need to be collected to further validate simulation models.

  • 4.
    Näslund, Ida
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Engineers’ Views on Serviceability in Timber Buildings2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher timber buildings are produced around the world. The interest for higher timber buildings has increased. Design in ultimate limit state is well known, but little focus has been put on serviceability limit state especially on higher timber buildings. In this report result from interviews with structural engineers/designers, timber frame suppliers, and development managers are presented. The focus has been on serviceability limit state in mid-rise timber buildings. The experience and knowledge with the respondents varies, which has given a wide perspective of the area. Some of the outcomes are summarised here:- Stabilisation and stiffness will be an important aspect when it comes to building/designing higher timber buildings. Large deformations both in vertical and horizontal directions can be an issue due to increased weight and wind load respectively but the main focus should be on acceleration and comfort criteria.- Dynamic properties will according to several respondents be a challenge and several of them questioned how to make dynamic calculations and determine damping properties of a timber building. - Connections are a crucial link and it is important to find good solutions. In general all respondent argued that connections are the weakest link but the behaviour of the connection is difficult to predict. - Comfort criteria on timber floors has shown not to be satisfying due to human sensitivity to motion. Pilot projects have shown that stiffer floors are to recommend satisfying human comfort. - Criteria regarding horizontal deformations were pointed out as missing in Eurocode but best practice was used by several of the respondent. Some criteria regarding horizontal deformation and comfort criteria due to vibration can be found in other standards and was used by some of the respondents. Criteria can also be posed by e.g. a glass supplier. Higher timber buildings will be built and dynamic properties will be the main design focus. Analyses and measurements of the natural frequencies and the damping of existing buildings are needed to increase knowledge.

  • 5.
    Näslund, Ida
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Johnsson, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Horizontal Displacements in Medium-Rise Timber Buildings: Basic FE Modeling in Serviceability Limit State2014In: Materials and Joints in Timber Structures: Recent Developments of Technology, Dordrecht: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2014, p. 3-12Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher and larger timber buildings are built today. The building is exposed to static lateral wind loads that cause displacements that might lead to discomfort and non-function of the building. To determine the size and behavior of horizontal displacements, two timber systems has been studied, a light frame system with shear walls and a post and beam system with diagonal bracing. The stabilizing wall segments have been analyzed with a FE model and subjected to static lateral wind load and vertical dead load in serviceability limit state. Both plywood and particle board were used as sheet materials. To reduce flanking transmission Sylomer® is applied in the light frame system. The total lateral displacement varies between 4 to 125 mm in the light frame system and 2 to 5 mm in the post and beam system. Removing the Sylomer® damping material from the light-frame system would decrease the lateral displacements with 1.5-3 times, which needs to be further investigated

  • 6.
    Näslund, Ida
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stiffness of sheathing-to-framing connections in timber shear walls: In serviceability limit state2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7. Erikshammar, Jarkko
    Vad är Lean?: En personlig reflektion2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Youtube presentation om min definition av Lean.

  • 8.
    Erikshammar, Jarkko
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Näslund, Ida (Producer)
    Suppliers as a strategic asset for collaborative product development2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Populärvetenskaplig presentation av författarens LICCollaborative Product Development : a Purchasing Strategy for Small Industrialized House-building Companies.Speltid: 9 min 35 sek

  • 9. Edskär, Ida
    et al.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Dynamic Properties of Timber Buildings – the Effects of Asymmetrical LayoutManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10. Edskär, Ida
    et al.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Dynamic Properties of Timber Buildings – the Effects of OpeningsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
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