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  • 1.
    Garcia Represa, Jaime
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Autonomous Production Workstation Operation, Reconfiguration and Synchronization2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The decoupling of production line’s workstations and its equipment from the higher layers in an automation architecture has thepotential to provide the following benefits: 1. Dynamic workstation reconfiguration; 2. Autonomous synchronization of workstationequipment; 3. Autonomous workstation operation.Each of these benefits will improve the automation flexibility at each workstation and for the whole production line.Introducing IoT equipment into workstations and making use of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) fundamentals such as lookup,late binding and loose coupling are shown here to provide the above benefits. In addition, the cost of such an implementationand deployment seems to be significantly less than the comparable cost for legacy technology.An implementation, using the SOA approach on a workstation, at the Volvo Trucks production facility in Gothenburg was madepossible thanks to the Arrowhead framework, which has been shown to provide all three listed improvements.The analysis of the above-mentioned demonstration clearly shows how the workstation reconfiguration is made simple usingthe arrowhead ServiceRegistry system. Autonomous synchronization is achieved through the look-up and late binding capabilitiesprovided by the arrowhead Orchestration system in cooperation with the ServiceRegistry system. Finally, autonomous workstationoperation is provided through the support of the arrowhead Workflow Manager and Workflow Executor systems.All these benefits were achieved at a significantly reduced cost compared to comparable legacy implementation.

  • 2.
    Nilsson, Jacob
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Interoperability automation considered as machine learning tasks2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Acharya, Sarthak
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Chouhan, Shailesh Singh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Scalability of Copper-Interconnects down to 3μm on Printed Boards by Laser-assisted-subtractive process2019Ingår i: Proceedings of: 2019 IMAPS Nordic Conference on Microelectronics Packaging (NordPac), IEEE, 2019, s. 206-209Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As per the latest roadmap of iNEMI, the global electronics market is emphasizing to identify disruptive technologies that can contribute towards denser, robust and tighter integration on the board level. Therefore, reduction in packaging factor of printed board can accommodate greater number of ICs to support miniaturization. This paper has shown an experimental method to pattern the metallic layer on a Printed circuit Board (PCB) to the smallest feature size. To investigate this, a commercially available FR-4 PCB with photosensitive material coat and a Copper (Cu) layer on it, is used. A reverse-mode Laser assisted writing is implemented to pattern the desired copper tracks. Soon after, a well-controlled development and chemical etching of the Laser-activated regions are done using Sodium Hydroxide solution followed by an aqueous solution of Sodium Persulfate. Current PCB interconnects used by the industries are of the order (~20 μm). Whereas the present work is a contribution towards achieving Copper interconnects with feature size 3.0μm. This miniaturization corresponds to 70% reduction in the feature size from 20 μm to 3μm. The natural adhesion of the Cu layer has remained intact even after the etching, shows the efficiency of the method adopted. Also, variation in the parameters such as etching time, etchant solution concentrations, temaperature, gain and exposure time of Laser beam and their corresponding effects are discussed. Other highlights of this subtractive method includes its cost-efficiency, lesser production time and repeatability.

  • 4.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    System of System Composition based on Decentralized Service Oriented Architecture2019Ingår i: IEEE Systems Journal, ISSN 1932-8184, E-ISSN 1937-9234Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As society has progressed through periods of evolution and revolution, technology has played a key role as an enabler. In the same manner, mechanical machines of the 1800s drove the industrial revolution, now digitalized machines are driving another industrial revolution. Manufacturers are increasing the digital footprint on the factory floor. It is challenging to harness the vast amounts of data generated, stored, analyzed, archived, and returned. Data centralization has several well-known challenges, such as collection bottlenecks, secure retrieval, single point of failure, and data scheme fragility as data heterogeneity increases. This paper proposes a method of information distribution based on the principle of data at its source. It proposes that contextual data be used at runtime through the creation of dynamic queries that build compositions of different systems. Such system of systems (SoS) compositions handle the flow of data across its life cycle and present it as information to the initiating system. The proposal starts by creating a graph model of the Arrowhead framework. Then, building on the graph model, the query-based approach for specifying, validating, and forming the SoS is proposed. The proposed graph model allows for unambiguous description of systems and their interrelations, including security relations. The proposed composer operates on the edge computing hardware and gives the production floor the ability to extract information without impacting the overall operation of the factory.

  • 5.
    Kolluru, Katyayani Kiranmayee
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Paniagua, Cristina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    DeLong, Rance J.
    The Open Group, Apex Plaza, Forbury Road, Reading, Berkshir.
    An AAA Solution for Securing Industrial IoT Devices using Next Generation Access Control2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 is advancing the use of Internet of Things (IoT) devices in industrial applications, which enablesefficient device-to-device (D2D) communication. However, these devices are often heterogeneous in nature, i.e. from different manufacturers, use different protocols, etc. and adds requirements such as security, interoperability, etc.To address these requirements, the Service-Oriented Architecture-Based (SOA) Arrowhead Framework was previously proposed using the concept of local clouds. These local clouds provide a set of mandatory and support core systems to enable industrial automation applications. One of these mandatory core systems is an Authentication, Authorisationand Accounting (AAA) system, which is used to authenticate and provide access control to the devices in a local cloud. In an industrial context, with multiple stakeholders, the AAA mustsupport fine-grain access control. For example, in a distributed control loop, a controller should only have read access to its sensor such as a flow meter and write access to its actuator, such as a valve. The controller should not have access to anyother information besides what is needed to implement the desired functionality. In this work, an NGAC-based AAA solution to achieve fine-grain service level access control between IoT devices has been proposed and implemented. The solution is presented using a district heating use case.

  • 6.
    Strobl, Stefanie
    et al.
    University of Applied Sciences Burgenland, Eisenstadt.
    Hofbauer, David
    University of Applied Sciences Burgenland, Eisenstadt.
    Schmittner, Christoph
    Austrian Institute of Technology, Vienna.
    Maksuti, Silia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB. University of Applied Sciences Burgenland.
    Tauber, Markus G.
    University of Applied Sciences Burgenland, Eisenstadt.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Connected cars: Threats, vulnerabilities and their impact2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing demand for interoperability between system components within a connected car has led to new security challenges in automotive development. The existing components, based on established technology, are often being combined to form such a connected car. For such established technologies, individual, often sector specific threat and vulnerability catalogs exist. The aim of this paper is to identify blocks of established technologies in a connected car and to consolidate the corresponding threat and vulnerability catalogs relevant for the individual constituent components. These findings are used to estimate the impact on specific system components and subsystems to identify the most crucial components and threats.

  • 7.
    Bicaku, Ani
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB. University of Applied Sciences Burgenland, Eisenstadt.
    Maksuti, Silia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB. University of Applied Sciences Burgenland.
    Hegedűs, Csaba
    AITIA International Inc., Budapest.
    Tauber, Markus G.
    University of Applied Sciences Burgenland, Eisenstad.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Interacting with the arrowhead local cloud: On-boarding procedure2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial automation systems are advancing rapidly and a wide range of standards, communication protocols and platforms supporting the integration of devices are introduced. It is therefore necessary to design and build appropriate tools and frameworks that allow the integration of devices with multiple systems and services. In this work we present the Arrow-head Framework, used to enable collaborative IoT automation and introduce two support core systems, SystemRegistry and DeviceRegistry, which are needed to create a chain of trust from a hardware device to a software system and its associated services. Furthermore, we propose an on-boarding procedure of a new device interacting with the Arrowhead local cloud. This ensures that only valid and authorized devices can host software systems within an Arrowhead local cloud.

  • 8.
    Häggström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    IoT Energy Storage: A Forecast2018Ingår i: Energy Harvesting and Systems, ISSN 2329-8766, Vol. 5, nr 3/4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Exponential growth in computing, wireless communication, and energy storage efficiency is key to allowing smaller and scalable IoT solutions. These advancements have made it possible to power devices from energy harvesters (EH) and explore other energy storage solutions that can increase the lifetime and robustness of IoT devices. We summarize current trends and limits for the current paradigm as the basis of our forecast. The trend shows that conventional ceramic capacitors are sufficient for energy storage for today’s EH powered wireless IoT devices and that in the future, IoT devices can either perform more advanced tasks with their current volume or be shrunk in size.

  • 9.
    Carlsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Midroc Electro AB, Stockholm.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Arrigucci, Fredrik
    Midroc Electro AB, Stockholm.
    Colombo, Armando Walter
    University of Applied Sciences Emden & Schneider Electric, Emden.
    Bangemann, Thomas
    IFAK, Magdeburg, Germany.
    Nappey, Philippe
    Schneider Electric, Grenoble, France.
    Migration of industrial process control systems to service-oriented architectures2018Ingår i: International journal of computer integrated manufacturing (Print), ISSN 0951-192X, E-ISSN 1362-3052, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 175-198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Service Oriented Architectures (SOAs) in industrial automation promises an improved cross-layer integration as well as a functionality decoupled from the technical implementation. Compared with the earlier investigated manufacturing industry, control systems in the process industry reveal additional challenges in terms of migration from a legacy control system to an SOA control system.

    The successful migration of a highly integrated process control system, without reducing reliability or availability and, at the same time, preserving functionality and productivity, requires a detailed plan and certain specialised technology.

    This paper presents the challenges in the migration of a process control system and proposes a structured method for migration. The migration procedure proposed comprises four steps: initiation, configuration, data processing, and control execution. A technology demonstration at a pelletizing plant illustrates how the first of these steps could be implemented.

  • 10.
    Bicaku, Ani
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB. University of Applied Sciences Burgenland, Eisenstadt.
    Schmittner, Christoph
    Austrian Institute of Technology, Vienna.
    Tauber, Markus G.
    University of Applied Sciences Burgenland, Eisenstad.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Monitoring Industry 4.0 applications for security and safety standard compliance2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Industry 4.0 independent entities shall inter-operate to allow flexible and customized production. To assure the parties that individual components are secured to inter-operate, we investigate automated standard compliance. The standard compliance is defined based on given sets of security and safety requirements from which are derived measurable indicator points. Those reflect configurations of systems recommended by security, safety or legally relevant standards and guidelines, which help to demonstrate the state of compliance. We propose in this paper an initial approach to automate such assessment when components are inter-operating with each other by using a monitoring and standard compliance verification framework. This will assure the parties that services or devices within their organizations operate in a secure and standard compliant way, without compromising the underlying infrastructure.

  • 11.
    Zabasta, Anatolijs
    et al.
    Institute of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia.
    Kunicina, Nadezda
    Institute of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia.
    Kondratjevs, Kaspars
    Institute of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia.
    Patlins, Antons
    Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia.
    Ribickis, Leonids
    Institute of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    MQTT Service Broker for Enabling the Interoperability of Smart City Systems2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart city offers a concept of interconnection of modern digital technologies in the context of a city that provides a solution to enhance the quality and performance of urban services. However, interconnection of the Smart city systems still is a challenging process due to incompatibility of systems that apply a plenty of appropriate technical solutions and protocols that cause collaboration between automation devices such as sensors, actuators, controllers. Introduction of Internet-of-Things (IoT) provides promising opportunities to develop new services and integrate different application domains. The Arrowhead Framework aims to apply Service Oriented Architecture to the embedded systems' world. This research is focused on the one of the Arrowhead Framework core systems - Event Handler. This system supports the handling of events, and enriches service-oriented applications with the capabilities of interacting via the publish/subscribe paradigm. We implemented the Event Handler system as a MQTT enabled service broker, and deployed data flow programming tool Node-RED for wiring together divergent hardware devices and nodes, and APIs for online services. A case study of the service broker implemented for control of utilities systems in urban environment is presented and discussed.

  • 12.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Volvo Trucks Corporation, Gothenberg.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Workflow management for edge driven manufacturing systems2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The fourth industrial revolution is one of digitization. As manufacturers build more digital equipment into their process harnessing the potential becomes a challenge. ISA 95 based manufacturers rely on top down decision making, with redundant flow of information in order to organize Workflows on the factory floor. With advances in edge computing and smart objects, more decision are made at lower levels of the infrastructure hierarchy. However, how can the MES tracking and execution functions be decentralized while maintain an organized collaboration of smart objects? This paper proposes a Cyber Physical Service Oriented System of Systems operating on edge computing. There are three systems proposed here; Smart Product, Workflow Manager and Workflow Executor. These systems operate within Arrowhead Local Clouds and create a fully autonomous set of system to complete a production order. Planning, Supply chain and Quality of Service monitoring are out of scope and remain as centralized activities. The Smart Product is the core Cyber Physical System that must be context-aware in order to pass the correct Workflow information to the Workflow System responsible for current activities.

  • 13.
    Renbi, Abdelghani
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    A novel production process for 10 μm microvias2017Ingår i: IMAPS 2017, USA: International Microelectronics and Packaging Society (IMAPS), 2017, , s. 5Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates the capability of drilling and metallization of microvias of diameter less than 10 µm with aspect ratios of 1-10, using a fully additive process.

    The microvia has been produced using a sequential build up layer of urethane through which the via has been produced. The urethane layer is applied using spin-coating. Current process setting produces a 15 µm layer thickness. For thicker urethane, multiple layers are applied. Drilling of the via-hole through is made using 266 nm UV laser.

    The metallisation of the via-hole was made using a process called Covalent Bonded Metallisation (CBM).

    This process modifies the urethane surface by a grafting process where polymers are covalently bonded to the

    surface where metallisation is desired. A roughly 5 µm thin film of the used grafting solution is applied to the substrate surface. The grafting process is initiated by laser which draws the patterns where copper is desired.

    After laser drawing, the substrate is cleaned with deionized water. Next, the substrate is through a commercial

    chemical-copper process which builds copper only at the laser initiated patterns. Copper thicknesses of 1 µm is easily achievable. To increase the copper thickness, the substrate may be run into thick building chemical-copper process to achieve thicknesses up to 8 µm.

  • 14.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Albano, Michele
    ISEP, Polytechnic Institute of Porto.
    Ferreira, Luis
    ISEP, Polytechnic Institute of Porto.
    Blomstedt, Fredrik
    BnearIT AB.
    Olofsson, Per
    BnearIT AB.
    Varga, Pal
    AITIA Inc.
    Montori, Frederico
    University of Bologna.
    Viola, Fabio
    University of Bologna.
    Application system and services: Design and mplementation - A cookbook2017Ingår i: IoT Automation: Arrowhead Framework / [ed] Jerker Delsing, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press , 2017, , s. 366s. 139-160Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Albano, Michele
    ISEP, Polytechnic Institute of Porto.
    Varga, Pal
    AITIA Inc.
    Ferreira, Luis
    ISEP, Polytechnic Institute of Porto.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Hegedűs, Csaba
    AITIA Inc.
    Puñal Pereira, Pablo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Carlsson, Oscar
    Midroc Electro AB, Stockholm.
    Arrowhead Framework core systems and services2017Ingår i: IoT Automation: Arrowhead Framework / [ed] Jerker Delsing, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press , 2017, , s. 366s. 89-138Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Carlsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Midroc Electro AB, Stockholm.
    Vera, Daniel
    Fully Distributed Systems Ltd .
    Arceredillo, Eduardo
    Fundacion Tekniker .
    Tauber, Markus G.
    Fachhochschule Burgenland GmbH .
    Ahmad, Bilal
    University of Warwick.
    Schmittner, Christoph
    Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Plosz, Sandor
    Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Ruprechter, Thomas
    Infineon Technologies AG.
    Aldrian, Andreas
    AVL List GmbH.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Engineering of IoT automation systems2017Ingår i: IoT Automation: Arrowhead Framework / [ed] Jerker Delsing, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press , 2017, , s. 366s. 161-211Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Carlsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB. Midroc Automation AB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Engineering of Service-oriented IoT Automation Systems2017Ingår i: IEEE Systems Journal, ISSN 1932-8184, E-ISSN 1937-9234Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    In-network Processing for Context-Aware SOA-based Manufacturing Systems2017Ingår i: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, , s. 6s. 3460-3465Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve flexible manufacturing, increasingly largeamounts of data are being generated, stored, analyzed, archivedand eventually fed back into the product life cycle. But whereis this data stored and how is it transported? Current methodsrely on centralized or federated databases to manage the datastorage. This approach has several challenges, such as collectionbottlenecks, secure retrieval, single point of failure and dataschemefragility as data heterogeneity increases. Additionally,manufacturers are finding the need to open their networks forservice based equipment suppliers. This means previous securityassumptions regarding network encryption and informationaccess-control must be re-evaluated.Proposed here is a method of in-network processing thatgathers information only where and when it is needed. Systemsbuild context at runtime by creating dynamic queries whichmake service composition. The service composition processes rawdata and presents it as information to the calling system. Thisreduces the movement of data/information and removes singlepoint collection bottlenecks. Furthermore, fine grained accesscontrol and shared trust can be granted between untrustedsystems. The proposed methods are demonstrated on a lab setupof an industrial use case.

  • 19.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    IoT Automation: Arrowhead Framework2017Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents an in-depth description of the Arrowhead Framework and how it fosters interoperability between IoT devices at service level, specifically addressing application. The Arrowhead Framework utilizes SOA technology and the concepts of local clouds to provide required automation capabilities such as: real time control, security, scalability, and engineering simplicity. Arrowhead Framework supports the realization of collaborative automation; it is the only IoT Framework that addresses global interoperability across multiplet SOA technologies. With these features, the Arrowhead Framework enables the design, engineering, and operation of large automation systems for a wide range of applications utilizing IoT and CPS technologies. The book provides application examples from a wide number of industrial fields e.g. airline maintenance, mining maintenance, smart production, electro-mobility, automative test, smart cities—all in response to EU societal challenges.

  • 20.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    IoT Automation: Arrowhead Framework2017Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 21.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    IoT Interoperability: On-demand and low latency Transparent Multi-protocol Translator2017Ingår i: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 4, nr 5, s. 1754-1763Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Industrial Internet of Things there is a clear need for a high level of interoperability between independently developedsystems, often from different vendors. Traditional methods of interoperability including protocol gateways and adapters, are often usedat the network layer. Recent work on application interoperability has emphasized the use of middleware or protocol proxy/gateway.However, middleware tends to move the interoperability problem rather than solving it, and there are scalability issues with increasingthe number of proxies; re-configuration effort, and required bandwidth and processing overheads.This paper proposes a secure, on-demand and transparent protocol translator for the Industrial Internet of Things. Targeting thechallenge of interoperability between IP-based communication protocols, the paper analyses current solutions and develops a set ofrequirements to be met by IoT protocol interoperability. The proposed protocol translator is not a middleware, it is a SOA-basedparticipant, it is used on-demand when needed, it does not introduce design time dependencies, it operates transparently, it supportslow-latency, and it is secured through the use of Arrowhead authorization and authentication.

  • 22.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Varga, Pal
    AITIA Inc.
    Local automation clouds2017Ingår i: IoT Automation: Arrowhead Framework / [ed] Jerker Delsing, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press , 2017, , s. 366s. 27-40Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Local Cloud Internet of Things Automation: Technology and Business Model Features of Distributed Internet of Things Automation Solutions2017Ingår i: IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, ISSN 1932-4529, E-ISSN 1941-0115, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 8-21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The hype concerning digitalization is increasing the demand for new generations of automation systems. Concepts like Reference Architecture Model Industry 4.0 (RAMI 4.0) give us models but do not tell us how to facilitate actual implementations. This article discusses the transition from legacy automation technology as defined by ISA-95 to highly distributed Internet of Things (IoT)- and system of systems (SoS)- based automation systems that fully utilize Internet technologies, thus enabling the implementation of Industry 4.0 and RAMI 4.0 models. Distributed IoT automation systems have a number of general requirements concerning real-time performance, security, engineering cost, scalability, and interoperability. Meeting these requirements is necessary to enable possibilities for a realworld implementation of IoT automation. A key concept is local automation clouds. The discussion is based on a particular example of such an automation integration platform, the Arrowhead Framework.

  • 24.
    Varga, Pal
    et al.
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
    Blomstedt, Fredrik
    BNearIT Inc., Lulea.
    Ferreira, Luis Lino
    ISEP, Polytechnic of Porto – School of Engineering.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Johansson, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Martínez de Soria, Iker
    Tecnalia Research and Innovation, Bilbao.
    Making system of systems interoperable: The core components of the arrowhead framework2017Ingår i: Journal of Network and Computer Applications, ISSN 1084-8045, E-ISSN 1095-8592, Vol. 81, s. 85-95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the Arrowhead Framework is to efficiently support the development, deployment and operation of interconnected, cooperative systems. It is based on the Service Oriented Architecture philosophy. The building elements of the framework are systems that provide and consume services, and cooperate as systems of systems. Some commonly used systems, such as orchestration, authorization or service registry are considered as core. These can be used by any system of systems that follow the guidelines of the Arrowhead Framework.

    Within the framework, systems – using different information exchange technologies during collaboration – are helped through various approaches. These include the so-called Interoperability Layer, as well as systems and services for translation. Furthermore, one of the main problems of developing such highly interoperable systems is the lack of understanding between various development groups. Adequate development and service documentation methodologies can help to overcome this issue.

    The design, development and verification methodology for each service, system and system of systems within the Arrowhead Framework supports that these can be implemented, verified, deployed, and run in an interoperable way. This paper presents an overview of the framework together with its core elements – and provides guidelines for the design and deployment of interoperable, Arrowhead-compliant cooperative systems.

  • 25.
    Carlsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Midroc Automation AB.
    Vera, Daniel
    Fully Distributed Systems Ltd..
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Ahmad, Bilal
    Automation Systems Group, WMG, the University of Warwick.
    Harrison, Robert
    University of Warwick, Coventry.
    Plant descriptions for engineering tool interoperability2017Ingår i: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 730-735, artikel-id 7819255Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence and deployment of connected devices in many domains of application (e.g. industrial production, buildings and facilities, urban environment, etc.) have resulted in the need to achieve integration of multiple and more complex systems. This new environment is stressing the intrinsic limits imposed by monolithic standards, data models and integration methods that focus on specific domains of application, types of systems, or specific aspects of a system. This paper describes the Plant Description Service developed as part of the Arrowhead Interoperability framework (EU ECSEL funded project). The manuscript contains a description of the abstract system descriptive model based on which the Plant Description service was implemented, and describes how the service can be used to achieve integration of several industry standards and data models. One use case and one case study is provided that illustrates how the service was practically implemented to support engineering scenarios in the domain of industrial production. The paper concludes with a critical review of the approach and suggestion for future work and developments.

  • 26.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Rönnholm, Jesper
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Deventer, Jan van
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Protocol interoperability of OPC UA in ServiceOriented Architectures2017Ingår i: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 44-50, artikel-id 8104744Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract—Industrial Internet of Things covers all aspects ofnetworked intelligent manufacturing systems. This means coveringa wide array of application domains and user requirements.In such scenarios it is not feasible to define a single protocol forall situations. Hence, a multi-protocol approach is required. OPCUA has strong backing from Industry 4.0 as the protocol for theIndustrial Internet of Things. Interoperability of OPC UA hasbeen investigated in the context of migration from legacy andwith protocols such as DPWS. Additionally HTTP and CoAPhave been investigated as possible transport mediums.However, OPC UA interoperability has not been investigatedwithin a multi-protocol settings and no generic protocol translationexists. This paper proposes an OPC UA translator followingthe service translator model proposed in the Arrowhead project.Utilizing a mapping to intermediate format, it can be used alongside CoAP, HTTP and MQTT protocols.

  • 27.
    Albano, Michele
    et al.
    CISTER, ISEP/INESC-TEC Polytechnic Institute of Porto.
    Barbosa, Paulo Miguel
    CISTER, ISEP/INESC-TEC Polytechnic Institute of Porto.
    Silva, Jose
    CISTER, ISEP/INESC-TEC Polytechnic Institute of Porto.
    Duarte, Roberto
    CISTER, ISEP/INESC-TEC Polytechnic Institute of Porto.
    Ferreira, Luis Lino
    CISTER, ISEP/INESC-TEC Polytechnic Institute of Porto.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Quality of Service on the Arrowhead Framework2017Ingår i: 2017 IEEE 13th International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, artikel-id 7991959Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality of Service (QoS) is an important enabler for communication in industrial environments. The Arrowhead Framework was created to support local cloud functionalities for automation applications by means of a Service Oriented Architecture. To this aim, the framework offers a number of services that ease application development, among them the QoSSetup and the Monitor services, the first used to verify and configure QoS in the local cloud, and the second for online monitoring of QoS. This paper describes how the QoSSetup and Monitor services are provided in a Arrowhead-compliant System of Systems, detailing both the principles and algorithms employed, and how the services are implemented. Experimental results are provided, from a demonstrator built over a real-time Ethernet network.

  • 28.
    van Deventer, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Atta, Khalid
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Service Oriented Architecture Enabling the 4rh Generation of District Heating2017Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 116, s. 500-509Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The 4th Generation of District Heating (4GDH) is a complex agglomeration of heat providers, distributors, and consumers that must be automatically, continuously managed and coordinated. It is a complex system of systems; a definition which we align to Maier’s architecting principles for systems-of-systems as collaborative systems. Wrapped in the idea of system of systems is the reality that the 4GDH systems’ descriptions and specifications are not currently all known. Nonetheless, the transition into the 4GDH is actual. We propose the use of two frameworks to secure a smooth metamorphosis and assure systems’ operation, maintenance, and evolution. The two frameworks are the Arrowhead Framework and the OPTi Framework. The first one enables system integration through Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and the second one offers the overall system optimization with respect to all stakeholders. This paper uses the Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) tool SysML to model a district heating complex’s structures and behaviors from the concept level down to the sensors and actuators within a district heating substation where we apply the SOA technology based on the open Arrowhead Framework. We focus on the Arrowhead Framework’s core services, i.e. Service Registry, Authorization and Orchestration to clearly describe the interactions between the different service providers and consumers. Going back up from the sensors to the systems, it is clear that SOA is the architecture that will empower the 4GDH.

  • 29.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Varga, Pal
    AITIA Inc.
    Ferreira, Luis
    ISEP, Polytechnic Institute of Porto.
    Albano, Michele
    ISEP, Polytechnic Institute of Porto.
    Puñal Pereira, Pablo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Carlsson, Oscar
    Midroc Electro AB, Stockholm.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    The Arrowhead Framework architecture2017Ingår i: IoT Automation: Arrowhead Framework / [ed] Jerker Delsing, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press , 2017, , s. 366s. 43-88Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Maksuti, Silia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB. University of Applied Sciences Burgenland.
    Bicaku, Ani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB. University of Applied Sciences Burgenland.
    Tauber, Markus
    University of Applied Sciences Burgenland.
    Palkovits-Rauter, Silke
    University of Applied Sciences Burgenland.
    Haas, Sarah
    Infineon Technologies Austria.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Towards Flexible and Secure End-to-End Communication in Industry 4.02017Ingår i: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 883-888, artikel-id 8104888Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The digital transformation of industrial production is driven by the advance of Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPS) within which raw materials, machines and operations are interconnected to form a sophisticated network. Making such systems self-adaptable is a priority concern for the future implementation of Industry 4.0 application scenarios. In this position paper, we design a meta-model and use it as a tool to describe an end-to-end communication use case from an ongoing research project. Based on this use case we develop a business process performance and security trade-off model, which shows that maximazing both parameters at the same time is not possible, thus an efficient balance between them has to be achieved. Motivated by the result, we propose self adaptation as a solution towards a flexible and secure end-to-end communicationin Industry 4.0. To identify and document the self-adaptation points in a structured methodological and lightweight way we use the bespoken meta-model.

  • 31.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Towards industrial and societal automation and digitisation2017Ingår i: IoT Automation: Arrowhead Framework / [ed] Jerker Delsing, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press , 2017, , s. 366s. 1-25Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for new technology High level topics in today’s society are sustainability, flexibility, efficiency, and competitiveness. These in turn are driven by big societal questions like environmental sustainability, availability of energy and other raw materials, and rapidly changing market trends. We find several trends that in different ways requirements. Another is learning from previous products, other parts of the value chain, the life cycle of the product and the product or service production process itself. 

  • 32.
    Bicaku, Ani
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB. University of Applied Sciences Burgenland.
    Maksuti, Silia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB. University of Applied Sciences Burgenland.
    Palkovits-Rauter, Silke
    University of Applied Sciences Burgenland.
    Tauber, Markus
    University of Applied Sciences Burgenland.
    Matischek, Rainer
    Infineon Technologies Austria.
    Schmittner, Christoph
    Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Mantas, Georgios
    Instituto de Telecomunicacoes.
    Thron, Mario
    Insitut for Automation und Kommunikation.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Towards Trustworthy End-to-End Communication in Industry 4.02017Ingår i: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 889-896, artikel-id 8104889Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 considers integration of IT and control systems with physical objects, software, sensors and connectivity in order to optimize manufacturing processes. It provides advanced functionalities in control and communication for an infrastructure that handles multiple tasks in various locations automatically. Automatic actions require information from trustworthy sources. Thus, this work is focused on how to ensure trustworthy communication from the edge devices to the backend infrastructure. We derive a meta-model based on RAMI 4.0, which is used to describe an end-to-end communication use case for an Industry 4.0 application scenario and to identify dependabilities in case of security challenges. Furthermore, we evaluate secure messaging protocols and the integration of Trusted Platform Module (TPM) as a root of trust for dataexchange. We define a set of representative measurable indicator points based on existing standards and use them for automated dependability detection within the whole system.

  • 33.
    Hamfelt, Jesper
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Löfqvist, Torbjörn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Häggström, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    A passive Barkhausen noise sensor for low-power applications2016Ingår i: 2016 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC) Proceedings, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, s. 280-284, artikel-id 7520374Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a passive Barkhausen noise sensor design suitable for low power applications. The sensor uses a permanent magnet and the relative motion between itself and a measured specimen instead of the conventional method that uses a fixed sensor and an alternating magnetic field. Since this novel design is passive, the sensor is well suited for low power applications and could potentially be used in e.g. A condition monitoring system integrated into a rolling element bearing. Proof of concept testing has been performed showing that the proposed sensor produces similar results as conventional Barkhausen noise sensors when applied to specimens being cyclically loaded until failure in a rotating bending rig. The results imply that material fatigue detection using the Barkhausen noise can be performed with the proposed sensor at a fraction of the energy cost compared to a conventional sensor. This warrants future research into the development of the proposed sensor, its advantages, disadvantages, and functionality

  • 34.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Johansson, Jonny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Löfqvist, Torbjörn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Concepts and Architecture for a Thumb-Sized Smart IoT Ultrasound Measurement System2016Ingår i: IEEE Ultrasonic Symposium 2016, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE conference proceedings, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the technology concepts for a “thumb”-sized self-contained ultrasonic IoT measurement sys- tem. An overall architecture is proposed, and key elements are discussed with solutions using existing technology, thus arguing that realization is possible with the current technology.

    Such an ultrasonic IoT measurement system is constrained by its size and available energy, although it requires at least decent computational and communication resources. Because streaming data from such a device is not advisable from an energy viewpoint, there is a need for resource efficient (energy, memory and computational power) data analysis.

    An architecture with the following parts as well as some implementation details and performance data are proposed here:

    • Energy supply, battery and super capacitor

    • Transducer excitation achieving almost zero electrical losses

    • Event detection sensor interface

    • Data aggregation using sparse approximation and learned

      feature dictionaries, adapted to resource constrained em-

      bedded systems

    • IoT communication protocols and implementations enabling

      event -based communication and System of Systems integra- tion capabilities

      The optimization of system level performance requires each subsystem to be optimized for the specific measurement situation taking into account the subsystem interdependencies. This can be performed using a combined electrical and acoustical model of the system. Here, the model allowing electronic and acoustic co-simulation using SPICE is an important tool bridging the electronic and acoustic domains. 

  • 35.
    Carlsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Midroc Automation AB.
    Puñal Pereira, Pablo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Ahmad, Bilal
    Automation Systems Group, WMG, the University of Warwick Coventry, United Kingdom.
    Harrison, Robert
    Automation Systems Group, WMG, the University of Warwick Coventry, United Kingdom.
    Jansson, Ove
    Abelko Innovation.
    Configuration Service in Cloud based Automation Systems2016Ingår i: IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, s. 5238-5245, artikel-id 7793489Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Current challenges in production automation requires the involvement of new technologies like Internet of Things (IoT), Systems of Systems and local automation clouds. The objective of this paper is to address one of the challenges involved in establishing and managing a cloud based automation system. Three key capabilities have been identified as required to create the expected benefits of local automation clouds; 1) capturing of plant design 2) capturing and distributing configuration and deployment information 3) coordinating information exchange.

    This paper addresses the capturing and distribution of configuration and deployment information. For this purpose a system service is proposed, the ConfigurationStore, following the principles of the Arrowhead Framework. The service is accompanied by a deployment methodology and a bootstrapping procedure. These are discussed for several types of automation technology, e.g. controllers, sensors, actuators. A qualitative evaluation of the proposed approach is made for four use cases; Building automation, Manufacturing automation, Process automation and IoT devices. Concluding the usability for large-scale deployment and configuration of Industrial Internet of Things.

  • 36.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Varga, Pal
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Dept. of Telecommunications and Media Informatics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Enabling IoT automation using local clouds2016Ingår i: Proceedings IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, 2016, s. 501-507, artikel-id 7845474Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Various forms of cloud computing principles and technologies are becoming important recently. This paper ad- dresses cloud computing for automation and control applications. It’s argued that the open Internet cloud idea has such limitations that its not appropriate for automation.

    Since automation is physically and geographically local, it is inevitable to introduce the concept of local automation clouds. It’s here proposed that local automation clouds should be self contained an be able to execute the intended automation func- tionalities without any external resources. Thus providing a fence at the rim of the local cloud preventing any inbound or outbound communication. Such a local cloud provides possibilities to address key requirements of both todays and future automation solutions. Adding mechanisms for secure inter-cloud administra- tion and data tranfere enables local automation cloud to meet IoT automation system requirements as: 1) Interoperability of a wide range of IoT and legacy devices 2) Automation requirement on latency guarantee/prediction for communication and control computations. 3) Scalability of automation systems enabling very large integrated automation systems 4) Security and related safety of automation systems 5) Ease of application engineering 6) Multi stakeholder integration and operations agility.

    How these requirements can be met in such a local automation cloud is discussed with references to proposed solutions. The local automation cloud concept is further verified for a compartment climate control application. The control application included an IoT controller, four IoT sensors and actuators, and a physical layer communication gateway. The gateway acted as host for local cloud core functionalities. The climate control application has successfully been implemented using the open source Arrowhead Framework and its supports for design and implementation of self contained local automation clouds.

  • 37.
    Martin-del-Campo, Sergio
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Schnabel, Stephan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Exploratory Analysis of Acoustic Emissions in Steel using Dictionary Learning2016Ingår i: IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium 2016, Tours France, September 18-21, 2016, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, artikel-id 7728825Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of acoustic emissions (AE) from steel deformation is a challenging condition monitoring problem due to the high frequencies and data rates involved, and the difficulty to separate signals from noise. The problem to characterize and identify different AE sources calls for methods that goes beyond conventional time and frequency domain analysis. Feature learning is common in the field of machine learning and is successfully used to approximate and classify other kinds of complex signals. Former studies show that AE classification results depend on the choice of predefined features that are extracted from the raw AE signal, but little is known about feature learning in this context. Here we use dictionary learning and sparse coding to optimize a set of shift-invariant features to the AE signal measured in a steel tensile strength test. The specimen undergoes elastic and plastic deformation and eventually cracks. We investigate the learned features and their repetition rates and use principal component analysis (PCA) to illustrate that the resulting sparse AE code is useful for classification of the three strain stages, without reference to the signal amplitude. Therefore, feature learning is a potentially useful approach to the AE analysis problem, which also opens up for further studies of automated methods for anomaly detection in AE.

  • 38.
    Häggström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Interleaved Switch Harvesting on Inductor: Non-linear extraction, action and reaction2016Ingår i: 2016 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC) Proceedings, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, s. 642-647, artikel-id 7520439Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The circuit presented in this paper provides increased transfer efficiency for the electric charge generated by a piezoelectric element to the storage device, it also enables a simplified active control circuitry required for switched harvesting solutions as the control transistors are referenced to ground. This is achieved by inverting the voltage potential across the piezoelectric element and thereby maintaining a higher voltage while extracting energy. The increased potential allows vibration harvesters to operate over a broader frequency range. For weakly coupled piezoelectric harvesters, the increased potential allows the electrical power output to be increased. In this paper, the circuit is simulated in SPICE using existing models of discrete components in conjunction with a model of a piezoelectric vibration harvester. The power output and mechanical behavior of the harvester using the presented circuit are compared to two existing technologies: Synchronous Switch Harvesting on Inductor (SSHI) and a full-wave rectifying bridge. The comparison demonstrates that the novel Interleaved Switch Harvesting on Inductor (ISHI) circuit outperforms state-of-the-art active harvesting solutions, e.g., SSHI, as a result of the decreased energy losses from diodes. In addition, the ISHI circuit requires fewer components than does the SSHI circuit and solves the floating transistor source issue that arises in SSHI implementations. To achieve the maximum power conversion efficiency, impedance matching is required, which can be achieved by controlling the voltage of the storage device

  • 39.
    Carlsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Midroc Automation AB.
    Hegedűs, Csaba
    AITIA International, Inc..
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Varga, Pal
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
    Organizing IoT Systems-of-Systems from Standardized Engineering Data2016Ingår i: IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, s. 5277-5282, artikel-id 7792932Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tackling current challenges in production automation requiresthe involvement of new concepts like Internet of Things,System-of-Systems and local automation clouds.The objective of this paper is to address the actual process of defining a cloud based automation system. More specifically the design, engineering, operation and maintenance of an automation system must be captured and managed between all stakeholders involved. This is critical to create the expected benefits from the local automation cloud approach.This paper addresses the capability of capturing plant designs and coordinating information exchange based on the captured architecture.For this purpose an architectural component --~Plant Description~-- is proposed to be used in the Arrowhead Framework, based on already existing plant automation standards.An overview of methodologies on how it can interact with the Arrowhead Framework's Orchestration process describes the usefulness in managing large-scale automation systems.A qualitative evaluation for one of the proposed approaches is also described in a water control use case that can be found both in process and building automation.

  • 40.
    Häggström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Piezoelectric energy harvesting modeled with SPICE2016Ingår i: 2016 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC) Proceedings, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, s. 654-659, artikel-id 7520441Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The generation of electricity from vibrations has attracted considerable attention over the past decade. For this purpose, a piezoelectric-type harvester tuned to resonate at a specific frequency is typically used. This paper proposes a SPICE model capable of modeling piezoelectric energy harvesters. The model is parametrized enabling simple introduction of relevant physical parameters. Underlying theory based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is presented and modeling simplifications are justified. The SPICE model is verified by comparison to examples for which analytical and experimental solutions has been published. The SPICE model is valid close to the analyzed mode center frequency and delivers results within 1% compared to experimental and analytical data. Furthermore, we also show that the harvester can be electrically tuned to match the excitation frequency. This makes it possible to maximize the power output for both linear and non-linear loads. The here presented model enables efficient analysis of harvester design and changes of harvesting conditions

  • 41.
    Ferreira, Luis Lino
    et al.
    ISEP, Polytechnic of Porto – School of Engineering.
    Albano, Michele
    ISEP, Polytechnic of Porto – School of Engineering.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    QoS-as-a-Service in the local cloud2016Ingår i: 2016 IEEE 21st International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA): Berlin, 6-9 Sept. 2016, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, artikel-id 7733699Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an architecture that supports Quality of Service (QoS) in an Arrowhead-compliant System of Systems (SoS). The Arrowhead Framework supports local cloud functionalities for automation applications, provided by means of a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), by offering a number of services that ease application development. On such applications the QoS guarantees are required for service fruition, and are themselves requested as services from the framework. To fulfil this objective we start by describing the Arrowhead architecture and the components needed to dynamically in run-time negotiate a system configuration that guarantees the QoS requirements between application services

  • 42.
    van Deventer, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Atta, Khalid
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Service Oriented Architecture Enabling the 4rh Generation of District Heating2016Ingår i: The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and CoolingSeptember 4-7, 2016, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The 4th Generation of District Heating (4GDH) is a complex agglomeration of heat providers, distributors, and consumers that must be automatically, continuously managed and coordinated. It is a complex system of systems; a definition which we align to Maier’s architecting principles for systems-of-systems as collaborative systems. Wrapped in the idea of system of systems is the reality that the 4GDH systems’ descriptions and specifications are not currently all known. Nonetheless, the transition into the 4GDH is actual. We propose the use of two frameworks to secure a smooth metamorphosis and assure systems’ operation, maintenance, and evolution. The two frameworks are the Arrowhead Framework and the OPTi Framework. The first one enables system integration through Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and the second one offers the overall system optimization with respect to all stakeholders. This paper uses the Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) tool SysML to model a district heating complex’s structures and behaviors from the concept level down to the sensors and actuators within a district heating substation where we apply the SOA technology based on the open Arrowhead Framework. We focus on the Arrowhead Framework’s core services, i.e. Service Registry, Authorization and Orchestration to clearly describe the interactions between the different service providers and consumers. Going back up from the sensors to the systems, it is clear that SOA is the architecture that will empower the 4GDH.

  • 43.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    A Configurable Cloud-Based Testing Infrastructure for Interoperable Distributed Automation Systems2015Ingår i: IECON 2014: 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Dallas, TX, USA , Oct. 29 2014-Nov. 1 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 2492-2498Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The interoperability between various automation systems is considered as one of the major character of future automation systems. Service-oriented Architecture is a possible interoperability enabler between legacy and future automation systems. In order to prove the interoperability between those systems, a verification framework is essential. This paper proposes a configurable cloud-based validation environment for interoperability tests between various distributed automation systems. The testing framework is implemented in a multi-layer structure which provides automated closed-loop testing from the protocol level to the system level. The testing infrastructure is also capable for simulating automation systems as well as wireless sensor networks in the cloud. Test cases could be automatically generated and executed by the framework.

  • 44.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Priller, Peter
    AVL List GmbH, Graz.
    A survey of commercial frameworks for the Internet of Things2015Ingår i: Proceedings of 2015 IEEE 20th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2015): Luxembourg, 8-11 Sept. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, artikel-id 7301661Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011 Ericsson and Cisco estimated 50 billion Internet connected devices by 2020, encouraged by this industry is developing application frameworks to scale the Internet of Things. This paper presents a survey of commercial frameworks and platforms designed for developing and running Internet of Things applications. The survey covers frameworks supported by big players in the software and electronics industries. The frameworks are evaluated against criteria such as architectural approach, industry support, standards based protocols and interoperability, security, hardware requirements, governance and support for rapid application development. There is a multitude of frameworks available and here a total 17 frameworks and platforms are considered. The intention of this paper is to present recent developments in commercial IoT frameworks and furthermore, identify trends in the current design of frameworks for the Internet of Things; enabling massively connected cyber physical systems.

  • 45.
    Punal, Pablo
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    An Authentication and Access Control Framework for CoAP-based Internet of Things2015Ingår i: IECON 2014: 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Dallas, TX, USA , Oct. 29 2014 - Nov. 1 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 5293-5299Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-physical Systems (CPS) are two very hot research topics today, and more and more products are starting to appear on the market. Research has shown that the use of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can enable distributed application and devices to device com- munication, even on very resource constrained devices, and thus play an important role for IoT and CPS.In order to realize the vision of Internet of Things, communica- tion between devices must be secured. Security mechanisms for resource constrained devices has attracted much interest from the academic community, where research groups have shown solutions like IPsec, VPN-tunnels, (D)TLS, etc. are feasible to use on this type of networks. However, even though the use of well- known security mechanisms are vital for SOA-based IoT/CPS networks and systems to be protected, they do not provide any fine-grain access control.In this paper, a CoAP-based framework for service-level access control on low-power devices is presented. The framework allows fine grain access control on a per service and method basis. For example, by using this approach a device can allow read/write access to its services to one group of users while only allowing read access to another group. Users without the right credentials are not even allowed to discover available services. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach, several implementations are presented together with test results.The aim is to provide a holistic framework for secure SOA- based low power networks comprise by resource constrain devices.

  • 46.
    Renbi, Abdelghani
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Application of Contactless Testing to PCBs with BGAs and Open Sockets2015Ingår i: Journal of electronic testing, ISSN 0923-8174, E-ISSN 1573-0727, Vol. 31, nr 4, s. 339-347Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a practical test method that combines statistics with the contactless test approach. Experiments using real conventional PCBAs have shown the effectiveness of the method, where significant z-scores are obtained to discriminate defective interconnects. The studied test cases involve conventional Printed Circuit Board Assemblies (PCBAs) with open sockets and Ball Grid Array (BGA) packages.

  • 47.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Arrowhead Framework: A Local Cloud Approach to Automation2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 48.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Automation Systems from IoT - Arrowhead Framework: concepts and basic architecture2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 49.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Building Automation Systems from Internet of Things2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays products and services are produced and delivered by numerous stakeholders, all required to interact with suppliers and customers in an efficient and flexible way. Energy consumption and energy usage environmental impact have become of paramount concern in those activities. Automation technology offers solutions to deal with those challenges. Automation technology as we know it today, however, has got some limitations. The emerging era of the Internet of Things (IoT) with its ease to build complex system of systems (SoS) opens new perspectives in the automation area.In this context, the European project Arrowhead envisions “Collaborative automation by networked embedded devices”. This necessitates a wide interoperability of devices, as well as systems and platforms. The proposed framework provides such interoperability at the service level. The Arrowhead framework efficiently support the development, deployment and operation of interconnected, collaborative systems. Arrowhead cloud automation systems are based on automation devices such as sensors, actuators, controllers, and others transformed into IoT-type of devices and systems adopting the Service Oriented Architecture philosophy. The building elements of a cloud automation system are systems that provide and consume services, and cooperate as systems of systems from which automation services like monitoring, control, optmisation, analysitcs etc are created. The building of complete automation systems is supported by orchestration and authorisation services.The presentation is going to discuss the new automation challenges, and solutions the Arrowhead framework offers.

  • 50.
    Renbi, Abdelghani
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Contactless Testing of Circuit Interconnects2015Ingår i: Journal of electronic testing, ISSN 0923-8174, E-ISSN 1573-0727, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 229-253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    State-of-the-art printed circuit boards (PCBs) have become extremely dense and are not fully accessible for applying physical testing solutions. Extra steps are required in the design and manufacturing process for testing advanced printed wiring boards (PWBs) with embedded passive components. This processing is further complicated by upcoming sequential build-up (SBU) technologies that provide feature sizes smaller than 10 $\mu$m and that do not allow physical access for testing the interconnect between two pads. In this paper, we propose a new contactless technique for overcoming the SBU challenge for testing interconnects between embedded components. A test trace is employed as a sensor, which senses the terminations of the trace being tested. The simulation and analysis results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of this concept for application to SBU and conventional PCB/PWB interconnect testing to overcome the barriers to physical access. Robustness of the approach has been studied against packaging deviations and possible testing process variations. To ensure defect detection with feasible margins, design for testability (DfT) rules have been established for practical PCB dimensions.

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