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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Assessing Digital Information Management Between Design and Production in Industrialised House-Building: A Case Study2019Ingår i: 2019 Proceedings of the 36th ISARC, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 2019, s. 340-347Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing digital information in construction is commonly described through Building Information Modelling (BIM), which advocates seamless chains of information, increased coordination between different actors and a life-cycle perspective on information management. However, low adoption outside the design phase entails that handling information in production is in many cases manual and paper-based, which increases vulnerability for upstream errors materialising downstream in production. Furthermore, issues with interoperability surround many areas when managing digital information. For industrialised house-builders, the transmitter and receiver of information are in many cases integrated within the same company or based on long-term collaboration. This affects their ability to manage information and utilise design information, which implies that their strategy for digital information management (DIM) might benefit from being addressed differently compared to more traditional BIM-based approaches. In this paper, we describe and discuss an implemented DIM-solution at an industrialised house-builder in order to address the benefits and challenges with DIM when managing information from design to production. The results imply that in order for several different functions within the company to reap benefits, a customised DIM-solution adapted after the company’s specific needs is a well-suited approach forward to avoid sacrificing functionality when utilising design information.

  • 2.
    Shadram, Farshid
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Exploring the effects of several energy efficiency measures on the embodied/operational energy trade-off: a case study of Swedish residential buildings2019Ingår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 183, s. 283-296Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The building design process is crucial in efforts to implement energy-efficient practices by adopting Energy Efficiency Measures (EEMs). However, design choices based solely on reducing operational energy use can significantly increase a building's embodied energy and Life Cycle Energy (LCE) use, because there is a trade-off between embodied and operational energy. This article presents a case study in which multi-objective optimization was used to explore the effects of various EEMs on the aforementioned trade-off. Optimal solution(s) for six different building shapes (rectangular, H-, U-, l-, T- and cross-shaped) based on two sets of EEMs were investigated and compared. The first set of EEMs consisted of EEMs that can be implemented or modified during the early design phase, such as the building's shape, orientation, Window to Wall Ratio (WWR), and constituent materials. The second set comprised EEMs that can be implemented later in the design phase (i.e. EEMs relating to the constituent materials). The LCE reductions achieved by finding optimal solutions for EEMs in the first set (ranged from 2175.2 to 3803.8 GJ) were significantly (over 5 times) higher than those achieved for the second set (ranged from 418.6 to 625.6 GJ) for all building shapes. Moreover, LCE use for pre-optimization building designs varied significantly with building shape. However, after optimization, the differences in LCE use between the optimal solutions of different building shapes were modest. This means that designers and construction companies can select building shapes based on customer requirements, but also highlights the importance of using multi-objective optimization during early design process to identify optimal combinations of EEMs that minimize LCE use.

  • 3.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Shadram, Farshid
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Multidisciplinary Optimization of Life-Cycle Energy and Cost Using a BIM-Based Master Model2019Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 286Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual design tools and methods can aid in creating decision bases, but it is a challenge to balance all the trade-offs between different disciplines in building design. Optimization methods are at hand, but the question is how to connect and coordinate the updating of the domain models of each discipline and centralize the product definition into one source instead of having several unconnected product definitions. Building information modelling (BIM) features the idea of centralizing the product definition to a BIM-model and creating interoperability between models from different domains and previous research reports on different applications in a number of fields within construction. Recent research features BIM-based optimization, but there is still a question of knowing how to design a BIM-based process using neutral file formats to enable multidisciplinary optimization of life-cycle energy and cost. This paper proposes a framework for neutral BIM-based multidisciplinary optimization. The framework consists of (1) a centralized master model, from which different discipline-specific domain models are generated and evaluated; and (2) an optimization algorithm controlling the optimization loop. Based on the proposed framework, a prototype was developed and used in a case study of a Swedish multifamily residential building to test the framework’s applicability in generating and optimizing multiple models based on the BIM-model. The prototype was developed to enhance the building’s sustainability performance by optimizing the trade-off between the building’s life-cycle energy (LCE) and life-cycle cost (LCC) when choosing material for the envelope. The results of the case study demonstrated the applicability of the framework and prototype in optimizing the trade-off between conflicting objectives, such as LCE and LCC, during the design process.

  • 4.
    Kubicki, Sebastian
    et al.
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Environmental Technology, TH Köln, Germany.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    A master model approach for design and analysis of roof trusses2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the 35th ISARC, Berlin, Germany, 2018, Vol. 35, s. 325-331Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Apartment housebuilding takes too long time and optimal solutions are seldom found. In housebuilding projects, there is an increased popularity of using virtual models for analyses of structural integrity and floor layout. However, these analyses are seldom coordinated since the models rarely are linked and the designers are not working close enough. As such, optimal designs are hard to find and time flies since even small changes turn into many iterations between design and structural analysis. General building information modeling and virtual design and construction methodologies suggest the use of interoperability and automation to bridge these gaps. There are examples of design tools that link different models using off-the-shelf tools or programming. However, most of the housebuilding companies seldom have these advanced tools or have the competence to do advanced programming. In this paper, we suggest an approach of using visual programming in a common BIM-software to explore the linking of different models. As an example, we study design of roof trusses since for many different roof shapes the same rules usually apply to the design of the truss. This project connects a BIM-software and a FEM-program with a master model. The model automatically generates a roof with the designed truss, draws the representation in a BIM-software and analyze it in a FEM-program. The early evaluations of this visual programming based approach are promising as there are possibilities to connect other domain models and create an even richer evaluation bases for early apartment housebuilding design.

  • 5.
    Shadram, Farshid
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    An Integrated BIM-based framework for the optimization of the trade-off between embodied and operational energy2018Ingår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 158, s. 1189-1205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Design choices with a unilateral focus on the reduction of operational energy for developing energy-efficient and near-zero energy building practices can increase the impact of the embodied energy, as there is a trade-off between embodied and operational energy. Multi-objective optimization approaches enable exploration of the trade-off problems to find sustainable design strategies, but there has been limited research in applying it to find optimal design solution(s) considering the embodied versus operational energy trade-off. Additionally, integration of this approach into a Building Information Modeling (BIM) for facilitating set up of the building model toward optimization and utilizing the benefits of BIM for sharing information in an interoperable and reusable manner, has been mostly overlooked. To address these issues, this paper presents a framework that supports the making of appropriate design decisions by solving the trade-off problem between embodied and operational energy through the integration of a multi-objective optimization approach with a BIM-driven design process. The applicability of the framework was tested by developing a prototype and using it in a case study of a low energy dwelling in Sweden, which showed the potential for reducing the building’s Life Cycle Energy (LCE) use by accounting for the embodied versus operational energy trade-off to find optimal design solution(s). In general, the results of the case study demonstrated that in a low energy dwelling, depending on the site location, small reductions in operational energy (i.e. 140 GJ) could result in larger increases in embodied energy (i.e. 340 GJ) and the optimization process could yield up to 108 GJ of LCE savings relative to the initial design. This energy saving was equivalent to up to 8 years of the initial design’s operational energy use for the dwelling, excluding household electricity use.

  • 6.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Byggteknik.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Byggteknik.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Byggteknik.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Hållbarhetsutvärdering av byggnader: Case Ripan i Kiruna2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbarhet innefattar flera parametrar och dessa kan mätas och värderas på många olika sätt. Att väga ihop de olika delarna för att uppnå hållbarhet genom att minimera förbrukad energi för uppvärmning och energi för att producera material till bygget samt investeringskostnader för material och kostnader för uppvärmning är fokus i denna rapport. Detta vägs samman med miljöpåverkan. En inledande studie för hållbarhetsoptimering av en mindre byggnad är genomförd med målet är att utveckla en övergripande metod för att ge bredare beslutsunderlag vid nybyggnad.

    Beräkningar av inbyggd energi, driftsenergi, investerings- och uppvärmningskostnader har genomförts för ett planerat hus på Camp Ripan i Kiruna. I beräkningen av byggnaden inkluderades klimatskärm (ytterväggar, stomstabiliserande element och grund) för två olika stommar av trä (träregelstomme och KL-trä). För miljöberäkningarna användes främst indata från EPDer och resultatet redovisas i form av klimatpåverkan, CO2-ekvivalenter.

    Den utvecklade metoden ger potential för bättre ekologisk och ekonomisk hållbarhet genom ett optimerat val av byggnadsmaterial för byggnader. Optimeringsalgoritmen ger förslag på byggnadsmaterial med minst energiåtgång vid produktion, den sk inbyggda energin, samt vid uppvärmning under driftsfasen samt lägst kostnader. Miljöaspekten vägs också in i bedömningen för att få ett mer heltäckande beslutsunderlag för beställare och projektörer. Metoden är tänkt att i fortsatta studier vidareutvecklas för användning på mer komplexa byggnader som till exempel flerbostadshus.

    Resultatet från Case Ripan visar att regelkonstruktionen har lägst inbyggd energi, driftsenergi, investeringskostnad samt kostnad för uppvärmning under driftsfasen. Även miljöpåverkan från regelkonstruktionen var låg.

  • 7.
    Jansson, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Interactive visualization for information flow in production chains: Case study industrialised house-building2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the 35th ISARC, Berlin, Germany, IAARC Publications , 2018, Vol. 35, s. 382-388Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Predefinitions in house-building platforms is developed as routines to manage project building information models over to production data by documents and digital drawings. Visualisation of the information flow in the industrialised house-building process is hard to track and information are often presented as islands, seldom described in the flow for the entire process. Interactive visualisation, using game technology, has open up for new applications of data -transformation, -visualization and -simulation of project information which is less studied in the context of industrialised house-building. This paper tries to address this issue via a combination of game engine technology and the predefined industrialised house-building process. The game engine technology allow development for end -user demands and functionality to express and visualise values for the daily planning and execution of processes. In a case study approach the development and analysis of four building projects were studied and chosen to the range of product platform predefinitions. Based on object structure for different views, models and the related metadata were visualised with an immersive virtual environment prototype. The prototype, based on game engine technology, was developed to manage incoming building projects variations that followed house-building platform predefinitions. As a visualising tool of engineering, on-site planning and production process the game engine technology simulates and visualize views on product structures, production information, assembling and operation instructions by interactive functions in the game environment.

  • 8.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Structures for supporting BIM-based automation in the design process2018Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent decades the advent of IT in the construction industry has prompted a gradual shift from manual paper-based processes to computer-aided design and production. In this shift there has been an increasing interest in the application of building information modelling (BIM) for the overall management of information throughout the lifecycle of a building. By implementing BIM and automating the workflows within, decreased time spent on engineering tasks and an increased focus on building performance could be achieved during the design process. Due to the complexity of the design process it is rare that a single BIM application can manage all the activities that are present. This puts pressure on the coupling of multiple applications, tools, and information. The challenges that this poses on interoperability and information exchange has received a wealth of attention in research however it is still argued that many of these operations require manual input. Automating parts of a BIM-based workflow is facilitated by the possibilities that exists for exchanging information and controlling the flow of information. This implies that not only do we need to understand this on a data level, but also that we understand how the system and information structures can be managed to enable this.

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate how structures could be applied on both a system and information level to support automation within a BIM-based design process, and more specifically how these structures could be used to overcome some of the challenges of information exchange. Three studies were conducted to explore different methods and their potential in achieving automated workflows. The findings of these studies were then analysed against a theoretical framework based on structures of systems and information. The results show that choosing a distributed method for structuring systems allows for the coupling of multiple software, tools, and information without the need for a single shared schema. The critical component of the distributed system structure is a middleware which is responsible for controlling the flow of information. It is the middleware that when implemented allows for the management of multiple sources of information, each with their corresponding schemas. The results also showed that information which travels between the components of the distributed system can be structured according to their relationships to provide the foundation for a mapping. This structure enables the decomposition of information that can be used to transfer information only relevant to the current activity. When applied this aids to resolve the coupling of information at each activity in an automated BIM-based workflow.

  • 9.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Structuring information from BIM: A glance at bills of materials2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the 35th ISARC, Berlin, Germany, IAARC Publications , 2018, Vol. 35, s. 362-368Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialized house-builders are moving towards an enhanced production where management of information along the value chain is critical in order to deliver housing projects on time and with the desired quality. Today digital tools and systems are used in both design and production to produce, deliver and instruct actors throughout the phases of aproject. However, the information usually exists in different islands and manual transfers are required tokeep the flow of information between IT-systems and individuals continuous. A key to improving the ability for the members in different stages of a project to work with the same information is to facilitate different views. One of the building blocks for creating bridges between the islands of information is to introduce bills of materials which can be used to organize information for different purposes. Uniting the use of building information modeling (BIM) withbills of materials (BOM) is therefore our focus in this paper. This is done in the context of industrialized house-building and the facets which it brings to the subject. The aim of this paper is to present an early endeavor into a BOM based approach for structuring information from BIM models. A demonstration tool was developed, and together with application in a case project from an industrialized house-builder, the generation of BOMs from BIM data is illustrated and discussed. The findings illustrates that we can apply different structures to the information located in our BIM models and that we can produce a BOM perspective on our products. Also, it is highlighted that we still need further studies to better understand how application of BOMs in the context of industrialized house-building is realized.

  • 10.
    Shadram, Farshid
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Schade, Jutta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Trade-off optimization of embodied versus operational carbon impact for insulation and window to wall ratio design choices: A case study2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Shadram, Farshid
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Schade, Jutta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    A BIM-Based Method for Analyzing the Trade-Off between Embodied and Operational Energy2017Ingår i: ICCREM 2016: BIM Application and Offsite Construction - Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Construction and Real Estate Management 2016 / [ed] Wang Y.,Al-Hussein M.,Shen G.Q.P.,Zhu Y., Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2017, s. 59--70Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that the operational energy and the embodied energy caused by production of building materials off-site (i.e., "cradle-to-gate" embodied energy) contribute to the major part of a building's total energy use, with roughly equal proportions. In addition, it has been reported that there is a trade-off between embodied-and operational energy which is mainly due to the use of additional materials with higher embodied energy and utilization of new appliances for construction of the building (or building of interest). Hence, application of sustainable strategies in early stages of the design phase, which enables evaluation of different design scenarios in terms of materials and systems, can provide a great scope to launch an optimization in the trade-off between embodied-versus operational energy. With respect to early stages of the design phase, Building information modeling (BIM) has become an applicable platform where its recent developments can provide interoperability with energy performance simulation (EPS) tools that enable assessment of the operational energy. However, existing BIM software generally lacks interoperability with conventional life cycle assessment (LCA) tools that are the main means for assessment of the embodied energy. Consequently, embodied energy assessment is often performed when the design has either been accomplished or developed to a relatively detailed level where there is less scope to investigate different design decisions for analyzing the trade-off between embodied-and operational energy. To overcome this obstacle, this paper presents a BIM-based method which strives to reduce the building's life cycle energy (LCE) use by accounting the trade-off between embodied-and operational energy at early stages of the design phase. The method is then exemplified by using an energy-efficient building case, demonstrating the applicability of the method in reducing the building's total energy use and also highlighting the areas where further development is required to address in future research

  • 12.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Holmberg, Anton
    Veidekke Entreprenad AB.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Approach for Automated Planning Using 5D-BIM2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 33rd CIB W78 Conference 2016, Oct. 31st-Nov. 2nd 2016, Brisbane, Australia, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Early planning decisions are usually dependent on time-demanding, manually produced cost estimations and schedules. There is a trend in the construction industry to use 5D-BIM to speed up these processes and automated approaches can be used to further improve effectiveness. This research aims to investigate how to create an automated 5D-BIM planning process when using industrialized building systems. We propose an approach that combines a BIM manual with predefined databases based on the building system and its properties. A case study at one of Scandinavia’s largest construction and property development companies was conducted where the presented approach was tested. The findings show that planning using 5D-BIM is possible to partially automate through our approach but that there are challenges for a fully automated process in the standardization required and assuring that the quality of data in each step is adequate.

  • 13.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Gerth, Robert
    Design Evolution Scandinavia AB.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Design automation in construction: An overview2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 33rd CIB W78 Conference 2016, Oct. 31st – Nov. 2nd 2016, Brisbane, Australia, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the construction industry continues its digital journey the applications within design automation is growing, making development processes less time-demanding and more organized. Design automation applications can show design impact on e.g. cost, equipment availability, staff capabilities and buildability. It can also facilitate reuse of successful solutions instead of reinventing the wheel for every project. Thanks to automation it becomes easier to generate several solutions and trying different what-if-conditions. The field has many different approaches but an overview for construction where the connections between the different approaches are indicated is needed. The purpose of this paper is to describe our view of how the design automation fields of building information modelling, master models,  nowledge-based engineering, configuration, modularization, platforms and simulation are  onnected and to provide input to the design automation discussion in construction. Each of  hese areas are introduced and then they are analyzed in relation to each other and presented as an overview. These results will serve as a base for future studies.

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