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  • 1.
    Paniagua, Cristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Efficient Device-to-Device Service Invocation Using Arrowhead Orchestration2020In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 429-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) enables interaction from real-world physical objects using sensors to the virtual world of computers and the Internet. The use of service-oriented architecture (SOA) is one step in the creation of basic and complex interactions between several sensors and actuators. However, the use of SOA-enabled technologies alone does not meet all requirements of how sensor and actuator systems could be integrated to create distributed monitoring and control applications. The centralized, traditional method of communication in wireless sensor networks via a gateway presents drawbacks that have to be addressed; device-to-cloud communication adds higher latency and higher power consumption and is less robust than the device-to-device (D2D) communication approach. Moreover, all these characteristics reduce the scalability of the network, thus limiting the use of IoT in the industry. In this article, the proposed method utilizes the arrowhead framework orchestration system to generate service composition within a (wireless) network formed by IoT devices. The aim is to achieve efficient D2D service invocation to reduce the drawbacks of today's widely used device-to-cloud approach. The method in this article performs efficient service composition for industrial IoT, including mapping SOA service composition in very small resource-constrained devices using the arrowhead orchestration. The results presented in this article at the service level can increase performance and robustness in fog computing on resource-constrained devices.

  • 2.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    System of System Composition based on Decentralized Service Oriented Architecture2019In: IEEE Systems Journal, ISSN 1932-8184, E-ISSN 1937-9234, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 3675-3686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As society has progressed through periods of evolution and revolution, technology has played a key role as an enabler. In the same manner, mechanical machines of the 1800s drove the industrial revolution, now digitalized machines are driving another industrial revolution. Manufacturers are increasing the digital footprint on the factory floor. It is challenging to harness the vast amounts of data generated, stored, analyzed, archived, and returned. Data centralization has several well-known challenges, such as collection bottlenecks, secure retrieval, single point of failure, and data scheme fragility as data heterogeneity increases. This paper proposes a method of information distribution based on the principle of data at its source . It proposes that contextual data be used at runtime through the creation of dynamic queries that build compositions of different systems. Such system of systems (SoS) compositions handle the flow of data across its life cycle and present it as information to the initiating system. The proposal starts by creating a graph model of the Arrowhead framework. Then, building on the graph model, the query-based approach for specifying, validating, and forming the SoS is proposed. The proposed graph model allows for unambiguous description of systems and their interrelations, including security relations. The proposed composer operates on the edge computing hardware and gives the production floor the ability to extract information without impacting the overall operation of the factory.

  • 3.
    Kohlbacher, Anton
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Acres, Kevin
    Monash Swarm Robotics Laboratory, Monash University.
    Chung, Hoam
    Monash Swarm Robotics Laboratory, Monash University.
    Barca, Jan Carlo
    Monash Swarm Robotics Laboratory, Monash University.
    A Low Cost Omnidirectional Relative Localization Sensor for Swarm Applications2018In: IEEE 4th World Forum on Internet of Things, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, p. 694-699Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By enabling coordinated task execution and movement, robotic swarms can achieve efficient exploration of unknown environments. In this paper, we propose a relative localization sensor system using Ultra-wideband (UWB) radio technology for ranging. This system is light-weight and relatively indifferent to the types of surrounding environments. Infrastructure dependency such as the requirement of beacons at known locations is eliminated by making an array of sensors on a swarm agent. In this paper, a novel algorithm is implemented on hardware with limited resources and compared to a more traditional trilateration approach. Both utilize Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to be more robust against noise and to achieve similar accuracy. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm runs up to ten times faster than the existing trilateration approach. The sensor array which forms the localization system weighs only 56g, and achieves around 0.5m RMSE with a 10Hz update rate. Experiments show that the accuracy can be further improved if the rotational bias observed in the UWB devices are compensated for.

  • 4.
    Kolluru, Katyayani Kiranmayee
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Paniagua, Cristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    DeLong, Rance J.
    The Open Group, Apex Plaza, Forbury Road, Reading, Berkshir.
    An AAA Solution for Securing Industrial IoT Devices using Next Generation Access Control2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 is advancing the use of Internet of Things (IoT) devices in industrial applications, which enablesefficient device-to-device (D2D) communication. However, these devices are often heterogeneous in nature, i.e. from different manufacturers, use different protocols, etc. and adds requirements such as security, interoperability, etc.To address these requirements, the Service-Oriented Architecture-Based (SOA) Arrowhead Framework was previously proposed using the concept of local clouds. These local clouds provide a set of mandatory and support core systems to enable industrial automation applications. One of these mandatory core systems is an Authentication, Authorisationand Accounting (AAA) system, which is used to authenticate and provide access control to the devices in a local cloud. In an industrial context, with multiple stakeholders, the AAA mustsupport fine-grain access control. For example, in a distributed control loop, a controller should only have read access to its sensor such as a flow meter and write access to its actuator, such as a valve. The controller should not have access to anyother information besides what is needed to implement the desired functionality. In this work, an NGAC-based AAA solution to achieve fine-grain service level access control between IoT devices has been proposed and implemented. The solution is presented using a district heating use case.

  • 5.
    Bicaku, Ani
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab. University of Applied Sciences Burgenland, Eisenstadt.
    Maksuti, Silia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab. University of Applied Sciences Burgenland.
    Hegedűs, Csaba
    AITIA International Inc., Budapest.
    Tauber, Markus G.
    University of Applied Sciences Burgenland, Eisenstad.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Interacting with the arrowhead local cloud: On-boarding procedure2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial automation systems are advancing rapidly and a wide range of standards, communication protocols and platforms supporting the integration of devices are introduced. It is therefore necessary to design and build appropriate tools and frameworks that allow the integration of devices with multiple systems and services. In this work we present the Arrow-head Framework, used to enable collaborative IoT automation and introduce two support core systems, SystemRegistry and DeviceRegistry, which are needed to create a chain of trust from a hardware device to a software system and its associated services. Furthermore, we propose an on-boarding procedure of a new device interacting with the Arrowhead local cloud. This ensures that only valid and authorized devices can host software systems within an Arrowhead local cloud.

  • 6.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Volvo Trucks Corporation, Gothenberg.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Workflow management for edge driven manufacturing systems2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fourth industrial revolution is one of digitization. As manufacturers build more digital equipment into their process harnessing the potential becomes a challenge. ISA 95 based manufacturers rely on top down decision making, with redundant flow of information in order to organize Workflows on the factory floor. With advances in edge computing and smart objects, more decision are made at lower levels of the infrastructure hierarchy. However, how can the MES tracking and execution functions be decentralized while maintain an organized collaboration of smart objects? This paper proposes a Cyber Physical Service Oriented System of Systems operating on edge computing. There are three systems proposed here; Smart Product, Workflow Manager and Workflow Executor. These systems operate within Arrowhead Local Clouds and create a fully autonomous set of system to complete a production order. Planning, Supply chain and Quality of Service monitoring are out of scope and remain as centralized activities. The Smart Product is the core Cyber Physical System that must be context-aware in order to pass the correct Workflow information to the Workflow System responsible for current activities.

  • 7.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Albano, Michele
    ISEP, Polytechnic Institute of Porto.
    Varga, Pal
    AITIA Inc.
    Ferreira, Luis
    ISEP, Polytechnic Institute of Porto.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Hegedűs, Csaba
    AITIA Inc.
    Puñal Pereira, Pablo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Carlsson, Oscar
    Midroc Electro AB, Stockholm.
    Arrowhead Framework core systems and services2017In: IoT Automation: Arrowhead Framework / [ed] Jerker Delsing, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press , 2017, , p. 366p. 89-138Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    In-network Processing for Context-Aware SOA-based Manufacturing Systems2017In: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, , p. 6p. 3460-3465Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve flexible manufacturing, increasingly largeamounts of data are being generated, stored, analyzed, archivedand eventually fed back into the product life cycle. But whereis this data stored and how is it transported? Current methodsrely on centralized or federated databases to manage the datastorage. This approach has several challenges, such as collectionbottlenecks, secure retrieval, single point of failure and dataschemefragility as data heterogeneity increases. Additionally,manufacturers are finding the need to open their networks forservice based equipment suppliers. This means previous securityassumptions regarding network encryption and informationaccess-control must be re-evaluated.Proposed here is a method of in-network processing thatgathers information only where and when it is needed. Systemsbuild context at runtime by creating dynamic queries whichmake service composition. The service composition processes rawdata and presents it as information to the calling system. Thisreduces the movement of data/information and removes singlepoint collection bottlenecks. Furthermore, fine grained accesscontrol and shared trust can be granted between untrustedsystems. The proposed methods are demonstrated on a lab setupof an industrial use case.

  • 9.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    IoT Interoperability: On-demand and low latency Transparent Multi-protocol Translator2017In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 1754-1763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Industrial Internet of Things there is a clear need for a high level of interoperability between independently developedsystems, often from different vendors. Traditional methods of interoperability including protocol gateways and adapters, are often usedat the network layer. Recent work on application interoperability has emphasized the use of middleware or protocol proxy/gateway.However, middleware tends to move the interoperability problem rather than solving it, and there are scalability issues with increasingthe number of proxies; re-configuration effort, and required bandwidth and processing overheads.This paper proposes a secure, on-demand and transparent protocol translator for the Industrial Internet of Things. Targeting thechallenge of interoperability between IP-based communication protocols, the paper analyses current solutions and develops a set ofrequirements to be met by IoT protocol interoperability. The proposed protocol translator is not a middleware, it is a SOA-basedparticipant, it is used on-demand when needed, it does not introduce design time dependencies, it operates transparently, it supportslow-latency, and it is secured through the use of Arrowhead authorization and authentication.

  • 10.
    Varga, Pal
    et al.
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
    Blomstedt, Fredrik
    BNearIT Inc., Lulea.
    Ferreira, Luis Lino
    ISEP, Polytechnic of Porto – School of Engineering.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Johansson, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Martínez de Soria, Iker
    Tecnalia Research and Innovation, Bilbao.
    Making system of systems interoperable: The core components of the arrowhead framework2017In: Journal of Network and Computer Applications, ISSN 1084-8045, E-ISSN 1095-8592, Vol. 81, p. 85-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the Arrowhead Framework is to efficiently support the development, deployment and operation of interconnected, cooperative systems. It is based on the Service Oriented Architecture philosophy. The building elements of the framework are systems that provide and consume services, and cooperate as systems of systems. Some commonly used systems, such as orchestration, authorization or service registry are considered as core. These can be used by any system of systems that follow the guidelines of the Arrowhead Framework.

    Within the framework, systems – using different information exchange technologies during collaboration – are helped through various approaches. These include the so-called Interoperability Layer, as well as systems and services for translation. Furthermore, one of the main problems of developing such highly interoperable systems is the lack of understanding between various development groups. Adequate development and service documentation methodologies can help to overcome this issue.

    The design, development and verification methodology for each service, system and system of systems within the Arrowhead Framework supports that these can be implemented, verified, deployed, and run in an interoperable way. This paper presents an overview of the framework together with its core elements – and provides guidelines for the design and deployment of interoperable, Arrowhead-compliant cooperative systems.

  • 11.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Rönnholm, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Deventer, Jan van
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Protocol interoperability of OPC UA in ServiceOriented Architectures2017In: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 44-50, article id 8104744Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract—Industrial Internet of Things covers all aspects ofnetworked intelligent manufacturing systems. This means coveringa wide array of application domains and user requirements.In such scenarios it is not feasible to define a single protocol forall situations. Hence, a multi-protocol approach is required. OPCUA has strong backing from Industry 4.0 as the protocol for theIndustrial Internet of Things. Interoperability of OPC UA hasbeen investigated in the context of migration from legacy andwith protocols such as DPWS. Additionally HTTP and CoAPhave been investigated as possible transport mediums.However, OPC UA interoperability has not been investigatedwithin a multi-protocol settings and no generic protocol translationexists. This paper proposes an OPC UA translator followingthe service translator model proposed in the Arrowhead project.Utilizing a mapping to intermediate format, it can be used alongside CoAP, HTTP and MQTT protocols.

  • 12.
    Ramirez, B.
    et al.
    Faculty of Information Technology, Monash University.
    Chung, Hoam
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Barca, Jan Carlo
    Faculty of Information Technology, Monash University.
    Relative localization with computer vision and UWB range for flying robot formation control2017In: 2016 14th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, ICARCV 2016, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, article id 7838839Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relative localization is a core problem for swarm robotics since each swarm node must determine where neighboring robots are located to accomplish cooperative tasks such as formation control. In this paper we present a system that performs relative localization between a stationary marker and a flying robot in real-time. Relative distances are obtained using ultra-wide band radio, while a low-cost webcam provide angle measurements. To achieve the latter, we employed the Camshift algorithm and a Kalman filter. We tested our system outdoors during daylight using centimeter-accuracy GPS measurements as ground truth. Three data sets have been collected from a series of experiments and it shows that errors in estimated relative positions are between +/-0.190 m on the x-East axis and +/-0.291 m on the z-North axis at 95% confidence level

  • 13.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Varga, Pal
    AITIA Inc.
    Ferreira, Luis
    ISEP, Polytechnic Institute of Porto.
    Albano, Michele
    ISEP, Polytechnic Institute of Porto.
    Puñal Pereira, Pablo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Carlsson, Oscar
    Midroc Electro AB, Stockholm.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    The Arrowhead Framework architecture2017In: IoT Automation: Arrowhead Framework / [ed] Jerker Delsing, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press , 2017, , p. 366p. 43-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Johansson, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Löfqvist, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Concepts and Architecture for a Thumb-Sized Smart IoT Ultrasound Measurement System2016In: IEEE Ultrasonic Symposium 2016, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE conference proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the technology concepts for a “thumb”-sized self-contained ultrasonic IoT measurement sys- tem. An overall architecture is proposed, and key elements are discussed with solutions using existing technology, thus arguing that realization is possible with the current technology.

    Such an ultrasonic IoT measurement system is constrained by its size and available energy, although it requires at least decent computational and communication resources. Because streaming data from such a device is not advisable from an energy viewpoint, there is a need for resource efficient (energy, memory and computational power) data analysis.

    An architecture with the following parts as well as some implementation details and performance data are proposed here:

    • Energy supply, battery and super capacitor

    • Transducer excitation achieving almost zero electrical losses

    • Event detection sensor interface

    • Data aggregation using sparse approximation and learned

      feature dictionaries, adapted to resource constrained em-

      bedded systems

    • IoT communication protocols and implementations enabling

      event -based communication and System of Systems integra- tion capabilities

      The optimization of system level performance requires each subsystem to be optimized for the specific measurement situation taking into account the subsystem interdependencies. This can be performed using a combined electrical and acoustical model of the system. Here, the model allowing electronic and acoustic co-simulation using SPICE is an important tool bridging the electronic and acoustic domains. 

  • 15.
    Carlsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Midroc Automation AB.
    Puñal Pereira, Pablo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ahmad, Bilal
    Automation Systems Group, WMG, the University of Warwick Coventry, United Kingdom.
    Harrison, Robert
    Automation Systems Group, WMG, the University of Warwick Coventry, United Kingdom.
    Jansson, Ove
    Abelko Innovation.
    Configuration Service in Cloud based Automation Systems2016In: IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 5238-5245, article id 7793489Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current challenges in production automation requires the involvement of new technologies like Internet of Things (IoT), Systems of Systems and local automation clouds. The objective of this paper is to address one of the challenges involved in establishing and managing a cloud based automation system. Three key capabilities have been identified as required to create the expected benefits of local automation clouds; 1) capturing of plant design 2) capturing and distributing configuration and deployment information 3) coordinating information exchange.

    This paper addresses the capturing and distribution of configuration and deployment information. For this purpose a system service is proposed, the ConfigurationStore, following the principles of the Arrowhead Framework. The service is accompanied by a deployment methodology and a bootstrapping procedure. These are discussed for several types of automation technology, e.g. controllers, sensors, actuators. A qualitative evaluation of the proposed approach is made for four use cases; Building automation, Manufacturing automation, Process automation and IoT devices. Concluding the usability for large-scale deployment and configuration of Industrial Internet of Things.

  • 16.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Varga, Pal
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Dept. of Telecommunications and Media Informatics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Enabling IoT automation using local clouds2016In: Proceedings IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, 2016, p. 501-507, article id 7845474Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various forms of cloud computing principles and technologies are becoming important recently. This paper ad- dresses cloud computing for automation and control applications. It’s argued that the open Internet cloud idea has such limitations that its not appropriate for automation.

    Since automation is physically and geographically local, it is inevitable to introduce the concept of local automation clouds. It’s here proposed that local automation clouds should be self contained an be able to execute the intended automation func- tionalities without any external resources. Thus providing a fence at the rim of the local cloud preventing any inbound or outbound communication. Such a local cloud provides possibilities to address key requirements of both todays and future automation solutions. Adding mechanisms for secure inter-cloud administra- tion and data tranfere enables local automation cloud to meet IoT automation system requirements as: 1) Interoperability of a wide range of IoT and legacy devices 2) Automation requirement on latency guarantee/prediction for communication and control computations. 3) Scalability of automation systems enabling very large integrated automation systems 4) Security and related safety of automation systems 5) Ease of application engineering 6) Multi stakeholder integration and operations agility.

    How these requirements can be met in such a local automation cloud is discussed with references to proposed solutions. The local automation cloud concept is further verified for a compartment climate control application. The control application included an IoT controller, four IoT sensors and actuators, and a physical layer communication gateway. The gateway acted as host for local cloud core functionalities. The climate control application has successfully been implemented using the open source Arrowhead Framework and its supports for design and implementation of self contained local automation clouds.

  • 17.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Orchestration of Arrowhead services using IEC 61499: Distributed Automation Case Study2016In: Proceedings of 2016 IEEE 20th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2016), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, article id 7733650Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel approach to automationof flexible manufacturing systems with mechatronic intelligenceand distributed control. The mechatronic intelligence layer isimplemented using a combination of wireless sensor/actuatornetworks with service-oriented architecture, where services arelocated at the device level, as well as in local and global Cloudsfollowing the Arrowhead framework.The machine/floor level coordination is implemented using thedistributed automation architecture of IEC 61499, which is alsoused as a graphical tool for orchestration of services.The paper discusses the enablers developed in-order to combineIEC 61499 and Arrowhead and the use is illustrated ona laboratory scale flexible factory example. By integration ofIndustrial IoT with IEC 61499, we envision that large gains interms of engineering effort and system operation performancecan be made.

  • 18.
    Charlier, Maximilien
    et al.
    Computer Science Department, University of Mons.
    Quoitin, Bruno
    Computer Science Department, University of Mons.
    Bette, Sebastien
    Engineering Faculty, University of Mons.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Support for IEEE 802.15.4 Ultra Wideband Communications in the Contiki Operating System2016In: IEEE Symposium on Communications and Vehicular Technology in the Benelux (SCVT), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, article id 7797662Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of UWB for Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) applications benefits from the following four main properties; 1) scalability due to the inherent short transmissions times of the UWB radio, 2) bandwidth-consuming applications such as condition monitoring with vibration sensing, 3) applications with real-time positioning (RTLS) requirements, and 4) wireless communication in electromagnetically harsh environments with a high level of multipath fading. In this paper, we present a UWB-based 6LoWPAN implementation in the Contiki OS as a step towards incorporating UWB in the industrial IoT domain.

  • 19.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Priller, Peter
    AVL List GmbH, Graz.
    A survey of commercial frameworks for the Internet of Things2015In: Proceedings of 2015 IEEE 20th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2015): Luxembourg, 8-11 Sept. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, article id 7301661Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011 Ericsson and Cisco estimated 50 billion Internet connected devices by 2020, encouraged by this industry is developing application frameworks to scale the Internet of Things. This paper presents a survey of commercial frameworks and platforms designed for developing and running Internet of Things applications. The survey covers frameworks supported by big players in the software and electronics industries. The frameworks are evaluated against criteria such as architectural approach, industry support, standards based protocols and interoperability, security, hardware requirements, governance and support for rapid application development. There is a multitude of frameworks available and here a total 17 frameworks and platforms are considered. The intention of this paper is to present recent developments in commercial IoT frameworks and furthermore, identify trends in the current design of frameworks for the Internet of Things; enabling massively connected cyber physical systems.

  • 20.
    Punal, Pablo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    An Authentication and Access Control Framework for CoAP-based Internet of Things2015In: IECON 2014: 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Dallas, TX, USA , Oct. 29 2014 - Nov. 1 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, p. 5293-5299Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-physical Systems (CPS) are two very hot research topics today, and more and more products are starting to appear on the market. Research has shown that the use of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can enable distributed application and devices to device com- munication, even on very resource constrained devices, and thus play an important role for IoT and CPS.In order to realize the vision of Internet of Things, communica- tion between devices must be secured. Security mechanisms for resource constrained devices has attracted much interest from the academic community, where research groups have shown solutions like IPsec, VPN-tunnels, (D)TLS, etc. are feasible to use on this type of networks. However, even though the use of well- known security mechanisms are vital for SOA-based IoT/CPS networks and systems to be protected, they do not provide any fine-grain access control.In this paper, a CoAP-based framework for service-level access control on low-power devices is presented. The framework allows fine grain access control on a per service and method basis. For example, by using this approach a device can allow read/write access to its services to one group of users while only allowing read access to another group. Users without the right credentials are not even allowed to discover available services. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach, several implementations are presented together with test results.The aim is to provide a holistic framework for secure SOA- based low power networks comprise by resource constrain devices.

  • 21.
    Blomstedt, Fredrik
    et al.
    BnearIT.
    Ferreira, Luis Lino
    Klisics, Markus
    BnearIT.
    Christos, Chrysoulas
    University of Porto.
    Soria, Iker Martinez de
    Tecnalia.
    Morin, Brice
    SINTEF.
    Zabasta, Anatolijs
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Johansson, Mats
    LTU.
    Varga, Pal
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
    The Arrowhead Approach for SOA Application Development and Documentation2015In: IECON 2014: 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Dallas, TX, USA , Oct. 29 2014 - Nov. 1 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, p. 2631-2637Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arrowhead project aims to address the technical and applicative issues associated with cooperative automation based on Service Oriented Architectures. The problems of developing such kind of systems are mainly due to the lack of adequate development and service documentation methodologies, which would ease the burden of reusing services on different applications. The Arrowhead project proposes a technical framework to efficiently support the development of such systems, which includes several tools for documentation of services and to support the development of SOA-based installations. The work presented in this paper describes the approach which has been developed for the first generation pilots to support the documentation of their structural services. Each service, system and system- of-systems within the Arrowhead Framework must be documented and described in such way that it can be implemented, tested and deployed in an interoperable way. This paper presents the first steps of realizing the Arrowheadvision for interoperable services, systems and systems-of-systems.

  • 22.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Punal, Pablo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Gebart, Joakim
    Eistec AB.
    The IoT Rockbolt2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of rock bolts in the mining industry is a widely used approach for increasing mine stability. Here we demonstrate an IoT rockbolt with strain and accelerometer sensors. By utilizing the real-time monitoring capabilities of a network of IoT rockbolts, open up for drastically improve monitoring of mining activities and thereby providing real time logistics and operational information while at the same time provide working safety information.

  • 23.
    Eliasson, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Salčič, Zoran A.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Wang, Kevin
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Towards Industrial Internet of Things: An Efficient and Interoperable Communication Framework2015In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, ICIT 2015: Seville, Spain, 17-19 Mars 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, p. 2198-2204Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interoperability between shop floor devices and upper layer systems is a key challenge for enabling Internet of Things in industrial applications. Standardized protocols such as IPv6, CoAP, and XML can be used to address this issue. Widely used XML-based technologies such as SenML, EEML, OPC-UA as well as others rely on XML to be able to support a wide range of sensor and actuator applications. However, this approach results in high communication overhead due to the verbose nature of plain text messages encoded in XML. When devices are communicating using 6LoWPAN over IEEE 802.15.4, it is important to keep the messages small enough to fit into one MAC-layer frame to avoid fragmentation and hence conserving bandwidth and transmission energy. One possible solution is to integrate differential binary delta-encoding with a service-based framework based on CoAP, SenML and EXI. The proposed efficient communication approach for service-based architecture can compress a series of events up to 90-95%. The proposed framework is a holistic approach for enabling distributed monitoring and control applications and a move towards realizing the vision of Services of Things.

  • 24.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Varga, Pal
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
    Punal, Pablo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Translation Error Handling for Multi-Protocol SOA Systems2015In: Proceedings of 2015 IEEE 20th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2015): Luxembourg, 8-11 Sept. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, article id 7301473Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IoT research area has evolved to incorporate aplethora of messaging protocol standards, both existing and new,emerging as preferred communications means. The variety ofprotocols and technologies enable IoT to be used in manyapplication scenarios. However, the use of incompatiblecommunication protocols also creates vertical silos and reducesinteroperability between vendors and technology platformproviders. In many applications, it is important that maximuminteroperability is enabled. This can be for reasons such asefficiency, security, end-to-end communication requirements etc.In terms of error handling each protocol has its own methods,but there is a gap for bridging the errors across protocols.Centralized software bus and integrated protocol agents are usedfor integrating different communications protocols.However, the aforementioned approaches do not fit well in allIndustrial IoT application scenarios. This paper thereforeinvestigates error handling challenges for a multi-protocol SOAbasedtranslator. A proof of concept implementation is presentedbased on MQTT and CoAP. Experimental results show thatmulti-protocol error handling is possible and furthermore anumber of areas that need more investigation have beenidentified.

  • 25.
    Sadrollah, Ghazaleh Pour
    et al.
    Monash Swarm Robotics Laboratory, Faculty of Information Technology, Monash University.
    Barca, Jan Carlo
    Monash Swarm Robotics Laboratory, Faculty of Information Technology, Monash University.
    Khan, Asad
    Monash Swarm Robotics Laboratory, Faculty of Information Technology, Monash University.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Senthooran, Ilankaikone
    Monash Swarm Robotics Laboratory, Faculty of Information Technology, Monash University.
    A Distributed Framework for Supporting 3D Swarming Applications2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-flight wireless sensor networks (WSN) are ofincreased interest owing to efficiency gains in weight and operationallifetime of IP-enabled computers. High impact 3Dswarming applications for such systems include autonomousmapping, surveying, servicing, environmental monitoring anddisaster site management. For distributed robotic applications,such as quad copter swarms, it is critical that the robots are ableto localise themselves autonomously with respect to other robotsand to share information. The importance of fast and reliabledissemination of localised information in these elastic threedimensionalnetworks provides us sufficient reason to presenta distributed framework and hardware settings for passing thisinformation pervasively through the swarm. The research field ofInternet of Things (IoT) have for several years been addressingissues around low-power, low-bandwidth wireless communication.By applying IoT technologies to the challenges around swarming,new opportunities are created. However, since IoT have beenprimarily used with stationary devices, the introduction of flyingsensors will add more challenges to address.

  • 26.
    Eliasson, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Punal, Pablo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Mäkitaavola, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Nilsson, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Gebart, Joakim
    Eistec AB.
    A Feasibility Study of SOA-enabled Networked Rock Bolts2014In: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, p. 1-8, article id 7005072Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of rock bolts in the mining industry is a widely used approach for increasing mine stability. However, when compared to the automation industry, where the use of sensors and real-time monitoring of processes have evolved rapidly, the use rock bolts have not changed a lot during the last 100 years. What is missing are technologies for keeping installed rock bolts under real-time and online monitoring. One problem is that rock bolts can become damaged by seismic activities or movements within the rock, and thus lose their load bearing capacity. If that happens, the outer shell of a tunnel’s walls or ceiling can collapse, with disaster as a result. Therefore, there is a clear need for online and real-time monitoring solutions for strain and thereby stress, as well as seismic activity. In this paper, the current state of art in research around intelligent rock bolts is presented. An intelligent rock bolt is the combination of a traditional rock bolt with an Internet of Things device, i.e. a rock bolt with embedded sensors, actuators, processing capabilities and wireless communication. In the proposed architecture, every rock bolt has its own IPv6 address and can establish a wireless mesh network in an ad-hoc manner. Bymeasuring strain and seismic activity and exposing the sensors in the form of services, large gains in terms of safety and efficiently can be achieved. A number of mining related activities such as stress on the rock bolt can be detected, falling rocks and the presence of mobile machinery can be observed. Since the network is based on standard communication protocols such as IPv6, it is vital to add security mechanisms to prevent eavesdropping and tampering of data traffic. By utilizing the real-time monitoring capabilities of a network of Internet-connected intelligent rock bolt, it is possible to drastically improve monitoring of mining activities and thereby providing workers with a safer working environment.

  • 27.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kruglyak, Andrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Mcload, Stuart
    University of Warwick, Coventry.
    Harrison, Robert
    University of Warwick, Coventry.
    Colombo, Armando W.
    Schneider Electric, Marktheidenfeld.
    Mendes, J Marco
    Schneider Electric, Marktheidenfeld.
    Building System of Systems with SOA Technology: A Smart House Use Case2014In: Industrial Cloud-Based Cyber-Physical Systems: The IMC-AESOP Approach, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2014, p. 219-230Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IMC-AESOP architecture has been used to implemente a smart house demonstration. Six different systems has been integrated with local (802.11, 802.15.4) and global (telecom) communication. The six systems integrated are: Car arrival detection system, Garage door opening system, House security system, External house lightning system, External electrical outlet system, House energy control system. The SOA technologies used are CoAP and EXI using SenML to encode the services. Engineering tools have been used to simulate the usage scenario and provide prediction of system behaviour.

  • 28.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Punal, Pablo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    EXIP: A Framework for Embedded Web Development2014In: ACM Transactions on the Web (TWEB), ISSN 1559-1131, E-ISSN 1559-114X, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing and deploying Web applications on networked embedded devicesis often seen as a way to reduce the development cost and time to marketfor new target platforms. However, the sizeof the messages and the processing requirements of today's Web protocols, such as HTTP and XML,are challenging for the most resource-constrained class of devicesthat could also benefit from Web connectivity.New Web protocols using binary representations have been proposedfor addressing this issue. Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)reduces the bandwidth and processing requirementscompared to HTTP while preserving the core concepts of the Web architecture.Similarly, Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) format has been standardizedfor reducing the size and processing time for XML structured information.Nevertheless, the adoption of these technologies is lagging behind due to lack ofsupport from web browsers and current Web development toolkits.Motivated by these problems, this article presents the design and implementationtechniques for the EXIP framework for embedded Web development. The frameworkconsists of a highly efficient EXI processor, a tool for EXI data binding basedon templates, and a CoAP/EXI/XHTML Web page engine.A prototype implementation of the EXI processor is hereinpresented and evaluated. It can be applied to Web browsersor thin server platforms using XHTML and Web servicesfor supporting human-machine interactions with constrained hosts.This article contains four major results: (1) theoretical and practical evaluation of the use of binary protocolsfor embedded Web programming; (2) a novelmethod for generation of EXI grammars based on XML Schema definitions;(3) an algorithm for grammar concatenationthat produces normalized EXI grammars directly, and hence reducesthe number of iterations during grammar generation;(4) an algorithm for efficient representation of possible deviations from theXML schema.

  • 29.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Intelligent industrial Processes: Big data devices2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A versatile and competitive process industry is important for both Sweden's and Europe's future status as new players are emerging. To secure our position, constant improvement and development of industrial processes are required in order to increase productivity while reducing the pressures on the climate and the environment. One key area is ProcessIT (or Process industrial automation) in which several Swedish companies are world leaders in its development, delivery and application.The interest for new technologies such as Internet of Things (IoT), Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), Big data, and Cloud computing have been increasing rapidly the last years. There have been a number of predictions from some of the world's largest companies in the business of computer communication, such as Cisco, Intel, Ericsson, etc. where the number of Internet connected devices will reach somewhere between 30 and 50 billion devices by the year 2030. This will include traditional devices such as computers and laptops, tablets, smart phones as well as new types of devices such as resource-constrained sensor and actuator platforms.

  • 30.
    Nappey, Philippe
    et al.
    Schneider Electric, Grenoble.
    Kaed, Charbel El
    Schneider Electric, Grenoble.
    Colombo, Armando W.
    Schneider Electric, Marktheidenfeld.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kruglyak, Andrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Hübner, Christian
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Bangemann, Thomas
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Carlsson, Oscar
    Midroc Electro AB, Stockholm.
    Migration of a Legacy Plant Lubrication System to SOA2014In: Industrial Cloud-Based Cyber-Physical Systems: The IMC-AESOP Approach, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2014, p. 167-182Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IMC-AESOP investigations have been articulated around key use cases in order to better capture user needs and corresponding requirements. This particular use case explores how Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) can ease the installation and maintenance of one of the lubrication system of the world’s largest underground iron mine run by LKAB in north Sweden, with a focus on migration aspects. We demonstrate that the loose coupling provided by the SOA approach combined with the eventing capabilities of Event Driven Architecture (EDA) can benefit to both engineering, installation and maintenance of an industrial process control system, with the exception of hard real-time based control loops.

  • 31.
    Harrison, Robert
    et al.
    University of Warwick, Coventry.
    McLeod, Stuart
    University of Warwick, Coventry.
    Tavola, Giacomo
    Politecnico di Milano.
    Taisch, Marco
    Politecnico di Milano.
    Colombo, Armando W.
    Schneider Electric, Marktheidenfeld.
    Karnouskos, Stamatis
    SAP Research, Karlsruhe.
    Tilly, Marcel
    Microsoft, Unterschleißheim.
    Stluka, Petr
    Honeywell, Prague.
    Jammes, François
    Schneider Electric, Grenoble.
    Camp, Roberto
    FluidHouse, Jyväskylä.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Mendes, J Marco
    Schneider Electric, Marktheidenfeld.
    Next Generation of Engineering Methods and Tools for SOA-Based Large-Scale and Distributed Process Applications2014In: Industrial Cloud-Based Cyber-Physical Systems: The IMC-AESOP Approach, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2014, p. 137-165Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering methods and tools are seen as key for designing, testing, deploying and operating future infrastructures. They accompany critical processes from ‘cradle-to-grave’. Here we provide an overview of the user and business requirements for engineering tools, including system development, modelling, visualisation, commissioning and change in an SOA engineering environment. An appraisal of existing engineering tools appropriate to IMC-AESOP, both commercial and development prototypes are presented, culminating in the presentation of tool cartography graphically, defining the impact of these tools within the enterprise and system lifecycle.

  • 32.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Punal, Pablo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Mäkitaavola, Henrik
    Larsmark, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Project: Arrowhead2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Jammes, François
    et al.
    Schneider Electric, Grenoble.
    Karnouskos, Stamatis
    SAP Research, Karlsruhe.
    Bony, Bernard
    Schneider Electric, Grenoble.
    Nappey, Philippe
    Schneider Electric, Grenoble.
    Colombo, Armando W.
    Schneider Electric, Marktheidenfeld.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Stluka, Petr
    Honeywell, Prague.
    Tilly, Marcel
    Microsoft, Unterschleißheim.
    Bangemann, Thomas
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Promising Technologies for SOA-Based Industrial Automation Systems2014In: Industrial Cloud-Based Cyber-Physical Systems: The IMC-AESOP Approach, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2014, p. 89-109Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last years service-oriented architectures have been extensively used to enable seamless interaction and integration among the various heterogeneous systems and devices found in modern factories. The emerging Industrial Automation Systems are increasingly utilising them. In the cloud-based vision of IMC-AESOP such technologies take an even more key role as they empower the backbone of the new concepts and approaches under development. Here we report about the investigations and assessments performed to find answers to some of the major questions that arise as key when technologies have to be selected and used in an industrial context utilizing Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)-based distributed large-scale process monitoring and control system. Aspects of integration, real-timeness, distributeness, event-based interaction, service-enablement, etc., are approached from different angles and some of the promising technologies are analysed and assessed.

  • 34.
    Karnouskos, Stamatis
    et al.
    SAP Research, Karlsruhe.
    Colombo, Armando W.
    Schneider Electric, Marktheidenfeld.
    Bangemann, Thomas
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Manninen, Keijo
    Honeywell Oy, Honeywell, Kuopio.
    Camp, Roberto
    FluidHouse, Jyväskylä, Prodatec Oy.
    Tilly, Marcel
    Microsoft, Unterschleißheim.
    Sikora, Marek
    Honeywell, Prague.
    Jammes, François
    Schneider Electric, Grenoble.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Nappey, Philippe
    Schneider Electric, Grenoble.
    Hu, Ji
    SAP Research, Karlsruhe.
    Graf, Mario
    SAP Research, Karlsruhe.
    The IMC-AESOP architecture for cloud-based industrial Cyber-physical Systems2014In: Industrial Cloud-Based Cyber-Physical Systems: The IMC-AESOP Approach, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2014, p. 49-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A coherent architectural framework is needed to be able to cope with the imposed requirements and realise the vision for the industrial automation domain. Future factories will rely on multi-system interactions and collaborative cross-layer management and automation approaches. The service-oriented architecture paradigm empowered by virtualisation of resources acts as a lighthouse. More specifically by integrating Web services, Internet technologies, Cloud systems and the power of the Internet of Things, we can create a framework that has the possibility of empowering seamless integration and interaction among the heterogeneous stakeholders in the future industrial automation domain. We propose here a service architecture that attempts to cover the basic needs for monitoring, management, data handling, integration, etc., by taking into consideration the disruptive technologies and concepts that could empower future industrial systems

  • 35.
    Lindgren, Per
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Mäkitaavola, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Pietrzak, Pawel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    A SOA approach to delay and jitter tolerant distributed real-time complex event processing2013In: 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE 2013): Taipei, Taiwan, 28 - 31 May 2013; [proceedings], Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of Service Oriented Architectures (SOAs) and Complex Event Processing (CEP) is gaining momen- tum for event centric management and processing of informa- tion in complex distributed systems (e.g., business automation). Whereas systems for factory automation have traditionally been deployed using dedicated buses and proprietary (often scan based) protocols, a recent trend in process automation is towards adopting open internet based technologies and event based communication. This trend is driven by the increasing number and capabilities of devices used for monitoring and control, and the increased flexibility, maintainability and price/performance gains expected from IP (potentially SOA/CEP) enabled systems.In this paper we discuss the challenges involved to apply SOA and CEP to the field of factory automation. In particular, real- time aspects are highlighted, both w.r.t. to accurate time-stamping of physical events in a distributed system, as well as end-to-end timing including communication and CEP processing.We approach the challenges by an architecture combining state-of-the-art synchronisation mechanisms for wired and wire- less networks together with real-time communication and dis- tributed query processing based on the notion of time constrained reactions. We discuss the impact of synchronisation inaccuracies and delays introduced by processing and communication, and present a method for implementation of safe potential- and certain matches.

  • 36.
    Eliasson, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Raayatinezhad, Asma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    A SOA-based framework for integration of intelligent rock bolts with internet of things2013In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology: ICIT 2013, Cape Town, South Africa 25 February 2013 - 28 February 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, p. 1962-1967Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mining industry is seeing a bright future with a high demand for minerals and relatively high material prices. Much of this is driven by the rapid industrial expansion in countries such as China and others. However, even though the mining business seems promising, there are some important issues that must be addressed in order to maintain a cost-effective and competitive edge. Worker and environment safety, working conditions, are very important issues. Another issue is attracting skilled personal to work in the deep mines of the future.Today, the mining industry has problems hiring personnel, due to hazardous working environments and re-locating to the distant regions. If the workers’ safety could be increased, attracting skilled personnel would become one less problem. Rock bolts and shot-crete are in use today to reinforce tunnel walls, and expensive measurement devices are used in order to monitor seismic activity and rock stress. However, by not having real-time monitoring of rock bolts makes it difficult to monitor them. A better approach would be to make rock bolts intelligent and have them measure stress and seismic activity. Furthermore, by connecting the rock bolts to a network, real-time monitoring of them is made feasible. In this paper, we propose the merger of the Internet of Things (IoT) approach with traditional rock bolts, thereby allowing online monitoring of rock bolt status. This enables an increased possibility to enhance work safety by being able to detect anomalies on the rock earlier, thereby giving workers and machinery an earlier alarm to evacuate hazardous locations in the mine.

  • 37.
    Eliasson, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Martinsson, Pär-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    An internet of things approach for intelligent monitoring of conveyor belt rollers2013In: 10th International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies 2013, CM 2013 and MFPT 2013, 2013, Vol. 2, p. 1096-1104Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Wolosz, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Bodin, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Cognitive load-control for congested Wireless Sensor Network channels2013In: 2013 IFIP Wireless Days (WD 2013: Valencia, Spain, 13-15 Nov 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern wireless sensors transmit at high rates and changing transmission patterns. They may individually or collectively select how much data shall be sent depending on predefined rules tied to properties of measured data. Sending rates thereby change triggered by events appearing in the sensor environment. With wireless technologies such as 802.15.4 (ZigBee) having limited capacity high transmission needs can easily cause overload resulting in decreased throughput. This paper presents a load control mechanism that uses multiple inputs, demand for transmission capacity and perceived quality of each sensor node, to properly configure sending rates of these nodes. The mechanism is based on Fuzzy Logic and quality assessed with utility functions for packet loss and throughput. NS-3 simulation results show clear improvements in overall throughput at high loads with the mechanism compared to without.

  • 39.
    Punal, Pablo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Raayatinezhad, Asma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Johansson, Mia
    Säktek Tillväxt Skellefteå.
    Enabling cloud-connectivity for mobile internet of things applications2013In: Proceedings: 2013 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Service-Oriented System Engineering, SOSE 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, p. 518-526Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of small embedded devices connected to the Internet is increasing. This growth is mostly due to the large number of Internet of Things (IoT) deployments, withapplications such as: industrial monitoring, home automation, and others. One common aspect with the majority of application areas is the lack of mobility. Most IoT devices arestationary and often use IEEE 802.15.4/6LoWPAN solutions. When a high level of mobility is required, the use of IEEE 802.15.4 is not possible without adding additional hardware for the user to carry.In this article, a holistic network architecture consisting of heterogeneous devices is presented. The architecture is composed of Embedded Internet Systems (EIS) and uses standard communication protocols. One important feature is the use of the Service-oriented architecture (SOA) paradigm. The use of SOA, by utilization of the CoAP protocol and standard services, enables the proposed architecture to exchange sensor-and actuator data with an Internet-based cloud as well as a user’s local cloud consisting of sensor IoT devices, smart phones and laptops. Another component of the architecture is a web-based human-machine interface for configuration, monitoring and visualization of sensor and actuator data using emerging web technologies for structured data processing.Results from experiments and real-world tests show that the proposed architecture can support sample rates of up to several kHz while enabling sensor data to be transmitted to SOA services in real time. This proves that the use of SOA, and RESTful web services in particular, is feasible on resource-constrained platforms while supporting true mobility.

  • 40.
    del Campo, Sergio Martin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Albertsson, Kim
    Luleå University of Technology, Professional Support, IT-Service.
    Nilsson, Joakim
    Engineering Physics student at the Luleå University of Technology.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    FPGA prototype of machine learning analog-to-feature converter for event-based succinct representation of signals2013In: IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Signal Processing Society, 2013, article id 6661996Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sparse signal models with learned dictionaries of morphological features provide efficient codes in a variety of applications. Such models can be useful to reduce sensor data rates and simplify the communication, processing and analysis of information, provided that the algorithm can be realized in an efficient way and that the signal allows for sparse coding. In this paper we outline an FPGA prototype of a general purpose "analog-to-feature converter", which learns an overcomplete dictionary of features from the input signal using matching pursuit and a form of Hebbian learning. The resulting code is sparse, event-based and suitable for analysis with parallel and neuromorphic processors. We present results of two case studies. The first case is a blind source separation problem where features are learned from an artificial signal with known features. We demonstrate that the learned features are qualitatively consistent with the true features. In the second case, features are learned from ball-bearing vibration data. We find that vibration signals from bearings with faults have characteristic features and codes, and that the event-based code enable a reduction of the data rate by at least one order of magnitude.

  • 41.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Integration of wireless sensor and actuator nodes with IT infrastructure using service-oriented architecture2013In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 43-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of potential applications for Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSAN) have yet to be embraced by industry despite high interest amongst academic researchers. This is due to various factors such as unpredictable costs related to development, deployment and maintenance of WSAN, especially when integration with existing IT infrastructure and legacy systems is needed. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is seen as a promising technique to bridge the gap between sensor nodes and enterprise applications such as factory monitoring, control and tracking systems where sensor data is used. To date, research efforts have focused on middleware software systems located in gateway devices that implement standard service technology, such as Devices Profile for Web Services (DPWS), for interacting with the sensor network. This paper takes a different approach - deploying interoperable Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)-based web services directly on the nodes and not using gateways. This strategy provides for easy integration with legacy IT systems and supports heterogeneity at the lowest level. Two-fold analysis of the related overhead, which is the main challenge of this solution, is performed; Quantification of resource consumption as well as techniques to mitigate it are presented, along with latency measurements showing the impact of different parts of the system on system performance. A proof-of-concept application using Mulle - a resource-constrained sensor platform - is also presented.

  • 42.
    Nappey, Philippe
    et al.
    Schneider Electric.
    Kaed, Charbel El
    Schneider Electric.
    Colombo, Armando
    Schneider Electric.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kruglyak, Andrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Hübner, Christian
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Bangemann, Thomas
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Carlsson, Oscar
    Midroc Electro AB, Stockholm.
    Migration of a legacy plant lubrication system to SOA2013In: 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013, IEEE Communications Society, 2013, p. 7440-7445Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Eliasson, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Project: I2Mine2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Casselgren, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Rosendahl, Sara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Road surface information system2013In: Proceedings of the 16th SIRWEC conference: Helsinki, FInland (23-25th May 2012), Standing International Road Weather Commission , 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to classify the road condition, dry asphalt and asphalt covered with water, ice and snow a technique using a sensor called Road eye is presented. The Road eye sensor uses three wavelengths and one photo detector to determine the intensities that are reflected from the road surface and is then able to estimate the road condition. By linking the Road eye sensor to a GPS and a Mulle, a miniature wireless Embedded Internet System, the road conditions can be associated with the correct road position, making it possible to use the information in many different applications.

  • 45.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Colombo, Armando W.
    University of Applied Sciences, Emden and Schneider Electric.
    Jammes, Francois
    Schneider Electric.
    Nessaether, Johan
    Midroc.
    Karnouskos, Stamatis
    SAP Research.
    Diedrich, Christian
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    A migration approach towards a SOA-based next generation process control and monitoring2012In: IECON 2011: 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society : Melbourne, VIC; 7 November 2011 - 10 November 2011, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012, p. 4319-4324Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in Service Oriented Architectures (SOA) in the automation domain has seen a rapid increase both from the academia as well as the industry recent years. Since green field plants today are not common, the partial migration of plant automation to SOA design is needed to introduce new functionalities. Thus strategies and approaches for migration from legacy to SOA architectures becomes of vital interest. This paper discusses different views on partial migration of a process monitoring and control system from legacy to SOA. The discussion includes a global top down view, a bottom up view, hardware/software considerations and a hint on training of personnel.

  • 46.
    Karnouskos, Stamatis
    et al.
    SAP.
    Colombo, Armando Walter
    University of Applied Sciences Emden/Leer.
    Bangemann, Thomas
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Manninen, Keijo
    Honeywell Oy.
    Camp, Roberto
    Prodatec Oy.
    TIlly, Marcel
    Microsoft.
    Jammes, Franois
    Schneider Electric.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    A SOA-based architecture for empowering future collaborative cloud-based industrial automation2012In: IECON 2012: 38th annual conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society; Montreal Canada from 25 to 28 October 2012, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012, p. 5770-5775Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last years we are witnessing of rapid advances in the industrial automation domain, mainly driven by business needs towards agility and supported by new disruptive tech- nologies. Future factories will rely on multi-system interactions and collaborative cross-layer management and automation ap- proaches. Such a factory, configured and managed from archi- tectural and behavioural viewpoints, under the service-oriented architecture (SOA) paradigm is virtualized by services exposed by its key components (both HW and SW). One of the main results of this virtualization is that the factory is transformed into a ”cloud of services”, where dynamic resource allocation and interactions take place. This paper presents a view on such architecture, its specification, the main motivation and considerations, as well as the preliminary services it may need to support.

  • 47.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Mäkitaavola, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Efficient XML interchange in factory automation systems2012In: IECON 2011: 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Melbourne, Vic. 7 Nov. - 10 Nov. 2011, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012, p. 4478-4483Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) in the automation domain has made possible the cross-layer vertical integration of devices, manufacturing systems and business processes. However, the use of standard web service technologies is not always possible in an industrial environment with high real-time requirements and limited hardware resources due to the overhead connected to XML processing. The work presented in this paper analyses the opportunities, advantages and challenges when applying the newly emerged Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) standard for XML encoding to the factory automation systems. The two major SOA-based automation middleware architectures, namely OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) and Devices Profile for Web Services (DPWS), were investigated. Furthermore, we present an EXI-based approach for extending the reach of the service technology covering deployments on resource constrained embedded devices.

  • 48.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Cragie, Robert
    Gridmerge Ltd..
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Emerging energy management standards and technologies: challenges and application prospects2012In: 2012 IEEE 17th Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation : (ETFA 2012): September 17-21, 2012 Krakow Poland, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuously rising costs and the environmental impact of energy generation, transmission and consumption are a major concern for governments, industry and society alike. Among research in renewable energy sources as well as in energy efficiency of buildings, electrical appliances, vehicles etc., a considerable amount of attention has been devoted to effective energy management. In this paper, we present a survey on emerging energy management standards with focus on enabling application layer Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) that are a central part of these standards. The presented work includes an analysis on the challenges, future trends, security and application prospects of energy management standards. As part of the survey, the emerging Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) version 2.0 and Smart Energy Profile (SEP) version 2.0 were identified as the most promising and complete solutions. The presented survey provides an important insight on the future developments in the area of energy management protocols and highlights a number of key ICT solutions and challenges.

  • 49.
    Lindgren, Per
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Mäkitaavola, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Leveraging tinyos for integration in process automation and control systems2012In: IECON 2012: 38th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012, p. 5779-5785Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number and complexity of networked sensors and actuators in industrial monitoring and control systems is rapidly increasing. This calls for flexible yet efficient methods (w.r.t. time and money) for designing, deploying and maintaining such systems. To this end, Service Oriented Architectures (SOAs) and wireless technologies are foreseen to play important roles. In the area of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), TinyOS (TOS) has gained wide spread use, mainly because it offers a simple programming model. Moreover TOS comes with a ready made code base (e.g., protocol stacks needed to implement SOA enabled devices) and is available for a large number of light-weight target platforms. However, TOS has yet to make its way into industrial applications where real-time operation is required (which is typical to monitoring and control systems). As being designed primarily with simplicity in mind, the TOS execution model for tasks is non-preemptive, limiting system responsiveness and schedulability. To overcome this problem preemptive TOSThreads has been introduced. However, this introduces the additional complexity of traditional multi-thread programming, thus the main benefit of TOS is lost. In this paper we present an alternative execution model for TOS, that allows preemptive execution while preserving the simplicity of vintage TOS. We exemplify the impact of scheduling to a typical sensor/actuator node scenario. Our results indicate that the proposed preemptive execution model is capable of reducing both delay and drop rate for the given scenario.

  • 50.
    Eliasson, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Thompson, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Cheng, Yi-Bing
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Chen, Peter
    National Cheng Kung University.
    PCB Integration of Dye-sensitised Solar Cells for Internet of Things Applications2012In: International Journal On Advances in Systems and Measurements, ISSN 1942-261x, Vol. 5, no 1-2, p. 45-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things is envisioned to drastically chance the way sensor data from physical phenomena can be utilized by users on the Internet. However, one concern in deploying and maintaining a large number of sensor nodes is that replacing spent batteries will not be feasible. One solution to this issue may involve utilising energy harvesting technologies, e.g. solar, heat, or vibration, withsolar being the most promising for general applications. However, using solar panels is currently a relatively expensive approach as they require a time-consuming and therefore costly assembly process. As an alternative, this paper suggests a new approach to powering networked sensors: the direct integration of a solar cell onto a sensor nodes printed circuit board. This approach eliminates the need for manual assembly and the use of expensive connectors.

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